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  1 / 193 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28827807
Autor:Shahmy S; Kularatne SAM; Rathnayake SS; Dawson AH
Endereço:South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Título:A prospective cohort study of the effectiveness of the primary hospital management of all snakebites in Kurunegala district of Sri Lanka.
Fonte:PLoS Negl Trop Dis; 11(8):e0005847, 2017 Aug.
ISSN:1935-2735
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Sri Lanka records substantial numbers of snakebite annually. Primary rural hospitals are important contributors to health care. Health care planning requires a more detailed understanding of snakebite within this part of the health system. This study reports the management and epidemiology of all hospitalised snakebite in the Kurunegala district in Sri Lanka. METHODOLOGY: The district has 44 peripheral/primary hospitals and a tertiary care hospital-Teaching Hospital, Kurunegala (THK). This prospective study was conducted over one year. All hospitals received copies of the current national guidelines on snakebite management. Clinical and demographic details of all snakebite admissions to primary hospitals were recorded by field researchers and validated by comparing with scanned copies of the medical record. Management including hospital transfers was independently assessed against the national guidelines recommendation. Population rates were calculated and compared with estimates derived from recent community based surveys. RESULTS: There were 2186 admissions of snakebites and no deaths in primary hospitals. An additional 401 patients from the district were admitted directly to the teaching hospital, 2 deaths were recorded in this group. The population incidence of hospitalized snakebite was 158/100,000 which was significantly lower than community survey estimates of 499/100,000. However there was no significant difference between the incidence of envenomation of 126/100,000 in hospitalised patients and 184/100,000 in the community survey. The utilisation of antivenom was appropriate and consistent with guidelines. Seventy patients received antivenom. Anaphylactic reactions to antivenom occurred in 22 patients, treatment reactions was considered to be outside the guidelines in 5 patients. Transfers from the primary hospital occurred in 399(18%) patients but the majority (341) did not meet the guideline criteria. A snake was identified in 978 cases; venomous snakebites included 823 hump-nosed viper (Hypnalespp), 61 Russell's viper, 14 cobra, 13 common krait, 03 saw scaled viper. CONCLUSIONS: Primary hospitals received a significant number of snakebites that would be missed in surveys conducted in tertiary hospitals. Adherence to guidelines was good for the use of antivenom but not for hospital transfer or treatment of anaphylaxis. The large difference in snakebite incidence between community and hospital studies could possibly be due to non-envenomed patients not presenting. As the majority of snakebite management occurs in primary hospitals education and clinical support should be focused on that part of the health system.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
Nome de substância:0 (Antivenins)


  2 / 193 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28719273
Autor:Mao YC; Liu PY; Chiang LC; Liao SC; Su HY; Hsieh SY; Yang CC
Endereço:Division of Clinical Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
Título: Snakebite in Taiwan.
Fonte:Am J Trop Med Hyg; 96(6):1497-1504, 2017 Jun.
ISSN:1476-1645
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:AbstractAlthough specific antivenom is available in Taiwan, respiratory failure and general pain frequently accompany envenomation and there have been few reports on the management of envenomation. We retrospectively analyzed 44 cases of bite admitted to Taichung Veterans General Hospital (VGH) or to Taipei VGH. Demographic data, treatment, and outcome of patients with and without respiratory failure were compared. In this study, 20.5% patients had bites without noticeable signs or symptoms of significant envenoming, 27.3% developed respiratory failure, and 27.3% experienced general pain. Bivalent specific antivenom for and was administered in all envenomed cases. Respiratory failure occurred 1.5-6.5 hours post-bite and general pain occurred 1-12 hours post-bite. Specific antivenom for and at the recommended dose (i.e., 2-4 vials) might not effectively prevent respiratory failure and pain. Respiratory failure, general pain, and autonomic effects after bite were probably caused, at least partly, by ß-bungarotoxin. Although general weakness, ptosis, dysarthria, and dilated pupils were significantly associated with respiratory failure, their predictive value could not be accurately determined in such a retrospective study. Due to the rapid onset of respiratory failure, every suspected envenomed case thus should be closely monitored in the first few hours. We recommend the initial administration of four vials of antivenom in all envenomation cases, and a subsequent four vials be considered if the patient's condition is deteriorating. Prospective evaluation of the antivenom dosing regimen is urgently needed to improve envenomation treatment.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
Nome de substância:0 (Antivenins)


