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  1 / 4774 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29363955
Autor:Oh SY; Youn SY; Park MS; Baek NI; Ji GE
Endereço:Department of Food and Nutrition, Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University , Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.
Título:Synthesis of Stachyobifiose Using Bifidobacterial α-Galactosidase Purified from Recombinant Escherichia coli.
Fonte:J Agric Food Chem; 66(5):1184-1190, 2018 Feb 07.
ISSN:1520-5118
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The prebiotic effects of GOS (galactooligosaccharides) are known to depend on the glycosidic linkages, degree of polymerization (DP), and the monosaccharide composition. In this study, a novel form of α-GOS with a potentially improved prebiotic effect was synthesized using bifidobacterial α-galactosidase (α-Gal) purified from recombinant Escherichia coli. The carbohydrate produced was identified as α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-O-ß-d-fructofuranoside] and was termed stachyobifiose. Among 17 nonprobiotics, 16 nonprobiotics showed lower growth on stachyobifiose than ß-GOS. In contrast, among the 16 probiotics, 6 probiotics showed higher growth on stachyobifiose than ß-GOS. When compared with raffinose, stachyobifiose was used less by nonprobiotics than raffinose. Moreover, compared with stachyose, stachyobifiose was used less by Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and Clostridium butyricum. The average amounts of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced were in the order of stachyobifiose > stachyose > raffinose > ß-GOS. Taken together, stachyobifiose is expected to contribute to beneficial changes of gut microbiota.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Oligosaccharides); 0 (Prebiotics); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); 25VX64653N (stachyose); EC 3.2.1.22 (alpha-Galactosidase); N5O3QU595M (Raffinose); X2RN3Q8DNE (Galactose)


  2 / 4774 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29300153
Autor:Modesto M; Michelini S; Oki K; Biavati B; Watanabe K; Mattarelli P
Endereço:1​Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, Italy.
Título:Bifidobacterium catulorum sp. nov., a novel taxon from the faeces of the baby common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).
Fonte:Int J Syst Evol Microbiol; 68(2):575-581, 2018 Feb.
ISSN:1466-5034
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:In our previous study based on hsp60 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we stated that the bifidobacterial strains isolated from the individual faecal samples of five baby common marmosets constituted different phylogenetically isolated groups of the genus Bifidobacterium. In that study, we also proposed that these isolated groups potentially represented novel species of the genus Bifidobacterium. Out of them, Bifidobacterium aesculapii, Bifidobacterium myosotis, Bifidobacterium tissieri and Bifidobacterium hapali, have been described recently. Another strain, designated MRM 8.19 , has been classified as member of the genus Bifidobacterium on the basis of positive results for fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity and analysis of partial 16S rRNA, hsp60, clpC, dnaJ, dnaG and rpoB gene sequences. Analysis of 16S rRNA and hsp60 gene sequences revealed that strain MRM 8.19 was related to B. tissieri DSM 100201 (95.8 %) and to Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521 (93.7 %), respectively. The DNA G+C composition was 63.7 mol% and the peptidoglycan structure was l-Orn(Lys)-l-Ser. Based on the phylogenetic, genotypic and phenotypic data reported, strain MRM 8.19 represents a novel taxon within the genus Bifidobacterium for which the name Bifidobacterium catulorum sp. nov. (type strain MRM 8.19 =DSM 103154 =JCM 31794 ) is proposed.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Chaperonin 60); 0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Peptidoglycan); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); EC 4.1.2.- (Aldehyde-Lyases); EC 4.1.2.22 (fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase)


