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PMID:28391121
Autor:Pi N; Ng JZ; Kelly BC
Endereço:Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore, 117411, Singapore.
Título:Uptake and elimination kinetics of perfluoroalkyl substances in submerged and free-floating aquatic macrophytes: Results of mesocosm experiments with Echinodorus horemanii and Eichhornia crassipes.
Fonte:Water Res; 117:167-174, 2017 Jun 15.
ISSN:1879-2448
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Studies investigating the bioaccumulation behavior of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic macrophytes are limited. The present study involved controlled mesocosm experiments to assess uptake and elimination rate constants (k k ), bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in two aquatic plant species, including one submerged species (Echinodorus horemanii) and one free-floating species (Eichhornia crassipes). The results indicated all PFASs were readily accumulated in these aquatic macrophytes. k and BCFs increased with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length. For PFCAs and PFSAs with identical perfluoroalkyl chain length, the corresponding PFSA exhibited higher bioaccumulation potential. On a whole-plant basis, the bioaccumulation potential of PFASs in submerged and free-floating macrophytes were comparable, indicating sorption to plant biomass is similar in the different species. Conversely, when considering accumulation in foliage, BCFs in the free-floating macrophyte were substantially lower compared to submerged species, especially for longer-chain PFASs. Compounds with shorter perfluoroalkyl chain length (PFBS, PFPeA and PFHxA) exhibited preferential translocation to leaf tissue (TFs >1). BCFs exhibited a sigmoidal relationship with pefluoroalkyl chain length, membrane-water distribution coefficients (D ), protein-water distribution coefficients (D ) and organic-water partition coefficients (K ). For these trends, maximum BCF values were exhibited by long-chain PFCAs, with a log D , log D and log K of 6.47, 5.72 and 5.04, respectively. These findings are useful for future design and implementation of phytoremediation systems, as well for future develop of mechanistic models for predicting the environmental fate and distribution of these contaminants of concern.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Fluorocarbons); 0 (Sulfonic Acids); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)


  2 / 59 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27721129
Autor:Marrugo-Negrete J; Enamorado-Montes G; Durango-Hernández J; Pinedo-Hernández J; Díez S
Endereço:University of Córdoba, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Water, Applied and Environmental Chemistry Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Management, Montería, Colombia.
Título:Removal of mercury from gold mine effluents using Limnocharis flava in constructed wetlands.
Fonte:Chemosphere; 167:188-192, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1879-1298
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Phytoremediation has received increased attention over the recent decades, as an emerging and eco-friendly approach that utilizes the natural properties of plants to remediate contaminated water, soils or sediments. The current study provides information about a pilot-scale experiment designed to evaluate the potential of the anchored aquatic plant Limnocharis flava for phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury (Hg), in a constructed wetland (CW) with horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF). Mine effluent used in this experiment was collected from a gold mining area located at the Alacran mine in Colombia (Hg: 0.11 ± 0.03 µg mL ) and spiked with HgNO (1.50 ± 0.09 µg mL ). Over a 30 day test period, the efficiency of the reduction in the heavy metal concentration in the wetlands, and the relative metal sorption by the L. flava, varied according to the exposure time. The continued rate of removal of Hg from the constructed wetland was 9 times higher than the control, demonstrating a better performance and nearly 90% reduction in Hg concentrations in the contaminated water in the presence of L. flava. The results in this present study show the great potential of the aquatic macrophyte L. flava for phytoremediation of Hg from gold mining effluents in constructed wetlands.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Soil Pollutants); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 7440-57-5 (Gold); FXS1BY2PGL (Mercury)


  3 / 59 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27793745
Autor:Vaz MS; Vaz da Silva MS; Oliveira RJ; da Silva Mota J; Brait DR; de Carvalho LN; Vani JM; Berno CR; Araújo FH; de Barros ME
Endereço:Faculty of Health Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
Título:Evaluation of the toxicokinetics and apoptotic potential of ethanol extract from Echinodorus macrophyllus leaves in vivo.
Fonte:Regul Toxicol Pharmacol; 82:32-38, 2016 Dec.
ISSN:1096-0295
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:This study evaluates the toxicological, genotoxic, mutagenic and apoptotic potential of an in vivo assay from Echinodorus macrophyllus extract (EEM). The acute toxicity test used 02 groups (n = 5) of female Wistar rats: negative control group (saline) and experimental group (2000 mg/kg b.w. EEM), both orally administered (gavage) at single doses and monitored for 14 days. To assess the genotoxic, mutagenic and apoptotic potential, 50 male Swiss mice were divided into 5 groups (n = 10): Group I: negative control (saline solution 0.1 ml/10 g b.w.); Group II: positive control (cyclophosphamide 100 mg/kg b.w.) intraperitoneally administered; groups III-V received EEM at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Groups I, III-V received oral administrations (gavage). The results showed that there was no acute lethality or any signs of acute toxicity, indicating that LD is greater than 2000 mg/kg b.w. The groups treated with EEM showed no genotoxic or mutagenic activity and did not induce apoptosis in the liver and kidney. Therefore, EEM showed no acute toxicity and at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg b.w. absence of genotoxicity, mutagenicity and no apoptotic events were observed.
Tipo de publicação: EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Solvents); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol)


