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Pesquisa : B01.650.940.800.575.912.250.075.166 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 95 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27404217
Autor:Khajeh M; Pedersen-Bjergaard S; Bohlooli M; Barkhordar A; Ghaffari-Moghaddam M
Endereço:Department of Chemistry, University of Zabol, PO Box, 98615-538, Zabol, Iran.
Título:Maghemite nanoparticle-decorated hollow fiber electromembrane extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of thymol from Carum copticum.
Fonte:J Sci Food Agric; 97(5):1517-1523, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1097-0010
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: A novel technique using maghemite nanoparticle-decorated hollow fibers to assist electromembrane extraction is proposed. Electromembrane extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (EME-DLLME) was applied for the extraction of thymol from Carum copticum, followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). RESULTS: The use of maghemite nanoparticle-decorated hollow fibers was found to improve the extraction efficiency of thymol significantly. Important operational parameters, including pH of acceptor phase, extraction time, voltage and temperature, were investigated and optimized. At the optimal conditions, linearity in the range 4-1800 µg L with a determination coefficient of 0.9996 was obtained. The limit of detection was 0.11 µg L (S/N = 3) and the pre-concentration factor was 200. The intra- and inter-day precision was 5.9 and 2.2% respectively. The intra- and inter-day accuracy was higher than 93.6%. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that EME-DLLME/GC-FID is a useful technique for the extraction and determination of thymol in C copticum. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Magnetite Nanoparticles); 0 (Membranes, Artificial); 3J50XA376E (Thymol)


  2 / 95 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27522414
Autor:Lejonklev J; Kidmose U; Jensen S; Petersen MA; Helwing ALF; Mortensen G; Weisbjerg MR; Larsen MK
Endereço:Department of Food Science, AU Foulum, Aarhus University, Blichers Allé 20, PO Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark.
Título:Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk.
Fonte:J Dairy Sci; 99(10):7898-7903, 2016 Oct.
ISSN:1525-3198
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties. Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content of the essential oils used, with the total amount of terpenes increasing when essential oils were added to the diet. Sensory properties of the produced milk were altered as well, and milk samples from animals receiving essential oil treatment were perceived as having a fresher aroma and lower stored aroma and flavor. The levels of essential oils used in this study mimic realistic levels of essential oils in herbs from feed, but were too low to affect milk production and methane emissions, and their inclusion in the animal diet did not adversely affect milk flavor.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Oils, Volatile); OP0UW79H66 (Methane)


  3 / 95 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27193568
Autor:Samani SM; Moein M; Petramfar P; Zarshenas MM
Título:Development and Assessment of a Gas Chromatographic Based Method for the Quantification of Thymol from Cream Based Formulation.
Fonte:Curr Drug Discov Technol; 13(2):77-83, 2016.
ISSN:1875-6220
País de publicação:United Arab Emirates
Idioma:eng
Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Herbal medicines have been used for different illnesses. However, standardization of these medicaments should be done before introducing for treatment purposes. Ajwain an essential oil, is traditionally used for neuropathic pain. OBJECTIVE: To develop and assess a gas chromatographic-based method for the quantification of thymol in Ajwain essential oil, current work was performed. METHODOLOGY: Both pure thymol and Ajwain creams were prepared and subjected to hydrodistillation method under temperature-controlled procedure to re-extract the applied essential oil and pure thymol. Previously, Ajwain seeds essential oil composition was analyzed and identified using GC/MS. After re-extraction, GC/FID was applied quantitatively to determine the thymol content in the Ajwain and thymol creams. The parameters represented in International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines were considered for the determination. RESULTS: Thymol content in a 50 g laminated tube of Ajwain cream was calculated as 2.34 g ± 0.02. Regarding the total thymol content of a 50 g laminated tube of Thymol cream (2.43 g), recovery percent for Ajwain cream was calculated as 96.29 %. CONCLUSION: Using hydrodistillation for an essential oil- containing cream sample via Clevenger proved to be a simple and convenient method to work up and extract active volatile components of such semisolid formulation. However, the extraction yield was profoundly related to the condenser temperature. The current employed determination method is introduced as a rapid and reliable method and thus, can be suggested for the quality control assessment of phytopharmaceutical semisolid preparations containing thymol and similar volatile constituents.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Dosage Forms); 0 (Oils, Volatile); 3J50XA376E (Thymol)