  3 / 4774 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28455617
Autor:Peng Y; Yu K; Mu C; Hang S; Che L; Zhu W
Endereço:Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Nutrition and Animal Health, Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, People's Republic of China.
Título:Progressive response of large intestinal bacterial community and fermentation to the stepwise decrease of dietary crude protein level in growing pigs.
Fonte:Appl Microbiol Biotechnol; 101(13):5415-5426, 2017 Jul.
ISSN:1432-0614
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The study aimed to determine the effects of reduction of dietary crude protein (CP) level with balanced essential amino acids (EAA) on intestinal bacteria and their metabolites of growing pigs. Forty pigs (initial BW 13.50 ± 0.50 kg, 45 ± 2 days of age) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments containing CP levels at 20.00% (normal crude protein, NP); 17.16% (medium crude protein, MP); 15.30% (low crude protein, LP); and 13.90% (extremely low crude protein, ELP), respectively. Crystalline AAs were added to meet the EAA requirement of pigs. After 4-week feeding, eight pigs per treatment (n = 8) were randomly selected and slaughtered for sampling of ileal, cecal, and colonic digesta and mucosa. Pigs with moderately reduced CP level had increased bacterial diversity, with the Shannon diversity indices for the colon digesta in the LP group and mucosa in the MP and LP groups significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in the NP and ELP groups. As the CP level reduces, the Bifidobacterium population were linearly decreased (P < 0.05) both in ileum, cecum, and colon, and the ELP group had the lowest Bifidobacterium population in the cecum and colon, with its value significantly lower than NP and MP groups (P < 0.05). However, the ELP group had the highest population of Escherichia coli in the colon, with its value significantly higher than the LP group (P < 0.05). For bacterial metabolites, as CP level decreased, total short-chain fatty acid (T-SCFA), acetate, and butyrate were linearly increased (linear, P < 0.05) in the ileum, while all SCFAs except formate in the cecum and T-SCFA and acetate in the colon, were linearly decreased (P < 0.05). Reducing CP level led to a linear decrease of microbial crude protein (MCP) in the ileum (P < 0.05) and ammonia in all intestine segments (P < 0.05). The spermidine in cecum and total amines, cadaverine, methylamine, and spermidine in colon were shown a quadratic change (P < 0.05) as dietary CP decreases, with the highest concentration in LP group. These findings suggest that moderate reduction of dietary CP level may benefit large intestinal bacterial community and its fermentation, which was negatively affected by extremely low CP diet.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Amines); 0 (Amino Acids, Essential); 0 (Dietary Proteins); 0 (Fatty Acids, Volatile); U87FK77H25 (Spermidine)


  4 / 4774 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29212851
Autor:Bottacini F; van Sinderen D; Ventura M
Endereço:APC Microbiome Institute, Department of Microbiology, National University of Ireland, Western Road, Cork, Ireland.
Título:Omics of bifidobacteria: research and insights into their health-promoting activities.
Fonte:Biochem J; 474(24):4137-4152, 2017 12 06.
ISSN:1470-8728
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Members of the genus include gut commensals that are particularly abundant among the microbial communities residing in the gut of healthy breast-fed infants, where their presence has been linked to many beneficial host effects. Next-generation DNA sequencing and comparative and functional genome methodologies have been shown to be particularly useful in exploring the diversity of this genus. These combined approaches have allowed the identification of genetic features related to bifidobacterial establishment in the gut, involving host-microbe as well as microbe-microbe interactions. Among these, proteinaceous structures, which protrude from the bacterial surface, i.e. pili or fimbriae, and exopolysaccharidic cell surface layers or capsules represent crucial features that assist in their colonization and persistence in the gut. As bifidobacteria are colonizers of the large intestine, they have to be able to cope with various sources of osmotic, oxidative, bile and acid stress during their transit across the gastric barrier and the small intestine. Bifidobacterial genomes thus encode various survival mechanisms, such as molecular chaperones and efflux pumps, to overcome such challenges. Bifidobacteria represent part of an anaerobic gut community, and feed on nondigestible carbohydrates through a specialized fermentative metabolic pathway, which in turn produces growth substrates for other members of the gut community. Conversely, bifidobacteria may also be dependent on other (bifido)bacteria to access host- and diet-derived glycans, and these complex co-operative interactions, based on resource sharing and cross-feeding strategies, represent powerful driving forces that shape gut microbiota composition.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  5 / 4774 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28954640
Autor:Clarke ST; Brooks SPJ; Inglis GD; Yanke LJ; Green J; Petronella N; Ramdath DD; Bercik P; Green-Johnson JM; Kalmokoff M
Endereço:1Applied Bioscience Graduate Program, Faculty of Science,University of Ontario Institute of Technology,Oshawa,ON,Canada,L1H 7K4.
Título:Impact of ß2-1 fructan on faecal community change: results from a placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blinded, cross-over study in healthy adults.
Fonte:Br J Nutr; 118(6):441-453, 2017 Sep.
ISSN:1475-2662
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Healthy adults (n 30) participated in a placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of two 28 d treatments (ß2-1 fructan or maltodextrin; 3×5 g/d) separated by a 14-d washout. Subjects provided 1 d faecal collections at days 0 and 28 of each treatment. The ability of faecal bacteria to metabolise ß2-1 fructan was common; eighty-seven species (thirty genera, and four phyla) were isolated using anaerobic medium containing ß2-1 fructan as the sole carbohydrate source. ß2-1 fructan altered the faecal community as determined through analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms and 16S rRNA genes. Supplementation with ß2-1 fructan reduced faecal community richness, and two patterns of community change were observed. In most subjects, ß2-1 fructan reduced the content of phylotypes aligning within the Bacteroides, whereas increasing those aligning within bifidobacteria, Faecalibacterium and the family Lachnospiraceae. In the remaining subjects, supplementation increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes and to a lesser extent bifidobacteria, accompanied by decreases within the Faecalibacterium and family Lachnospiraceae. ß2-1 Fructan had no impact on the metagenome or glycoside hydrolase profiles in faeces from four subjects. Few relationships were found between the faecal bacterial community and various host parameters; Bacteroidetes content correlated with faecal propionate, subjects whose faecal community contained higher Bacteroidetes produced more caproic acid independent of treatment, and subjects having lower faecal Bacteroidetes exhibited increased concentrations of serum lipopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide binding protein independent of treatment. We found no evidence to support a defined health benefit for the use of ß2-1 fructans in healthy subjects.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Nome de substância:0 (Fructans); 0 (Polysaccharides); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); 7CVR7L4A2D (maltodextrin)


