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  1 / 896 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28624168
Autor:Shekhawat NS; Shtein RM; Blachley TS; Stein JD
Endereço:W. K. Kellogg Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Center for Eye Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Título:Antibiotic Prescription Fills for Acute Conjunctivitis among Enrollees in a Large United States Managed Care Network.
Fonte:Ophthalmology; 124(8):1099-1107, 2017 Aug.
ISSN:1549-4713
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:PURPOSE: Antibiotics are seldom necessary to treat acute conjunctivitis. We assessed how frequently patients with newly diagnosed acute conjunctivitis fill prescriptions for topical antibiotics and factors associated with antibiotic prescription fills. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 340 372 enrollees in a large nationwide United States managed care network with newly diagnosed acute conjunctivitis, from 2001 through 2014. METHODS: We identified all enrollees newly diagnosed with acute conjunctivitis, calculating the proportion filling 1 or more topical antibiotic prescription within 14 days of initial diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression assessed sociodemographic, medical, and other factors associated with antibiotic prescription fills for acute conjunctivitis. Geographic variation in prescription fills also was studied. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for filling an antibiotic prescription for acute conjunctivitis. RESULTS: Among 340 372 enrollees with acute conjunctivitis, 198 462 (58%) filled ≥1 topical antibiotic prescriptions; 38 774 filled prescriptions for antibiotic-corticosteroid combination products. Compared with whites, blacks (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.92) and Latinos (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.81-0.86) had lower odds of filling antibiotic prescriptions. More affluent and educated enrollees had higher odds of filling antibiotic prescriptions compared with those with lesser affluence and education (P < 0.01 for all). Compared with persons initially diagnosed with acute conjunctivitis by ophthalmologists, enrollees had considerably higher odds of antibiotic prescription fills if first diagnosed by an optometrist (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.21-1.31), urgent care physician (OR, 3.29; 95% CI, 3.17-3.41), internist (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.69-2.90), pediatrician (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 2.13-2.43), or family practitioner (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 2.37-2.55). Antibiotic prescription fills did not differ for persons with versus without risk factors for development of serious infections, such as contact lens wearers (P = 0.21) or patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection or AIDS (P = 0.60). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 60% of enrollees in this managed care network filled antibiotic prescriptions for acute conjunctivitis, and 1 of every 5 antibiotic users filled prescriptions for antibiotic-corticosteroids, which are contraindicated for acute conjunctivitis. These potentially harmful practices may prolong infection duration, may promote antibiotic resistance, and increase costs. Filling antibiotic prescriptions seems to be driven more by sociodemographic factors and type of provider diagnosing the enrollee than by medical indication.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Ophthalmic Solutions)


  2 / 896 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28276116
Autor:Ozawa S; Mans C; Szabo Z; Di Girolamo N
Endereço:Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.
Título:Epidemiology of bacterial conjunctivitis in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera): 49 cases (2005 to 2015).
Fonte:J Small Anim Pract; 58(4):238-245, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1748-5827
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the anamnesis, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, treatment and outcome of chinchillas diagnosed with bacterial conjunctivitis. METHODS: Medical records of 49 chinchillas diagnosed with bacterial conjunctivitis were retrospectively reviewed. Association between clinical signs and type of bacteria involved was determined by means of univariate logistic regression. RESULTS: 61·5% of the isolated bacteria were Gram-negative, and the most common bacterial species was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (50%), followed by Staphylococcus species (26·9%). Chinchillas with acute conjunctivitis (1 to 3 days) were much more commonly affected by Gram-negative organisms. The majority of chinchillas that presented with concurrent respiratory signs were diagnosed with P. aeruginosa. Clinical resolution of conjunctivitis was reported in 87·8% chinchillas with a median time to clinical resolution of 17·5 days. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa isolates to potentiated sulphonamides, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin and polymyxin B was 8·3, 36, 62·5, 88·5, 100 and 100%, respectively. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: P. aeruginosa is the predominant bacterial species associated with bacterial conjunctivitis in chinchillas. With the exception of duration of clinical signs, information on the anamnesis or physical examination findings cannot aid in distinguishing conjunctivitis caused by P. aeruginosa or other Gram-negative bacteria from the ones caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Gentamicin- or polymyxin B-containing antibiotic formulations are recommended for empirical topical therapy.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  3 / 896 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28115508
Autor:Sullivan JP; Nair N; Potula HH; Gomes-Solecki M
Endereço:Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
Título:Eyedrop Inoculation Causes Sublethal Leptospirosis in Mice.
Fonte:Infect Immun; 85(4), 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1098-5522
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Leptospirosis is potentially a fatal zoonosis acquired by contact of skin and mucosal surfaces with soil and water contaminated with infected urine. We analyzed the outcome of infection of C3H/HeJ mice with serovar Copenhageni using an enzootic mode of transmission, the conjunctival route. Infection led to weight loss and dissemination from blood to urine, and spirochetes were detected in blood and urine simultaneously. The infectious dose that led to consistent dissemination to kidney after conjunctival infection was ∼10 leptospires. Interestingly, a lower number of spirochetes appeared to colonize the kidney, given that we quantified ∼10 and ∼10 leptospires per µl of urine and per µg of kidney, respectively. Leptospira-specific IgM and IgG were detected at 15 days postinfection, and isotyping of the Ig subclass showed that the total IgG response switched from an IgG1 response to an IgG3 response after infection with Histological periodic acid-Schiff D staining of infected kidney showed interstitial nephritis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, and reduced size of glomeruli. Quantification of proinflammatory immunomediators in kidney showed that keratinocyte-derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, RANTES, tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma interferon, and interleukin-10 were upregulated in infected mice. We show that the kinetics of disease progression after infection via the ocular conjunctiva is delayed compared with infection via the standard intraperitoneal route. Differences may be related to the number of spirochetes that succeed in overcoming the natural defenses of the ocular conjunctiva and transit through tissue.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Cytokines); 0 (Immunoglobulin G); 0 (Immunoglobulin M); 0 (Inflammation Mediators); 0 (Ophthalmic Solutions)