  4 / 59 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27726146
Autor:da Silva GP; Fernandes DC; Vigliano MV; da Fonseca EN; Santos SV; Marques PR; Justo MD; Sabino KC; Coelho MG
Endereço:Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Título:Flavonoid-enriched fraction from Echinodorus macrophyllus aqueous extract exhibits high in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity.
Fonte:J Pharm Pharmacol; 68(12):1584-1596, 2016 Dec.
ISSN:2042-7158
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli (Alismataceae) is popularly used as an infusion to treat inflammatory diseases. This work fractionated the aqueous extract of E. macrophyllus (AEEm) to improve its anti-inflammatory effects. METHODS: Aqueous extract of E. macrophyllus was fractionated by Sephadex LH-20 and analysed by HPLC-DAD. Anti-inflammatory action was evaluated, in vivo, by air pouch model (total leucocyte, protein and leukotriene B (LTB )), and, in vitro, by neutrophil migration (transwell assay) and its Mac1 expression (flow cytometry), and RAW 264.7 nitric oxide (NO) production (Griess reaction). KEY FINDINGS: Fr20 reduced total leucocyte at 2.5 mg/kg (29.7%) while ethanolic extract of E. macrophyllus (EAEm) increased it (94.0%). Fr20 showed higher (P < 0.05) inhibition (89.8%) of LTB in exudate than EAEm (75.0%). Fr20 and EAEm decreased exudate protein and inflammatory infiltrate in pouch tissues, in-vitro neutrophil migration, and NO production. Otherwise, Fr40 did not reduce leucocytes and exudate protein (until 50 mg/kg) nor tissue inflammation, and increased in-vitro NO production. The inhibition of neutrophil migration by EAEm, but not Fr20, was dependent on reduced Mac-1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: The fractionation of AEEm provided a more potent anti-inflammatory fraction containing flavonoids (Fr20) that reduces the migration of neutrophils and LTB4 release, probably contributing to its mechanism of action.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Inflammation Mediators); 0 (Macrophage-1 Antigen); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Solvents); 1HGW4DR56D (Leukotriene B4); 31C4KY9ESH (Nitric Oxide)


  5 / 59 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27372264
Autor:Moore MT; Locke MA; Kröger R
Endereço:USDA Agricultural Research Service, National Sedimentation Laboratory, 598 McElroy Drive, Oxford, MS 38655, USA. Electronic address: matt.moore@ars.usda.gov.
Título:Using aquatic vegetation to remediate nitrate, ammonium, and soluble reactive phosphorus in simulated runoff.
Fonte:Chemosphere; 160:149-54, 2016 Oct.
ISSN:1879-1298
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Within the agriculturally-intensive Mississippi River Basin of the United States, significant conservation efforts have focused on management practices that reduce nutrient runoff into receiving aquatic ecosystems. Only a small fraction of those efforts have focused on phytoremediation techniques. Each of six different aquatic macrophytes were planted, in monoculture, in three replicate mesocosms (1.2 m × 0.15 m × 0.65 m). Three additional unvegetated mesocosms served as controls for a total number of 21 mesocosms. Over two years, mesocosms were amended once each summer with sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and potassium phosphate dibasic to represent nitrogen and phosphorus in agricultural runoff. System retention was calculated using a simple aqueous mass balance approach. Ammonium retention in both years differed greatly, as Panicum hemitomon and Echinodorus cordifolius retentions were significantly greater than controls in the first year, while only Myriophyllum aquaticum and Typha latifolia were significantly greater than controls in the second year. Greater soluble reactive phosphorus retention was observed in T. latifolia compared to controls in both years. Several other significant differences were observed in either the first or second year, but not both years. In the first year's exposure, P. hemitomon was significantly more efficient than the control, Saururus cernuus, and T. latifolia for overall percent nitrate decrease. Results of this novel study highlight inherent variability within and among species for nutrient specific uptake and the temporal variations of species for nutrient retention. By examining this natural variability, scientists may design phytoremediation systems with greater impact on improving agricultural runoff water quality.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Ammonium Compounds); 0 (Environmental Pollutants); 0 (Nitrates); 27YLU75U4W (Phosphorus); 8M4L3H2ZVZ (sodium nitrate); N762921K75 (Nitrogen)