  3 / 193 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28644894
Autor:Park J; Kim IH; Fong JJ; Koo KS; Choi WJ; Tsai TS; Park D
Endereço:Department of Biology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Kangwon, South Korea.
Título:Northward dispersal of sea kraits (Laticauda semifasciata) beyond their typical range.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(6):e0179871, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Marine reptiles are declining globally, and recent climate change may be a contributing factor. The study of sea snakes collected beyond their typical distribution range provides valuable insight on how climate change affects marine reptile populations. Recently, we collected 12 Laticauda semifasciata (11 females, 1 male) from the waters around southern South Korea-an area located outside its typical distribution range (Japan, China including Taiwan, Philippines and Indonesia). We investigated the genetic origin of Korean specimens by analyzing mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (Cytb) sequences. Six individuals shared haplotypes with a group found in Taiwan-southern Ryukyu Islands, while the remaining six individuals shared haplotypes with a group encompassing the entire Ryukyu Archipelago. These results suggest L. semifasciata moved into Korean waters from the Taiwan-Ryukyu region via the Taiwan Warm Current and/or the Kuroshio Current, with extended survival facilitated by ocean warming. We highlight several contributing factors that increase the chances that L. semifasciata establishes new northern populations beyond the original distribution range.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:9035-37-4 (Cytochromes b)


  4 / 193 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28610354
Autor:Nguyen SN; Nguyen VDH; Nguyen TQ; Le NTT; Nguyen LT; Vo BD; Vindum JV; Murphy RW; Che J; Zhang YP
Endereço:Institute of Tropical Biology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 85 Tran Quoc Toan St., Dist. 3, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 32 Jiaochang Donglu, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China. ngocsangitb@yahoo.com.
Título:A new color pattern of the Bungarus candidus complex (Squamata: Elapidae) from Vietnam based on morphological and molecular data.
Fonte:Zootaxa; 4268(4):563-572, 2017 05 18.
ISSN:1175-5334
País de publicação:New Zealand
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Kraits with black and white bands from Nui Chua National Park, central Vietnam are morphologically similar to the Burmese Krait, Bungarus magnimaculatus, however, analysis of molecular data finds them to be nested within the B. candidus complex.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  5 / 193 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28482245
Autor:Chauhan V
Endereço:Department of Medicine, Dr. RPGMC Kangra at Tanda, H.P., India. Electronic address: drvivekshimla@yahoo.com.
Título:Early morning neuroparalysis is diagnostic of Krait bite.
Fonte:J Forensic Leg Med; 49:1, 2017 07.
ISSN:1878-7487
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: LETTER; COMMENT


  6 / 193 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28315357
Autor:Gomes A; Saha PP; Bhattacharya S; Ghosh S; Gomes A
Endereço:Laboratory of Toxinology & Experimental Pharmacodynamics, Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata, 700 009, India. Electronic address: agomescu@gmail.com.
Título:Therapeutic potential of krait venom.
Fonte:Toxicon; 131:48-53, 2017 Jun 01.
ISSN:1879-3150
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Kraits belong to Elapideae and are widely distributed in East and South-East Asian countries. Krait venom possesses neurotoxins, membrane toxins, cardiotoxins, three finger toxins, metalloproteinases, cholinesterases, L-amino acid oxidases and serine proteases. The therapeutic potential of krait venom in pathophysiological conditions such as microbial and parasitic infections, cancer, arthritis, inflammation and blood coagulation disorder is discussed in this review. More intensive new research ventures are required to establish the therapeutic potential of krait venom in complex and emerging diseases.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Infective Agents); 0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Anticoagulants); 0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (Antiprotozoal Agents); 0 (Elapid Venoms)


  7 / 193 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28300747
Autor:Bawaskar HS; Bawaskar PH; Bawaskar PH
Endereço:Bawaskar Hospital and Clinical Center, Mahad Raigad, Maharashtra, India.
Título:Pathophysiology of dilatation of pupils due to scorpion and snake envenomation and its therapeutic value: Clinical observations.
Fonte:Indian J Ophthalmol; 65(1):67-70, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1998-3689
País de publicação:India
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Dilated nonreacting pupils are routinely taken as a sign of irreversible brain damage. Alpha-receptor stimulation (scorpion sting) and presynaptic acetylcholine receptor blocker (krait bite) may result in dilation of pupils without involvement of the brain. This study was aimed to clinically evaluate the response of pupils in scorpion sting and krait bite. Victims of scorpion sting and krait bite were chosen from Raigad district. Scorpion sting and krait bite cases were admitted to hospital and were clinically evaluated in detail regarding neurological manifestations. Both cases had nonreacting dilation of pupils, complete neurological recovery accompanied with reverse of pupillary size and its response to light. In scorpion sting and krait bite poisoning, dilated nonreacting pupils are not the signs of irreversible brain damage.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antivenins)


