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  1 / 23 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29212767
Autor:Martínez C
Endereço:L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 USA; and The Center for Tropical Paleoecology and Archaeology, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Ancón, Panamá cm695@cornell.edu.
Título:Passifloraceae seeds from the late Eocene of Colombia.
Fonte:Am J Bot; 104(12):1857-1866, 2017 Dec.
ISSN:1537-2197
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The plant fossil record for the neotropics is still sparse and temporally discontinuous. The location and description of new fossil material are fundamental for understanding evolutionary and biogeographic patterns of lineages. A new fossil record of Passifloraceae from the late Eocene of Colombia is described in this study. METHODS: Plant fossils were collected from a new locality from the Eocene Esmeraldas Formation. Eighteen fossil seeds were selected, described, and compared with fossil and extant angiosperm seeds based on the literature and herbarium collections. Taxonomic affinities of the fossil seeds within Passifloraceae s.l. were evaluated by comparing morphological characters of the seeds in a phylogenetic context. Stratigraphic information associated with the fossil locality was used to interpret the environment and taphonomic processes associated with fossil deposition. KEY RESULTS: A new seed fossil genus and species, gen. and sp. nov., is described and associated with the subfamily Passifloroideae based on the presence of a foveolate seed surface, ruminate endosperm, and a seed coat with prismatic palisade cells. The depositional environment of the locality is described as a floodplain associated with river channels. CONCLUSIONS: A detailed review of the Passifloraceae fossil record indicates that is the oldest confirmed record of Passifloraceae. Its late Eocene age provides a minimum age that can be used as a calibration point for the crown Passifloroideae node in future dating analyses that together with its neotropical geographic location can shed light on the origin and diversification of the subfamily.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  2 / 23 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27188539
Autor:Cazé AL; Mäder G; Nunes TS; Queiroz LP; de Oliveira G; Diniz-Filho JA; Bonatto SL; Freitas LB
Endereço:Laboratory of Molecular Evolution, Department of Genetics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970, Brazil.
Título:Could refuge theory and rivers acting as barriers explain the genetic variability distribution in the Atlantic Forest?
Fonte:Mol Phylogenet Evol; 101:242-51, 2016 Aug.
ISSN:1095-9513
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The Atlantic Forest is one of the most species-rich ecoregions in the world. The historical origins of this richness and the evolutionary processes that produced diversification and promoted speciation in this ecosystem remain poorly understood. In this context, focusing on Passiflora contracta, an endemic species from the Atlantic Forest distributed exclusively at sea level along forest edges, this study aimed to characterize the patterns of genetic variability and explore two hypotheses that attempt to explain the possible causes of the genetic diversity in this region: the refuge and riverine barrier theories. We employed Bayesian methods combined with niche modeling to identify genetically homogeneous groups, to determine the diversification age, and identify long-term climate stability areas to species survival. The analyses were performed using molecular markers from nuclear and plastid genomes, with samples collected throughout the entire geographic distribution of the species, and comparisons with congeners species. The results indicated that populations were genetically structured and provided evidence of demographic stability. The molecular markers indicated the existence of a clear structure and the presence of five homogeneous groups. Interestingly, the separation of the groups coincides with the geographical locations of local rivers, corroborating the hypothesis of rivers acting as barriers to gene flow in this species. The highest levels of genetic diversity and the areas identified as having long-term climate stability were found in the same region reported for other species as a possible refuge area during the climatic changes of the Quaternary.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Plant)


  3 / 23 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26634503
Autor:Melo CA; Souza MM; Sousa AG; Viana AP; Santos EA
Endereço:Laboratório de Melhoramento de Plantas, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, BA, Brasil.
Título:Multivariate analysis of backcross progeny of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae) for pre-breeding genotype selection.
Fonte:Genet Mol Res; 14(4):15376-89, 2015 Nov 30.