  6 / 59 MEDLINE  
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Teixeira, Mauro Martins
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PMID:26824620
Autor:Garcia Ede F; de Oliveira MA; Candido LC; Coelho FM; Costa VV; Queiroz-Junior CM; Boff D; Amaral FA; de Souza Dda G; Teixeira MM; Braga FC
Endereço:Department of Pharmaceutical Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
Título:Effect of the Hydroethanolic Extract from Echinodorus grandiflorus Leaves and a Fraction Enriched in Flavone-C-Glycosides on Antigen-Induced Arthritis in Mice.
Fonte:Planta Med; 82(5):407-13, 2016 Mar.
ISSN:1439-0221
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The leaves of Echinodorus grandiflorus are traditionally used in Brazil to treat several inflammatory conditions, including arthritis. This study aimed to investigate the antiarthritis activity of the 70% ethanol extract of E. grandiflorus leaves and a standardized flavonoid-rich fraction in an antigen-induced arthritis model in mice. Previously immunized mice were treated per os with saline (control group), 70% ethanol extract (100-1000 mg/kg), or a flavonoid-rich fraction (0.7-7.2 mg/kg) 40 minutes before and 3 and 6 hours after the challenge with antigen into the knee joint. The administration of the 70% ethanol extract and flavonoid-rich fraction to mice significantly reduced neutrophil recruitment to the joint cavity and in periarticular tissue. The levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1ß quantified by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the periarticular tissue were also diminished in mice treated with the 70% ethanol extract and flavonoid-rich fraction, as well as mechanical hypernociception. Histological analysis confirmed that both the 70% ethanol extract and flavonoid-rich fraction suppressed joint inflammation and inhibited cartilage and bone destruction when compared to the control group. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that E. grandiflorus has anti-inflammatory activity in an experimental arthritis model and highlights the role of flavonoids in the observed response.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal); 0 (C-glycoside); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Monosaccharides); 0 (Plant Extracts)


  7 / 59 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26776663
Autor:Prando TB; Barboza LN; Araújo Vde O; Gasparotto FM; de Souza LM; Lourenço EL; Gasparotto Junior A
Endereço:Laboratório de Farmacologia e Toxicologia de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Paranaense, 4282 - Centro, Umuarama - PR, 87502-210, Brazil.
Título:Involvement of bradykinin B2 and muscarinic receptors in the prolonged diuretic and antihypertensive properties of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Micheli.
Fonte:Phytomedicine; 23(11):1249-58, 2016 Oct 15.
ISSN:1618-095X
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Although Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltr.) Michel are used in Brazilian folk medicine as a diuretic drug, to date, no study has evaluated the mechanisms involved in this activity after prolonged administration in rats. AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in the prolonged diuretic activity of ethanol soluble fraction obtained from Echinodorus grandiflorus (ES-EG) and to assess its relationship with hypotensive and antihypertensive activity using normotensive rats and those with renovascular hypertension (2K1C). METHODS: The diuretic effects of ES-EG (30-300 mg/kg; p.o.) were compared with hydrochlorothiazide in a repeated-dose treatment for 7 days. The urinary volume and sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate contents, conductivity, pH and density were estimated in sample collected in 24 h for 7 days. Plasma sodium, potassium, total protein, urea, creatinine, aldosterone, vasopressin, nitrite, acetylcholinesterase concentration and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity were measured in samples collected at the end of the experimental period (seventh day). Using pharmacological antagonists or inhibitors, the involvement of bradykinin, prostaglandin, acetylcholine and nitric oxide (NO) in ES-EG-induced diuresis was determined. In addition, activities of erythrocytary carbonic anhydrase and renal Na+/K+/ATPase were evaluated in vitro. RESULTS: ES-EG increased diuresis similarly to hydrochlorothiazide and also presented HCO3-sparing effects and increased serum nitrite levels. Moreover, the intraduodenal administration of ES-EG induces significant hypotensive and antihypertensive effects in 2K1C rats. Previous treatment with HOE-140, indometacin and atropine fully avoided the diuretic effect of ES-EG, and including L-NAME pre-administration, it prevented the hypotensive and hypertensive activity induced by ES-EG. In addition, the association between HOE-140 and atropine or indometacin and L-NAME fully inhibited the hypotensive and antihypertensive effects of ES-EG. The 7-day treatment with ES-EG resulted in increased plasma nitrite levels. All other parameters were not affected by treatment with ES-EG. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the mechanisms through which Echinodorus grandiflorus extracts induce prolonged diuresis and reduce blood pressure in normotensive and 2K1C rats are mainly related to activation of muscarinic and bradykinin receptors with direct effects on prostaglandins and nitric oxide pathways.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal); 0 (Antihypertensive Agents); 0 (Diuretics); 0 (Muscarinic Antagonists); 0 (Plant Extracts); S8TIM42R2W (Bradykinin)