  8 / 193 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28062164
Autor:Namal Rathnayaka RM; Kularatne SA; Kumarasinghe KD; Jeganadan K; Ranathunga PE
Endereço:Intensive Care Unit, Provincial General Hospital, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka; Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Electronic address: namalrath10@yahoo.com.
Título:Two rare case reports of confirmed Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) envenoming in Sri Lanka.
Fonte:Toxicon; 127:44-48, 2017 Mar 01.
ISSN:1879-3150
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus) is a deadly venomous elapid snake endemic to Sri Lanka. Its habitat is mainly in the wet zone of the island. Despite its frequent encounters in and near human dwellings, reports of envenoming are rare and limited to four in the literature. The first and last fatal reports envenoming by B. ceylonicus was in 1993. After over two decades, we report two confirmed cases of B. ceylonicus bites-one a dry bite and the other with signs and symptoms of moderate envenoming. The envenoming occurred at night while the victim was asleep, causing tightness in the chest and dyspnoea on waking up, followed by neuromuscular paralysis that did not cause respiratory failure and complete recovery was observed three days following the bite.
Tipo de publicação: CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antivenins); 0 (Bungarotoxins)


  9 / 193 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27845207
Autor:Chakraborty S; Nag D; Mazumder TH; Uddin A
Endereço:Department of Biotechnology, Assam University, Silchar, Assam 788011, India. Electronic address: supriyoch_2008@rediffmail.com.
Título:Codon usage pattern and prediction of gene expression level in Bungarus species.
Fonte:Gene; 604:48-60, 2017 Mar 10.
ISSN:1879-0038
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Codon bias study in an organism gains significance in understanding the molecular mechanism as well as the functional conservation of gene expression during the course of evolution. The prime focus in this study is to compare the codon usage patterns among the four species belonging to the genus Bungarus (B. multicinctus, B. fasciatus, B. candidus and B. flaviceps) using several codon bias parameters. Our results suggested that relatively low codon bias exists in the coding sequences of the selected species. The compositional constraints together with gene expression level might influence the patterns of codon usage among the genes of Bungarus species. Both natural selection and mutation pressure affect the codon usage pattern in Bungarus species as evident from correspondence analysis. Neutrality plot indicates that natural selection played a major role while mutation pressure played a minor role in codon usage pattern of the genes in Bungarus species.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Codon); 0 (Proteins)


  10 / 193 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28699722
Autor:Ghosh S; Saha PP; Dasgupta SC; Gomes A
Título:Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activities of Bungarus fasciatus venom in experimental animal models.
Fonte:Indian J Exp Biol; 54(9):569-76, 2016 09.
ISSN:0019-5189
País de publicação:India
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Pain and inflammation are intimately associated with rheumatoid arthritis, a growing bone-joint related problem of the modern society. Though several therapeutic managements are available for arthritis, their side effects not only limit their use, but also advocate the quest for natural therapies. In this study, we explored the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activities of Bungarus fasciatus venom (BFV) in experimental animal models. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) in male Wistar albino rats. Lyophilized BFV was diluted in 0.9% NaCl. Antiarthritic activity showed that BFV significantly reduced the paw and ankle diameters; urinary hydroxyproline, glucosamine levels and serum ACP/ALP/TNF-α/IL-1ß/IL-17/Cathepsin-K/MMP-1 levels. These parameters were significantly increased in FCA induced arthritic animals. Joint histopathology study indicated the partial restoration of joint structure. Treatment with BFV significantly reduced the mean latency time of tail flick response, acetic acid induced writhing response and formalin induced licking response in male albino mice. BFV treatment also significantly reduced carrageenan induced paw edema and xylene induced ear edema in male albino mice. The results indicated that BFV possess antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic properties and further studies are warranted to find the active constituents present in BFV.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Analgesics); 0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Elapid Venoms)



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