  6 / 4774 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28945752
Autor:Yang CA; Liang C; Lin CL; Hsiao CT; Peng CT; Lin HC; Chang JG
Endereço:Department of Laboratory Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
Título:Impact of Enterobius vermicularis infection and mebendazole treatment on intestinal microbiota and host immune response.
Fonte:PLoS Negl Trop Dis; 11(9):e0005963, 2017 Sep.
ISSN:1935-2735
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the association of enterobiasis and chronic inflammatory diseases have revealed contradictory results. The interaction of Enterobius vermicularis infection in particular with gut microbiota and induced immune responses has never been thoroughly examined. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: In order to answer the question of whether exposure to pinworm and mebendazole can shift the intestinal microbial composition and immune responses, we recruited 109 (30 pinworm-negative, 79 pinworm-infected) first and fourth grade primary school children in Taichung, Taiwan, for a gut microbiome study and an intestinal cytokine and SIgA analysis. In the pinworm-infected individuals, fecal samples were collected again at 2 weeks after administration of 100 mg mebendazole. Gut microbiota diversity increased after Enterobius infection, and it peaked after administration of mebendazole. At the phylum level, pinworm infection and mebendazole deworming were associated with a decreased relative abundance of Fusobacteria and an increased proportion of Actinobacteria. At the genus level, the relative abundance of the probiotic Bifidobacterium increased after enterobiasis and mebendazole treatment. The intestinal SIgA level was found to be lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was elevated in half of the mebendazole-treated group. A higher proportion of pre-treatment Salmonella spp. was associated with a non-increase in SIgA after mebendazole deworming treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Childhood exposure to pinworm plus mebendazole is associated with increased bacterial diversity, an increased abundance of Actinobacteria including the probiotic Bifidobacterium, and a decreased proportion of Fusobacteria. The gut SIgA level was lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was increased in half of the individuals after mebendazole deworming treatment.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Cytokines); 0 (Immunoglobulin A, Secretory); 81G6I5V05I (Mebendazole)


  7 / 4774 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28937980
Autor:Seo M; Heo J; Yoon J; Kim SY; Kang YM; Yu J; Cho S; Kim H
Endereço:C&K Genomics, Seoul National University Research Park, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Título:Methanobrevibacter attenuation via probiotic intervention reduces flatulence in adult human: A non-randomised paired-design clinical trial of efficacy.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(9):e0184547, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:TRIAL DESIGN: The aim of this study was to investigate which of the gut microbes respond to probiotic intervention, as well as study whether they are associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in a healthy adult human. For the experimental purpose, twenty-one healthy adults were recruited and received probiotic mixture, which is composed of five Lactobacilli strains and two Bifidobacteria strains, once a day for 60 days. Defecation survey and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis were conducted pre- and post-administration to measure phenotypic differences. Stool samples of the subjects were collected twice. METHODS: The statistical analysis was performed for pair designed metagenome data with 11 phenotypic records of the bioelectrical impedance body composition analyzer and 6 responses of the questionnaires about gastrointestinal symptom. Furthemore, correlation-based network analysis was conducted for exploring complex relationships among microbiome communities. RESULTS: The abundances of Citrobacter, Klebsiella, and Methanobrevibacter were significantly reduced, which are strong candidates to be highly affected by the probiotic administration. In addition, interaction effects were observed between flatulence symptom attenuation and decreasing patterns of the Methanobrevibacter abundance. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal that probiotic intervention modulated the composition of gut microbiota and reduced the abundance of potential pathogens (i.e. Citrobacter and Klebsiella). In addition, methanogens (i.e. Methanobrevibacter) associated with the gastrointestinal symptom in an adult human.
Tipo de publicação: CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 4774 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28893355
Autor:Duranti S; Mangifesta M; Lugli GA; Turroni F; Anzalone R; Milani C; Mancabelli L; Ossiprandi MC; Ventura M
Endereço:1​Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Probiogenomics, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
Título:Bifidobacterium vansinderenii sp. nov., isolated from faeces of emperor tamarin (Saguinus imperator).
Fonte:Int J Syst Evol Microbiol; 67(10):3987-3995, 2017 Oct.
ISSN:1466-5034
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:A novel Bifidobacterium strain, Tam10B , i.e. LMG 30126 , was isolated from emperor tamarin (Saguinus imperator). Cells were Gram-positive, non-motile, non-sporulating, non-haemolytic, facultative anaerobic and fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA genes as well as multilocus sequences (representing hsp60, rpoB, dnaJ, dnaG and clpC genes) and the core genome revealed that Bifidobacterium Tam10B exhibited close phylogenetic relatedness to Bifidobacterium tissieri DSM 100201 . Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the phylogenetic results showing the highest gene sequence identity with strain B. tissieri DSM 100201 (96.5 %). Furthermore, genotyping based on the genome sequence of Tam 10B, in combination with phenotypic analyses, clearly showed that strain Tam10B is distinct from each of the type strains of the so far recognized Bifidobacterium species. The type strain Tam10B (=LMG 30126 =CCUG 70655 ) represents a novel species, for which the name Bifidobacteriumvansinderenii sp. nov is proposed.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); EC 4.1.2.- (Aldehyde-Lyases); EC 4.1.2.22 (fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase)


