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  1 / 188 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29176803
Autor:Pan JH; Lim Y; Kim JH; Heo W; Lee KY; Shin HJ; Kim JK; Lee JH; Kim YJ
Endereço:Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Sejong, Republic of Korea.
Título:Root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica restrains acute alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis onset in mice by inhibiting ROS accumulation.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(11):e0188381, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation are key drivers of alcohol-induced liver injury, mainly caused by oxidative stress. The roots bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica is well known for its substantial antioxidative and antitumorigenic potency. In this study, we examined whether this plant can ameliorate alcohol-induced liver injuries characterized by hepatic steatosis and inflammation through its antioxidative activity. C57BL/6J mice were treated with the root bark extract of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (RUE; 100 mg of extract/kg bodyweight; oral gavage) and alcohol (1 g/kg of bodyweight; oral gavage) for 5 days. Markers of acute alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis were determined and putative molecular mechanisms responsible for the protection of RUE were investigated. RUE noticeably protected against alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), over-produced by alcohol, negatively orchestrated various signaling pathways involved in the lipid metabolism and inflammation. These pathways were restored through the ROS scavenging activity of RUE in the liver. In particular, the expression of lipogenic genes (e.g., SREBP-1, ACC, and FAS) and inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1ß, and NF-κB p65) significantly decreased with RUE treatment. Conversely, the expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes (e.g., SIRT1, AMPKα, and PGC1α) were increased in mice treated with RUE. Thus, the results indicate that RUE counteracts and thus attenuates alcoholic hepatic steatosis onset in mice, possibly by suppressing ROS-mediated steatosis and inflammation.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Cytokines); 0 (NF-kappa B); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Reactive Oxygen Species); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol); 8R1V1STN48 (Catechin); EC 2.7.11.24 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases)


  2 / 188 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28448744
Autor:Saremba BM; Tymm FJM; Baethke K; Rheault MR; Sherif SM; Saxena PK; Murch SJ
Endereço:a Biology, University of British Columbia , Kelowna , British Columbia , Canada.
Título:Plant signals during beetle (Scolytus multistriatus) feeding in American elm (Ulmus americana Planch).
Fonte:Plant Signal Behav; 12(5):e1296997, 2017 May 04.
ISSN:1559-2324
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:American Elms were devastated by an outbreak of Dutch Elm Disease is caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier that originated in Asia and arrived in the early 1900s. In spite of decades of study, the specific mechanisms and disease resistance in some trees is not well understood. the fungus is spread by several species of bark beetles in the genus Scolytus, during their dispersal and feeding. Our objective was to understand elm responses to beetle feeding in the absence of the fungus to identify potential resistance mechanisms. A colony of Scolytus multistriatus was established from wild-caught beetles and beetles were co-incubated with susceptible or resistant American elm varieties in a controlled environment chamber. Beetles burrowed into the auxillary meristems of the young elm shoots. The trees responded to the beetle damage by a series of spikes in the concentration of plant growth regulating compounds, melatonin, serotonin, and jasmonic acid. Spikes in melatonin and serotonin represented a 7,000-fold increase over resting levels. Spikes in jasmonic acid were about 10-fold higher than resting levels with one very large spike observed. Differences were noted between susceptible and resistant elms that provide new understanding of plant defenses.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Cyclopentanes); 0 (Oxylipins); 333DO1RDJY (Serotonin); 6RI5N05OWW (jasmonic acid); JL5DK93RCL (Melatonin)


  3 / 188 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28284790
Autor:Hong SO; Choi IK; Jeong W; Lee SR; Sung HJ; Hong SS; Seo JH
Endereço:Department of Biomedical Sciences, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705, Republic of Korea; Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedicine Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705, Republic of Korea.
Título:Ulmus davidiana Nakai induces apoptosis and autophagy on non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Fonte:J Ethnopharmacol; 202:1-11, 2017 Apr 18.