  4 / 95 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27155845
Autor:Mahmoudzadeh M; Hosseini H; Nasrollahzadeh J; Khaneghah AM; Rismanchi M; Chaves RD; Shahraz F; Azizkhani M; Mahmoudzadeh L; Haslberger AG
Endereço:Department of Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Título:Antibacterial Activity of Carum copticum Essential Oil Against Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in Meat: Stx Genes Expression.
Fonte:Curr Microbiol; 73(2):265-72, 2016 Aug.
ISSN:1432-0991
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:This work were aimed to (a) determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Carum copticum essential oil (EO) against Escherichia. coli O157:H7 in vitro Trypticase Soy Broth, (TSB) and in ground beef; (b) evaluation of the effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of EO on the growth of bacterium in TSB over 72 h (at 35 °C) and ground beef over 9 days (at 4 °C); and (c) investigation of gene expression involved in Shiga toxins production using relative quantitative real-time PCR method. The MIC in broth and ground beef medium were determined as 0.05 (v/v) and 1.75 % (v/w), respectively. In comparison with control cultures, the EO concentration of 0.03 % in broth caused reduction of colony counting as 1.93, 1.79, and 2.62 log10 CFU ml(-1) after 24, 48, and 72 h at 35 °C, and similarly EO (0.75 %) in ground beef resulted to reduction of colony counting as 1.03, 0.92, 1.48, and 2.12 log10 CFU g (-1) after 2, 5, 7, and 9 days at 4 °C, respectively. An increase and decrease in gene expression were observed as result of EO addition (0.03 %) to broth and (0.5 %) to ground beef was noticed, respectively.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Food Additives); 0 (Oils, Volatile); 0 (Plant Oils); 0 (Shiga Toxins)


  5 / 95 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27119969
Autor:Shiwakoti S; Poudyal S; Saleh O; Astatkie T; Zheljazkov VD
Endereço:Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, 109 Crop Science Building, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA.
Título:Method for Attaining Caraway Seed Oil Fractions with Different Composition.
Fonte:Chem Biodivers; 13(6):695-9, 2016 Jun.
ISSN:1612-1880
País de publicação:Switzerland
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is a medicinal and aromatic plant; its seeds (fruits) are used as spice and they contain essential oils. We hypothesized that by collecting caraway oil at different time points during the extraction process, we could obtain oil fractions with distinct chemical composition. A hydrodistillation time (HDT) study was conducted to test the hypothesis. The caraway seed oil fractions were collected at eight different HDT (at 0 - 2, 2 - 7, 7 - 15, 15 - 30, 30 - 45, 45 - 75, 75 - 105, and 105 - 135 min). Additionally, a non-stop HD for 135 min was conducted as a control. Most of the oil was eluted early in the HD process. The non-stop HDT treatment yielded 2.76% oil by weight. Of the 24 essential oil constituents, limonene (77 - 19% of the total oil) and carvone (20 - 79%) were the major ones. Other constituents included myrcene (0.72 - 0.16%), trans-carveol (0.07 - 0.39%), and ß-caryophyllene (0.07 - 0.24%). Caraway seed oil with higher concentration of limonene can be obtained by sampling oil fractions early in HD process; conversely, oil with high concentration of carvone can be obtained by excluding the fractions eluted early in the HD process. We demonstrated a method of obtaining caraway seed oil fractions with various and unique composition. These novel oil fractions with unique composition are not commercially available and could have much wider potential uses, and also target different markets compared to the typical caraway essential oil.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Oils, Volatile)