  9 / 4774 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28890351
Autor:Kikuchi T; Shimizu H; Akiyama Y; Taniguchi S
Endereço:Dept. of Molecular Oncology, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.
Título:In situ delivery and production system of trastuzumab scFv with Bifidobacterium.
Fonte:Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 493(1):306-312, 2017 Nov 04.
ISSN:1090-2104
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:A monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), trastuzumab has become a standard treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer. Recent advancements in antibody engineering have enabled the efficient generation of the trastuzumab single-chain variable fragment (scFv). In this study, we genetically engineered Bifidobacterium, a bacterial strain shown to accumulate safely and selectively in hypoxic tumor sites by intravenous (iv) injection, to express and secrete the trastuzumab scFv. The recombinant scFv bound to cell surface HER2 and inhibited in vitro growth of HER2-positive human cancer cells. Moreover, iv-injected recombinant bacteria specifically localized and secreted trastuzumab scFv in xenografted human HER2-positive tumors and consequently inhibited tumor growth. The development and results of this novel in situ delivery and production system for trastuzumab scFv with Bifidobacterium represents a promising avenue for future application in cancer treatment.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Immunoglobulin Variable Region); 0 (Single-Chain Antibodies); EC 2.7.10.1 (ERBB2 protein, human); EC 2.7.10.1 (Receptor, ErbB-2); P188ANX8CK (Trastuzumab)


  10 / 4774 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28863139
Autor:Aarts E; Ederveen THA; Naaijen J; Zwiers MP; Boekhorst J; Timmerman HM; Smeekens SP; Netea MG; Buitelaar JK; Franke B; van Hijum SAFT; Arias Vasquez A
Endereço:Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Título:Gut microbiome in ADHD and its relation to neural reward anticipation.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(9):e0183509, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Microorganisms in the human intestine (i.e. the gut microbiome) have an increasingly recognized impact on human health, including brain functioning. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission and deficits in reward processing and its underlying neuro-circuitry including the ventral striatum. The microbiome might contribute to ADHD etiology via the gut-brain axis. In this pilot study, we investigated potential differences in the microbiome between ADHD cases and undiagnosed controls, as well as its relation to neural reward processing. METHODS: We used 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing (16S) to identify bacterial taxa and their predicted gene functions in 19 ADHD and 77 control participants. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we interrogated the effect of observed microbiome differences in neural reward responses in a subset of 28 participants, independent of diagnosis. RESULTS: For the first time, we describe gut microbial makeup of adolescents and adults diagnosed with ADHD. We found that the relative abundance of several bacterial taxa differed between cases and controls, albeit marginally significant. A nominal increase in the Bifidobacterium genus was observed in ADHD cases. In a hypothesis-driven approach, we found that the observed increase was linked to significantly enhanced 16S-based predicted bacterial gene functionality encoding cyclohexadienyl dehydratase in cases relative to controls. This enzyme is involved in the synthesis of phenylalanine, a precursor of dopamine. Increased relative abundance of this functionality was significantly associated with decreased ventral striatal fMRI responses during reward anticipation, independent of ADHD diagnosis and age. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show increases in gut microbiome predicted function of dopamine precursor synthesis between ADHD cases and controls. This increase in microbiome function relates to decreased neural responses to reward anticipation. Decreased neural reward anticipation constitutes one of the hallmarks of ADHD.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); EC 4.2.1.- (cyclohexadienyl dehydratase); EC 4.2.1.51 (Prephenate Dehydratase)



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