ISSN:1872-7573
País de publicação:Ireland
Idioma:eng
Resumo:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ulmus davidiana Nakai (UDN) is frequently used in the treatment of cancer in traditional oriental medicine. Although several reports indicate that UDN has inhibitory effects in some cancers, there has been no report on the inhibitory effects of UDN via both autophagy and apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity induced by UDN in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H-1299 and H-460 cell lines was evaluated using the 2, 3-Bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt (XTT) assay and trypan blue exclusion assay. Induction of apoptosis was also investigated using Hoechst staining and annexin-V binding assay and was confirmed with western blot analysis. Induction of autophagy was investigated through observation of autophagy vacuoles under inverted phase-contrast microscopy and was confirmed by observing the formation of autophagy vacuoles under a fluorescence microscope using monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and western blot analysis. The in vivo anti-tumorigenic effect of UDN was investigated in an athymic nude mouse xenograft model using H-1299 NSCLC cells. RESULTS: UDN exhibited a marked inhibitory effect on cell growth in H-1299 and H-460 human NSCLC cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. It induced not only apoptosis, but also autophagy in both H-1299 and H-460 cells in a dose-dependent manner. UDN-mediated autophagy led to the accumulation of autophagosome, resulting in apoptosis induction and cell death. CONCLUSIONS: From our current knowledge, we are the first to demonstrate that UDN has the potential to induce both autophagy and apoptosis in H-1299 and H-460 human NSCLC cell lines. We suggest that UDN can be considered a potential candidate for lung cancer-specific chemotherapy with efficacy as a cytotoxic agent.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (RNA, Small Interfering)


  4 / 188 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28279897
Autor:Li Y; Wang Y; Xue H; Pritchard HW; Wang X
Endereço:National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, No. 35, Tsinghua East Road, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address: luckycatliying@foxmail.com.
Título:Changes in the mitochondrial protein profile due to ROS eruption during ageing of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) seeds.
Fonte:Plant Physiol Biochem; 114:72-87, 2017 May.
ISSN:1873-2690
País de publicação:France
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to play a vital role in seed deterioration. However, the detailed mechanisms remain largely unknown. To address this, a comparison of mitochondrial proteomes was performed, and we identified several proteins that changed in abundance with accompanying ROS eruption and mitochondrial aggregation and diffusion. These are involved in mitochondrial metabolisms, stress resistance, maintenance of structure and intracellular transport during seed aging. Reduction of ROS content by the mitochondrial-specific scavenger MitoTEMPO suppressed these changes, whereas pre-treatment of seeds with methyl viologen (MV) had the opposite effect. Furthermore, voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) were found to increase both in abundance and carbonylation level, accompanied by increased cytochrome c (cyt c) release from mitochondria to cytosol, indicating the profound effect of ROS and VDAC on mitochondria-dependent cell death. Carbonylation detection revealed the specific target proteins of oxidative modification in mitochondria during ageing. Notably, membrane proteins accounted for a large proportion of these targets. An in vitro assay demonstrated that the oxidative modification was concomitant with a change of VDAC function and a loss of activity in malate dehydrogenase. Our data suggested that ROS eruption induced alteration and modification of specific mitochondrial proteins that may be involved in the process of mitochondrial deterioration, which eventually led to loss of seed viability.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (MitoTEMPO); 0 (Mitochondrial Proteins); 0 (Organophosphorus Compounds); 0 (Piperidines); 0 (Plant Proteins); 0 (Reactive Oxygen Species); 9007-43-6 (Cytochromes c); EC 1.6.- (Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1); PLG39H7695 (Paraquat)


  5 / 188 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28164745
Autor:Takei M; Ito S; Tanaka K; Ishige T; Suzuki Y
Endereço:a Department of Bioresource Science , Ibaraki University , Inashiki , Japan.
Título:Transcriptomic characterization of gall tissue of Japanese elm tree (Ulmus davidiana var. japonica) induced by the aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis.
Fonte:Biosci Biotechnol Biochem; 81(6):1069-1077, 2017 Jun.