  8 / 59 MEDLINE  
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Teixeira, Mauro Martins
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PMID:26692456
Autor:Garcia Ede F; de Oliveira MA; Dourado LP; de Souza DG; Teixeira MM; Braga FC
Endereço:Department of Pharmaceutical Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
Título:In Vitro TNF-α Inhibition Elicited by Extracts from Echinodorus grandiflorus Leaves and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Composition.
Fonte:Planta Med; 82(4):337-43, 2016 Mar.
ISSN:1439-0221
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:This study aimed to evaluate the effect of various extracts and fractions obtained from Echinodorus grandiflorus leaves on tumor necrosis factor-α release by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells, as well as to look at the association between bioactivity and phytochemical composition. To this end, a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection method was developed and validated, enabling the quantification of seven compounds in E. grandiflorus extracts and fractions. All of these samples showed antitumor necrosis factor-α activity, however, extracts prepared from 50% EtOH, water and dichloromethane, and a flavonoid-rich fraction elicited the most potent responses. trans-Aconitic acid and isoorientin were the major compounds in some preparations. Polynomial regression analysis showed the association between the contents of swertiajaponin, swertisin, trans-aconitic, and chicoric acids with the antitumor necrosis factor-α activity of the extracts and fractions. None of the compounds tested alone abolished tumor necrosis factor-α release completely, however, some extracts and fractions reached this result, suggesting a synergistic effect between the constituents. Therefore, it is clearly shown that the species E. grandiflorus has significant in vitro antitumor necrosis factor-α activity, a promising characteristic that deserves further investigations in the search for new anti-inflammatory agents from plants.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal); 0 (Lipopolysaccharides); 0 (Phytochemicals); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha)


  9 / 59 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26505322
Autor:Yang JX; Guo QJ; Yang J; Zhou XY; Ren HY; Zhang HZ; Xu RX; Wang XD; Peters M; Zhu GX; Wei RF; Tian LY; Han XK
Endereço:a Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing , P. R. China.
Título:Red mud (RM)-Induced enhancement of iron plaque formation reduces arsenic and metal accumulation in two wetland plant species.
Fonte:Int J Phytoremediation; 18(3):269-77, 2016.
ISSN:1549-7879
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Human activities have resulted in arsenic (As) and heavy metals accumulation in paddy soils in China. Phytoremediation has been suggested as an effective and low-cost method to clean up contaminated soils. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of red mud (RM) supply on iron plaque formation and As and heavy metal accumulation in two wetland plant species (Cyperus alternifolius Rottb., Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj), using As and heavy metals polluted paddy soil combined with three rates of RM application (0, 2%, 5%). The results showed that RM supply significantly decreased As and heavy metals accumulation in shoots of the two plants due to the decrease of As and heavy metal availability and the enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere. Both wetland plants supplied with RM tended to have more Fe plaque, higher As and heavy metals on roots and in their rhizospheres, and were more tolerant of As and heavy metal toxicity. The results suggest that RM-induced enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere of wetland plants may be significant for remediation of soils contaminated with As and heavy metals.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Soil Pollutants); N712M78A8G (Arsenic)


  10 / 59 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26665405
Autor:Ooh KF; Ong HC; Wong FC; Chai TT
Título:HPLC PROFILING OF PHENOLIC ACIDS AND FLAVONOIDS AND EVALUATION OF ANTI-LIPOXYGENASE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF AQUATIC VEGETABLE LIMNOCHARIS FLAVA.
Fonte:Acta Pol Pharm; 72(5):973-9, 2015 Sep-Oct.
ISSN:0001-6837
País de publicação:Poland
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Limnocharis flava is an edible wetland plant, whose phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions as well as bioactivities were underexplored. This study analyzed the profiles of selected hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in the aqueous extracts of L. flava leaf, rhizome and root by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Anti-lipoxygenase and antioxidant (iron chelating, 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging) activities of the extracts were also evaluated. Leaf extract had the highest phenolic contents, being most abundant in p-hydroxybenzoic acid (3861.2 nmol/g dry matter), ferulic acid (648.8 nmol/g dry matter), and rutin (4110.7 nmol/g dry matter). Leaf extract exhibited the strongest anti-lipoxygenase (EC50 6.47 mg/mL), iron chelating (EC50 6.65 mg/mL), DPPH scavenging (EC50 15.82 mg/mL) and NO scavenging (EC50 3.80 mg/mL) activities. Leaf extract also had the highest ferric reducing ability. This is the most extensive HPLC profiling of phenolic acids and flavonoids in L.flava to date. In conclusion, L. flava leaf is a source of health-promoting phenolics, anti-lipoxygenase agents and antioxidants.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Hydroxybenzoates); 0 (Lipoxygenase Inhibitors); 0 (Plant Extracts); 29656-58-4 (phenolic acid)



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