ISSN:1676-5680
País de publicação:Brazil
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The Ward-MLM procedure was used to evaluate genetic variation in four backcross progenies and in their parents, hybrid F1 HD13 and donor parent Passiflora sublanceolata. Sixteen quantitative descriptors and five qualitative characteristics of relevance to ornamental flower production were assessed. Using the pseudo-F and pseudo-T² criteria, we identified four groups among these plants in two evaluation periods. In both evaluations, the BC1 plants showed greater dissimilarity to their recurrent parent, but showed high genetic similarity with the P. sublanceolata parent. The first two canonical variables produced by the Ward-MLM procedure accounted for over 90% of the variation in both evaluation periods, enabling the representation of diversity through two-dimensional graphics. Groups II and IV were formed in the first assessment period. Groups I and IV formed in the second period and showed plants with selection potential. We found that it was essential to use both qualitative and quantitative variables for this analysis. Assessments of quantitative descriptors indicate that the selection of BC1 plants can be performed in any of the four progenies. Because of the similarities observed for some floral descriptors between BC1 and the P. sublanceolata parent, a second generation backcross was not recommended. However, the selection of BC1 plants for evaluation and direct use as an ornamental cultivar, or as a resource in other breeding programs, can be recommended.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  4 / 23 MEDLINE  
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PMID:25153375
Autor:Ishola IO; Olayemi SO; Yemitan OK; Akinseye K
Título:Role for monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant and anxiolytic properties of the hydroethanolic leaf extract from Adenia cissampeloides.
Fonte:J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol; 26(3):301-12, 2015 May.
ISSN:2191-0286
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch ex. Hook) Harms (Passifloraceae) leaf infusion is used in traditional African medicine as a stimulant to treat depression and insanity. Thus, this study investigates antidepressant and anxiolytic activities of the hydroethanol leaf extract of Adenia cissampeloides (ACE) in mice. METHODS: ACE (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to mice 1 h before behavioral studies; the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), elevated-plus maze test (EPM) hole-board test (HBT) and open field test (OFT). In addition, the probable mechanisms of antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like actions of ACE were also investigated. RESULTS: ACE (100 and 200 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.01) reduction in immobility, along with a significant increase in swimming activity (75.20%) and climbing (190.00%), respectively, similar to anti-immobility effect of imipramine in the FST. Also, in TST, ACE (100 and 200 mg/kg) treatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced the immobility time by 35.60%, and 35.27%, respectively, which was similar to anti-immobility effect of fluoxetine (32.50%). However, the antidepressant-like effect produced by ACE was prevented (p<0.01) by yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), or sulpiride (dopamine D2 receptor antagonist) pretreatment. ACE (50 and 100 mg/kg) treatment (p<0.01) increased number (41.67%) and duration of head-dips (52.27%) in HBT. Similarly, ACE (50-200 mg/kg) increased duration of open arm entries (p<0.001) in EPM. However, this effect was reversed (p<0.001) by pretreatment of mice with cyproheptadine (5-HT2 receptor antagonist) (60.87%). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from these studies revealed antidepressant-like effect of ACE mediated through interaction with dopamine D2- receptor or α2-adrenoceptor. Also an anxiolytic-like effect through interaction with 5-HT2 receptors.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Anxiety Agents); 0 (Antidepressive Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts); 01K63SUP8D (Fluoxetine)


  5 / 23 MEDLINE  
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PMID:24468305
Autor:Szewczyk K; Zidorn C
Endereço:Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1 St, 20-093 Lublin, Poland.
Título:Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and bioactivity of the genus Turnera (Passifloraceae) with a focus on damiana--Turnera diffusa.
Fonte:J Ethnopharmacol; 152(3):424-43, 2014 Mar 28.
ISSN:1872-7573
País de publicação:Ireland
Idioma:eng
Resumo:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Half a dozen of the currently accepted 135 Turnera species are used in traditional medicine, most notably Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. which is one of the most highly appreciated plant aphrodisiacs. Other traditional uses of Turnera L. species include the treatment of anaemia, bronchitis, cough, diabetes, fever, fungal disease, gastrointestinal complaints, pain, pulmonary and respiratory diseases, skin disorders, and women׳s health problems. Additionally, Turnera species are used as abortives, expectorants, and laxatives. PHYTOCHEMISTRY: Flavonoids (22 different compounds), maltol glucoside, phenolics, cyanogenic glycosides (7 different compounds), monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, the polyterpene ficaprenol-11, fatty acids, and caffeine have been found in the genus Turnera. BIOACTIVITY: Bioactivities experimentally proven for members of the genus Turnera encompass antianxiety, antiaromatase, antibacterial including antimycobacterial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, adapatogenic, antiobesity, antispasmodic, cytotoxic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and aphrodisiac activities. Most of these activities have so far been investigated only in chemical, cell based, or animal assays. In contrast, the antiobesity activity was also investigated in a study on healthy human subjects and with a herbal preparation containing among other ingredients Turnera diffusa leaves. Moreover, the enhancement of female sexual function was assessed in humans; again the product contained besides Turnera diffusa other potentially bioactive ingredients. However, with only few exceptions, most of the traditional uses and the experimentally verified bioactivities can currently not be related to a particular compound or compound class. A notable exception is the flavonoid apigenin, which was identified animal experiments as the antinociceptive principle of Turnera diffusa. CONCLUSION: In this review, the current knowledge on ethnobotanical uses of members of the genus Turnera, the secondary metabolites reported from Turnera, and experimentally documented bioactivities from Turnera extracts and pure compounds derived from Turnera extracts are compiled. Moreover, some of the most interesting avenues for future research projects are being discussed briefly. These include in particular the aphrodisiac activity of Turnera diffusa and the antibiotic activity potentiating effect of Turnera ulmifolia L. against aminoglycoside resistant bacteria.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Plant Extracts)


  6 / 23 MEDLINE  
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PMID:24311855
Autor:Joseph SA; Theophilus FC; Dominic EA; Rita DA; Kwaw ML; Kofi A; Eric W; George KA; Alfred AA; Henry BD
Endereço:Department of Phytochemistry, Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine, Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana.