ISSN:1347-6947
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Insect galls are abnormal plant tissues induced by parasitic insect(s) for use as their habitat. In previous work, we suggested that gall tissues induced by the aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis on Japanese elm trees are less responsive than leaf tissues to jasmonic acid (JA), which is involved in the production of volatile organic compounds as a typical defensive reaction of plants against attack by insect pests. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression by RNA sequencing indicated that the number of JA responsive genes was markedly lower in gall tissues than in leaf tissues. This suggests that gall tissues are mostly defective in JA signaling, although JA signaling is not entirely compromised in gall tissue. Gene ontology analysis sheds light on some stress-related unigenes with higher expression levels in gall tissues, suggesting that host plants sense aphids as a biotic stress but are defective in the JA-mediated defense response in gall tissues.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Cyclopentanes); 0 (Inflammation Mediators); 0 (Oxylipins); 0 (Plant Proteins); 6RI5N05OWW (jasmonic acid)


  6 / 188 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28158318
Autor:Zuo LH; Shang AQ; Zhang S; Yu XY; Ren YC; Yang MS; Wang JM
Endereço:Institute of Forest Biotechnology, Forestry College, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, PR China.
Título:The first complete chloroplast genome sequences of Ulmus species by de novo sequencing: Genome comparative and taxonomic position analysis.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(2):e0171264, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Elm (Ulmus) has a long history of use as a high-quality heavy hardwood famous for its resistance to drought, cold, and salt. It grows in temperate, warm temperate, and subtropical regions. This is the first report of Ulmaceae chloroplast genomes by de novo sequencing. The Ulmus chloroplast genomes exhibited a typical quadripartite structure with two single-copy regions (long single copy [LSC] and short single copy [SSC] sections) separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs). The lengths of the chloroplast genomes from five Ulmus ranged from 158,953 to 159,453 bp, with the largest observed in Ulmus davidiana and the smallest in Ulmus laciniata. The genomes contained 137-145 protein-coding genes, of which Ulmus davidiana var. japonica and U. davidiana had the most and U. pumila had the fewest. The five Ulmus species exhibited different evolutionary routes, as some genes had been lost. In total, 18 genes contained introns, 13 of which (trnL-TAA+, trnL-TAA-, rpoC1-, rpl2-, ndhA-, ycf1, rps12-, rps12+, trnA-TGC+, trnA-TGC-, trnV-TAC-, trnI-GAT+, and trnI-GAT) were shared among all five species. The intron of ycf1 was the longest (5,675bp) while that of trnF-AAA was the smallest (53bp). All Ulmus species except U. davidiana exhibited the same degree of amplification in the IR region. To determine the phylogenetic positions of the Ulmus species, we performed phylogenetic analyses using common protein-coding genes in chloroplast sequences of 42 other species published in NCBI. The cluster results showed the closest plants to Ulmaceae were Moraceae and Cannabaceae, followed by Rosaceae. Ulmaceae and Moraceae both belonged to Urticales, and the chloroplast genome clustering results were consistent with their traditional taxonomy. The results strongly supported the position of Ulmaceae as a member of the order Urticales. In addition, we found a potential error in the traditional taxonomies of U. davidiana and U. davidiana var. japonica, which should be confirmed with a further analysis of their nuclear genomes. This study is the first report on Ulmus chloroplast genomes, which has significance for understanding photosynthesis, evolution, and chloroplast transgenic engineering.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Codon)


  7 / 188 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27987055
Autor:Bekircan Ç; Bülbül U; Güler HI; Becnel JJ
Endereço:Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey. cagribekircan@hotmail.com.
Título:Description and phylogeny of a new microsporidium from the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1766 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).
Fonte:Parasitol Res; 116(2):773-780, 2017 Feb.