  6 / 95 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27023323
Autor:Shirani K; Hassani FV; Azar-Khiavi KR; Moghaddam ZS; Karimi G
Título:Determination of methanol in Iranian herbal distillates.
Fonte:J Complement Integr Med; 13(2):123-7, 2016 Jun 01.
ISSN:1553-3840
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Herbal distillates have been used as beverages, for flavoring, or as phytomedicines in many countries for a long time. Recently, the occurrence of blindness after drinking herbal distillates has created concerns in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of methanol in herbal distillates produced in Iran. METHODS: Eighty-four most commonly used herbal distillates purchased from herbal distillate factories were analyzed for methanol contents by gas chromatography and flame ionization detection, with ethanol as internal standard. RESULTS: In 15 herbal distillates, the methanol concentration was below the limit of quantitation. The methanol concentrations in all samples ranged from 43 to 277 mg/L. Forty-five samples contained methanol in excess of the Iranian standard. The maximum concentration was found in an herbal distillate of Mentha piperita (factory E) (277±12), and the minimum in a distillate of Carum carvi (factory B) (42.6 ± 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Since the 45 Iranian herbal distillates containing methanol levels were beyond the legal limits according to the Iranian standard, it seems necessary to monitor the amount of methanol and give a warning to watch out for the latent risk problem of methanol uptake, and establish a definitive relationship between the degree of intoxication observed and the accumulation of methanol in the blood.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:Y4S76JWI15 (Methanol)


  7 / 95 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26988309
Autor:Kazemipoor M; Hamzah S; Hajifaraji M; Radzi CW; Cordell GA
Endereço:Sports Centre, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Título:Slimming and Appetite-Suppressing Effects of Caraway Aqueous Extract as a Natural Therapy in Physically Active Women.
Fonte:Phytother Res; 30(6):981-7, 2016 Jun.
ISSN:1099-1573
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Following the current 'Globesity' trend, there is an increasing demand for alternative natural therapies for weight management. Numerous phytoconstituents reduce body weight through suppressing appetite and reducing food intake. Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is one of the medicinal plants that is traditionally used for weight loss. In this study, the appetite-suppressing effects of caraway aqueous extract (CAE) on 70 aerobically trained, overweight, and obese women were examined in a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study. Subjects were randomly allocated into placebo and experimental groups and consumed either 30 mL/day of CAE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity over a period of 90 days. Calorie and macronutrient intake and anthropometric indices were measured before and after the intervention. In addition, appetite changes were assessed through a visual analog scale and an ad libitum pizza test. After the intervention, the results showed a significant reduction in appetite levels and carbohydrate intake of the experimental group compared with the placebo group. All of the anthropometric indices were reduced significantly in CAE compared with placebo group (p < 0.01). These preliminary outcomes suggest that a dietary CAE might be effective in weight management of physically active, adult females, reducing their body size and hunger level. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Plant Extracts)


  8 / 95 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26956506
Autor:Mira S; Hill LM; González-Benito ME; Ibáñez MA; Walters C
Endereço:Departamento de Biotecnología-Biología Vegetal, E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain USDA Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation, 1111 South Mason St, Fort Collins, CO 80524, USA.
Título:Volatile emission in dry seeds as a way to probe chemical reactions during initial asymptomatic deterioration.
Fonte:J Exp Bot; 67(6):1783-93, 2016 Mar.
ISSN:1460-2431
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The nature and kinetics of reactions in dry seeds determines how long the seeds survive. We used gas chromatography to assay volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from seeds of three unrelated species as a means to non-invasively probe chemical changes during very dry, dry, and humid storage (seeds were dried to 5.5, 33, and 75% relative humidity at room temperature). VOCs emitted from seeds stored in humid conditions reflected fermentation-type reactions, with methanol and ethanol being predominant in Lactuca sativa and Carum carvi, and acetaldehyde and acetone being predominant in Eruca vesicaria. Dried C. carvi seeds continued to emit fermentation-type products, although at slower rates than the seeds stored in humid conditions. In contrast, drying caused a switch in VOC emission in L. sativa and E. vesicaria seeds towards higher emission of pentane and hexanal, molecules considered to be byproducts from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Longevity correlated best with the rate of fermentation-type reactions and appeared unrelated to the rate of lipid peroxidation. Emission of VOCs decreased when seed species were mixed together, indicating that seeds adsorbed VOCs. Adsorption of VOCs did not appear to damage seeds, as longevity was not affected in seed mixtures. Collectively, the study shows similarity among species in the types of reactions that occur in dry seeds, but high diversity in the substrates, and hence the byproducts, of the reactions. Moreover, the study suggests that the most abundant VOCs arise from degradation of storage reserves within seed cells, and that these reactions and their byproducts are not, in themselves, damaging.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Volatile Organic Compounds)