Título:Antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effects of Adenia lobata Engl. (Passifloraceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Fonte:Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med; 10(5):386-93, 2013.
ISSN:2505-0044
País de publicação:Nigeria
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities of a Ghanaian medicinal plant namely Adenia lobata Engl (Passifloraceae), used to treat diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine, was investigated. The dried stem powder of A. lobata was successively extracted by Soxhlet with petroleum ether and 70% ethanol to obtain the crude petroleum ether (PEAL: yield =1.1 w/w %) and ethanol (EEAL: yield = 5.4 w/w %) extracts. The extracts were assessed for their antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities. The antihyperglycaemic activity of PEAL and EEAL were determined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (70 mg/kg body weight). Five groups of diabetic rats were given 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight of PEAL and EEAL orally once daily for 20 days. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg body weight) was used as positive control while distilled water (5 ml) acted as the normal diabetic control. The blood glucose levels were monitored initially for 6 hours and subsequently over 24 days. Both extracts exhibited statistically significant (p< 0.001) antihyperglycaemic activity throughout the study period, with EEAL showing the greatest activity. The antioxidant properties of the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of A. lobata (PEAL and EEAL) were evaluated using five assays; total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH scavenging effect and lipid peroxidation activity. In all these assays, the antioxidant properties increased with increasing concentration of the extracts.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Hypoglycemic Agents); 0 (Phenols); 0 (Plant Extracts)


  7 / 23 MEDLINE  
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Rodrigues, Daniela
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PMID:23949306
Autor:Millan C; Borges SS; Rodrigues D; Moreira GR
Endereço:PPG Ecologia, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Brazil, lepidoptera.azul@gmail.com.
Título:Behavioral and life-history evidence for interspecific competition in the larvae of two heliconian butterflies.
Fonte:Naturwissenschaften; 100(10):901-11, 2013 Oct.
ISSN:1432-1904
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Interspecific competition in herbivorous insects remains a controversial issue. To date, many studied systems have not met assumptions of the traditional competition theory, and a new paradigm has been emerging. We examined the behavioral and life-history consequences of common host plant use of Heliconius erato and Dryas iulia (Nymphalidae) in relation to Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae). Larvae of the former use the apical portion of this host; the latter is presumably able to explore all plant parts. We assessed host use pattern in relation to leaf age, when reared either alone (D. iulia) or together (D. iulia and H. erato). Larval feeding choice tests with respect to leaf age were performed, and performance was recorded. Observations were made to assess antagonistic behavior of H. erato and D. iulia towards each other, if any. Similarly to H. erato, D. iulia fed on the young leaves significantly more than the mature ones; larvae were not induced to prefer mature leaves. First instars of H. erato used only the apical parts of P. suberosa and displayed aggressive behavior towards D. iulia, which moved to the lower shoot portions. Larval mortality and development time of both species significantly increased when reared together; such performance costs were more pronounced in D. iulia than H. erato. Our study gathers evidences that use of P. suberosa by these heliconian butterflies represent a case of competitive exclusion resulting in niche differentiation, where costs are higher for D. iulia than H. erato.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  8 / 23 MEDLINE  
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PMID:23888850
Autor:Hearn DJ
Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Baltimore, Maryland 21252, USA. dhearn@towson.edu
Título:Dissection of evolutionary networks to assess their role in the evolution of robustness, function, and diversification.
Fonte:Evolution; 67(8):2273-83, 2013 Aug.