ISSN:1432-1955
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:This study describes a new genus and species of microsporidia which is a pathogen of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1776 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The beetles were collected from Istanbul in Turkey. All developmental stages are uninucleate and in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm. Giemsa-stained mature spores are oval in shape and measured 3.40 ± 0.37 µm in length and 1.63 ± 0.20 µm in width. These uninucleate spores have an isofilar polar filament with 11 turns. The spore wall was trilaminar (75 to 115 nm) with a rugose, electron-dense exospore (34 to 45 nm) and a thickened, electron-lucent endospore (65 to 80 nm) overlaying the plasmalemma. Morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular features indicate that the described microsporidium is dissimilar to all known microsporidian taxa and confirm that it has different taxonomic characters than other microsporidia infecting X. luteola and is named here as Rugispora istanbulensis n. gen., n. sp.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 188 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27483131
Autor:Via SM; Zinnert JC; Young DR
Endereço:a Department of Biology , Virginia Commonwealth University , Richmond , VA , USA.
Título:Multiple metrics quantify and differentiate responses of vegetation to composition B.
Fonte:Int J Phytoremediation; 19(1):56-64, 2017 Jan 02.
ISSN:1549-7879
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Quantifying vegetation response to explosive compounds has focused predominantly on morphological impacts and uptake efficiency. A more comprehensive understanding of the total impacts of explosives on vegetation can be gained using a multivariate approach. We hypothesized that multiple variables representing morphological and physiological responses will more clearly differentiate species and treatments than any single variable. Individuals of three plant species were placed in soils contaminated with Composition B, which comprises 60% hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 40% 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and grown for 2 months. Response metrics used included photosynthetic operation, water relations, growth characteristics, as well as nitrogen and carbon concentrations and isotopic compositions. Individual metrics showed high variability in response across the three species tested. Water relations and nitrogen isotopic composition exhibited the most consistent response across species. By comparing multiple variables simultaneously, better separation of both species and exposure was observed. The inclusion of novel metrics can reinforce previously established concepts and provide a new perspective. Additionally, the inclusion of various other metrics can greatly increase the ability to identify and differentiate particular groups. By using multivariate analyses and standard vegetation metrics, new aspects of the vegetation response to explosive compounds can be identified.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Environmental Pollutants); 0 (Explosive Agents); 0 (Triazines); 118-96-7 (Trinitrotoluene); W91SSV5831 (cyclonite)


  9 / 188 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27935944
Autor:Goring SJ; Mladenoff DJ; Cogbill CV; Record S; Paciorek CJ; Jackson ST; Dietze MC; Dawson A; Matthes JH; McLachlan JS; Williams JW
Endereço:Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Título:Novel and Lost Forests in the Upper Midwestern United States, from New Estimates of Settlement-Era Composition, Stem Density, and Biomass.
Fonte:PLoS One; 11(12):e0151935, 2016.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: EuroAmerican land-use and its legacies have transformed forest structure and composition across the United States (US). More accurate reconstructions of historical states are critical to understanding the processes governing past, current, and future forest dynamics. Here we present new gridded (8x8km) reconstructions of pre-settlement (1800s) forest composition and structure from the upper Midwestern US (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and most of Michigan), using 19th Century Public Land Survey System (PLSS), with estimates of relative composition, above-ground biomass, stem density, and basal area for 28 tree types. This mapping is more robust than past efforts, using spatially varying correction factors to accommodate sampling design, azimuthal censoring, and biases in tree selection. CHANGES IN FOREST STRUCTURE: We compare pre-settlement to modern forests using US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to show the prevalence of lost forests (pre-settlement forests with no current analog), and novel forests (modern forests with no past analogs). Differences between pre-settlement and modern forests are spatially structured owing to differences in land-use impacts and accompanying ecological responses. Modern forests are more homogeneous, and ecotonal gradients are more diffuse today than in the past. Novel forest assemblages represent 28% of all FIA cells, and 28% of pre-settlement forests no longer exist in a modern context. Lost forests include tamarack forests in northeastern Minnesota, hemlock and cedar dominated forests in north-central Wisconsin and along the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and elm, oak, basswood and ironwood forests along the forest-prairie boundary in south central Minnesota and eastern Wisconsin. Novel FIA forest assemblages are distributed evenly across the region, but novelty shows a strong relationship to spatial distance from remnant forests in the upper Midwest, with novelty predicted at between 20 to 60km from remnants, depending on historical forest type. The spatial relationships between remnant and novel forests, shifts in ecotone structure and the loss of historic forest types point to significant challenges for land managers if landscape restoration is a priority. The spatial signals of novelty and ecological change also point to potential challenges in using modern spatial distributions of species and communities and their relationship to underlying geophysical and climatic attributes in understanding potential responses to changing climate. The signal of human settlement on modern forests is broad, spatially varying and acts to homogenize modern forests relative to their historic counterparts, with significant implications for future management.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 188 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27720848
Autor:Syed AA; Lahiri S; Mohan D; Valicherla GR; Gupta AP; Riyazuddin M; Kumar S; Maurya R; Hanif K; Gayen JR
Endereço:Division of Pharmacokinetics & Metabolism, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226031, India.