  9 / 95 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26407909
Autor:Mardani M; Afra SM; Tanideh N; Tadbir AA; Modarresi F; Koohi-Hosseinabadi O; Iraji A; Sepehrimanesh M
Endereço:Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Título:Hydroalcoholic extract of Carum carvi L. in oral mucositis: a clinical trial in male golden hamsters.
Fonte:Oral Dis; 22(1):39-45, 2016 Jan.
ISSN:1601-0825
País de publicação:Denmark
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Several studies have attempted to prevent or improve oral mucositis (OM) but have not produced a qualified treatment yet. This study evaluates the effects of Carum carvi L. (caraway) hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) as one of the traditional medicinal plants in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced OM in golden hamsters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OM was induced in 54 male golden hamsters by 5-FU and cheek pouch scratching. Starting from day 12, 500 and 1000 mg kg(-1) per day topical CHE were administered. Pouch histopathology score, malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione contents, and activity of myeloperoxidase plus microbial cultures of cheek pouch, antimicrobial properties of CHE, and essential oil constituents were evaluated. RESULTS: Lower histopathology score (0, 1, and 2) and malondialdehyde level, higher reduced glutathione level and activities of myeloperoxidase were detected in 1000 and 500 mg kg(-1) per day topical CHE and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). The CHE was more potent against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus intermedius. γ-Terpinene (37.2%) was identified as the main constituent of essential oil. CONCLUSION: The use of CHE in topical form may be associated with reduced intensity of OM. This may be due to appropriate antibacterial activity and terpinene contents.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Infective Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts); 4Y8F71G49Q (Malondialdehyde); GAN16C9B8O (Glutathione); U3P01618RT (Fluorouracil)


  10 / 95 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26030463
Autor:Sonar PK; Singh R; Saraf SK
Endereço:a Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy , Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology , Lucknow , Uttar Pradesh , India .
Título:Phytochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic investigation of Carum copticum seeds and their potential as immunomodulatory agents.
Fonte:Pharm Biol; 54(3):494-502, 2016.
ISSN:1744-5116
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:CONTEXT: Carum copticum seeds have been prescribed in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of immune disorders, such as asthma and rheumatism. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine immunomodulatory effects of the alcoholic extract and isolated compounds in Swiss albino mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seeds of C. copticum were extracted with 95% v/v alcohol. The immunomodulatory activity of the crude extract was evaluated at the doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg body weight of mice, administered in mice once daily (orally) for 25 days. Volatile oil of C. copticum was isolated by steam distillation and was characterized by GLC and HPLC. Bio-assay-guided fractionation and isolation were carried out and the isolated compounds were characterized and subjected to immunomodulatory activity studies. RESULTS: The n-hexane fraction yielded p-cymene, carvacrol, and α-pinene. The LD50 value of the crude extract was found to be 4500 mg/kg and the values reported for p-cymene, carvacrol, and α-pinene in the literature were 4750, 810, and 3700 mg/kg, respectively. The oral administration of crude extract, n-hexane fraction (HEF), and isolated oils at the dose of 500, 150, and 50 mg/kg body weight, respectively, showed a significant increase in the HA titers, DTH-response, and phagocytosis. The stimulatory effect observed, on humoral and cellular immunity, was compared with the standard (levamisole treated) and control groups. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results obtained in the study endorse the traditional use of the seeds of C. copticum and the isolated constituents act as immunostimulants.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Immunologic Factors); 0 (Oils, Volatile); 0 (Phytochemicals); 0 (Plant Extracts)



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