ISSN:1558-5646
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Biological systems are remarkably robust in the face of environmental, mutational, and developmental perturbations. Analyses of molecular networks reveal recurrent features, such as modularity, that have been implicated in robustness and evolvability. Multiple theoretical models account for these features, yet few empirical tests of these models exist. Here I develop a set of broadly applicable methodologies to enable expanded empirical evaluation of model predictions. The methodologies focus on the inference and analysis of networks that depict evolutionary correlations among characters. I apply these methodologies to analyze an evolutionary network at a larger scale of organization among 42 stem anatomical and morphological characters of 52 species in the genus Adenia (Passifloraceae). I evaluate a model predicting that modular evolutionary networks will evolve in response to environmental change. The evolutionary network of Adenia is modular and "small-world," and the three diagnosed modules correspond roughly to functions of transport, storage, and mechanical support. The phylogenetically informed analyses suggest that the storage module is more impacted by environmental change than expected by chance. These results corroborate the hypothesis that modularity reduces the impact of environmental change, but this result requires further empirical evaluation that can be aided by the proposed methods in additional study systems.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  9 / 23 MEDLINE  
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PMID:23380241
Autor:Villamil N; Márquez-Guzmán J; Boege K
Endereço:Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-275 Ciudad, Universitaria CP 04510, México D.F., México.
Título:Understanding ontogenetic trajectories of indirect defence: ecological and anatomical constraints in the production of extrafloral nectaries.
Fonte:Ann Bot; 112(4):701-9, 2013 Aug.
ISSN:1095-8290
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Early ontogenetic stages of myrmecophytic plants are infrequently associated with ants, probably due to constraints on the production of rewards. This study reports for the first time the anatomical and histological limitations constraining the production of extrafloral nectar in young plants, and the implications that the absence of protective ants imposes for plants early during their ontogeny are discussed. METHODS: Juvenile, pre-reproductive and reproductive plants of Turnera velutina were selected in a natural population and their extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) per leaf were quantified. The anatomical and morphological changes in EFNs during plant ontogeny were studied using scanning electron and light microscopy. Extrafloral nectar volume and sugar concentration were determined as well as the number of patrolling ants. KEY RESULTS: Juvenile plants were unable to secrete or contain nectar. Pre-reproductive plants secreted and contained nectar drops, but the highest production was achieved at the reproductive stage when the gland is fully cup-shaped and the secretory epidermis duplicates. No ants were observed in juvenile plants, and reproductive individuals received greater ant patrolling than pre-reproductive individuals. The issue of the mechanism of extrafloral nectar release in T. velutina was solved given that we found an anatomical, transcuticular pore that forms a channel-like structure and allows nectar to flow outward from the gland. CONCLUSIONS: Juvenile stages had no ant protection against herbivores probably due to resource limitation but also due to anatomical constraints. The results are consistent with the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis. As plants age, they increase in size and have larger nutrient-acquiring, photosynthetic and storage capacity, so they are able to invest in defence via specialized organs, such as EFNs. Hence, the more vulnerable juvenile stage should rely on other defensive strategies to reduce the negative impacts of herbivory.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Plant Nectar)


  10 / 23 MEDLINE  
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PMID:23331370
Autor:Anton KA; Ward JR; Cruzan MB
Endereço:Department of Biology, Portland State University, Portland, OR, USA.
Título:Pollinator-mediated selection on floral morphology: evidence for transgressive evolution in a derived hybrid lineage.
Fonte:J Evol Biol; 26(3):660-73, 2013 Mar.
ISSN:1420-9101
País de publicação:Switzerland
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Hybridization between closely related lineages is a mechanism that might promote substantive changes in phenotypic traits of descendants, resulting in transgressive evolution. Interbreeding between divergent but morphologically similar lineages can produce exceptional phenotypes, but the potential for transgressive variation to facilitate long-term trait changes in derived hybrid lineages has received little attention. We compare pollinator-mediated selection on transgressive floral traits in both early-generation and derived hybrid lineages of the Piriqueta cistoides ssp. caroliniana complex. The bowl-shaped flowers of morphotypes in this complex have similar gross morphologies and attract a common suite of small insect pollinators. However, they are defined by significant differences in characters that generate pollinator interest and visitation, including floral area and petal separation. In common garden experiments, patterns of pollen deposition in early-generation recombinant hybrids indicate that Piriqueta's pollinators favour flowers with greater area and reduced petal separation. Changes in floral morphology in derived hybrid lineages are consistent with predictions from selection gradients, but the magnitude of change is limited relative to the range of transgressive variation. These results suggest that hybridization provides variation for evolution of divergent floral traits. However, the potential for extreme transgressive variants to contribute to phenotypic shifts may be limited due to reduced heritability, evolutionary constraints or fitness trade-offs.
Tipo de publicação: COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE



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