Título:Evaluation of anti-hypertensive activity of Ulmus wallichiana extract and fraction in SHR, DOCA-salt- and L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.
Fonte:J Ethnopharmacol; 193:555-565, 2016 Dec 04.
ISSN:1872-7573
País de publicação:Ireland
Idioma:eng
Resumo:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ulmus wallichiana Planchon (Himalayan Elm), a traditional medicinal plant, used in fracture healing in folk tradition of Uttarakhand, Himalaya, India. It is also used as diuretic. U. rhynchophylla, native to China, known as Gou Teng in Chinese medicine, is used for hypertension (WHO). U. macrocarpa has antihypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. However, no detailed studies related to hypertension have been reported previously, so we have explored the antihypertensive activity of U. wallichiana. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the pharmacological effect of ethanolic extract (EE) and butanolic fraction (BF) of U. wallichiana in hypertensive rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SHR, DOCA-salt- and L-NAME-induced hypertension models were used. Treatment was performed by oral administration of EE and BF of U. wallichiana (500mg/kg/day and 50mg/kg/day) for 14 days. Then blood pressure was measured by non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement technique. Invasive blood pressure (IBP) was also reported to support the NIBP data. Concentrations of plasma renin, angiotensin II (Ang II), nitrate/nitrite (NO), cGMP were estimated. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and ROS activity were also estimated. RESULTS: Blood pressure was significantly higher in SHR as compared to normotensive wistar group (170.59±0.83mmHg vs 121.54±1.24mmHg, respectively). SBP was increased in DOCA-salt induced group compared to their control (132.77±3.90mmHg vs 107.85±5.95mmHg, respectively) and L-NAME-induced group compared to their control (168.55±5.07mmHg vs 113.03±4.13mmHg, respectively). The treatment of extract and fraction of U. wallichiana significantly decreased the blood pressure in SHR+EE (151.26±1.85mmHg, p<0.001), SHR+BF (140.44±1.16mmHg, p<0.001); DOCA+EE (113.43±5.44mmHg, p<0.05), DOCA+BF (105.09±5.12mmHg, p<0.05) and L-NAME+EE (119.76±4.39mmHg, p<0.001), L-NAME+BF (117.50±7.27mmHg, p<0.001) compared to their respective diseased control groups. The plasma renin, Ang II and ACE activity were also significantly decreased and augmented the NO and cGMP levels. It also down regulated the expression of Renin, ACE, NOS3 and TGF-ß1 at mRNA levels. CONCLUSIONS: The EE and BF probably reducing the BP via Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and NO/cGMP signaling pathway. The decrease in blood pressure may be due to presence of quercetin analogue flavonoids (2S,3S)-(+)-3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol-6-C-ß-D-glucopyranoside; 6-Glucopyranosyl-3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone; 6-Glucopyranosyl-4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone and (2S,3S)-(+)-4',5,7-trihydroxydihydroflavonol-6-C-ß-D-glucopyranoside, may be due to its antioxidant activity. Thus EE and BF of U. wallichiana found to have the potential ability to be used as herbal medicament to treat hypertension.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antihypertensive Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts); 6E0A168OB8 (Desoxycorticosterone Acetate); V55S2QJN2X (NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester)



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