  4 / 896 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28078599
Autor:Sanfilippo CM; Allaire CM; DeCory HH
Endereço:Bausch & Lomb, 1400 North Goodman Street, Rochester, NY, 14609, USA. Christine.sanfilippo@bausch.com.
Título:Besifloxacin Ophthalmic Suspension 0.6% Compared with Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Solution 0.3% for the Treatment of Bacterial Conjunctivitis in Neonates.
Fonte:Drugs R D; 17(1):167-175, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1179-6901
País de publicação:New Zealand
Idioma:eng
Resumo:PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% compared with gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.3% in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis in neonates. METHODS: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel group study. Subjects ≤31 days of age with severity grade ≥1 (scale 0-3) for both conjunctival discharge and conjunctival hyperemia were randomized to besifloxacin or gatifloxacin instilled three times daily for 7 days, and completed five study visits (three clinic visits and two phone calls). Primary endpoints included clinical resolution (absence of both conjunctival discharge and conjunctival hyperemia) at visit 5 (day 8 or 9) and ocular and non-ocular treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). Bacterial eradication was a secondary endpoint. RESULTS: Thirty-three subjects were included in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. All were aged <28 days, with a mean (standard deviation) age of 15.5 days (6.0), and 57.6% were female. Twenty-two subjects had culture-confirmed conjunctivitis in at least one eye (modified ITT [mITT] population), most often with Gram-positive bacteria. Visit 5 clinical resolution and bacterial eradication rates were comparable among besifloxacin- and gatifloxacin-treated study eyes (clinical resolution: 12/16 [75.0%] vs. 12/17 [70.6%] for the ITT population, and 11/13 [84.6%] vs. 7/9 [77.8%] for the mITT population; bacterial eradication: 12/13 [92.3%] vs. 8/9 [88.9%] for the mITT population, respectively). No AEs were reported in the besifloxacin treatment group, and AEs reported in the gatifloxacin group were considered not treatment-related. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study in neonates, both besifloxacin and gatifloxacin appeared effective and safe in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. Larger studies are warranted.
Tipo de publicação: COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Azepines); 0 (Fluoroquinolones); 0 (Ophthalmic Solutions); BFE2NBZ7NX (7-(3-aminohexahydro-1H-azepin-1-yl)-8-chloro-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid); L4618BD7KJ (gatifloxacin)


  5 / 896 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28002109
Autor:Pak KY; Kim SI; Lee JS
Endereço:*Department of Ophthalmology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan, Korea; †Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea; and ‡Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Korea.
Título:Neonatal Bacterial Conjunctivitis in Korea in the 21st Century.
Fonte:Cornea; 36(4):415-418, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1536-4798
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:PURPOSE: To investigate the microbial cause and antibiotic susceptibility of neonatal bacterial conjunctivitis in Korean patients in the 21st century. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with neonatal bacterial conjunctivitis between January 2000 and December 2015. We recorded the organism, antibiotic susceptibility, and antibiotics used. RESULTS: A total of 82 neonates were included in the study (53 males and 29 females), with a mean age of 17.5 ± 7.1 days. The most commonly isolated organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (43 cases, 52.4%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (11 cases, 13.4%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (11 cases, 13.4%), Serratia marcescens (4 cases, 4.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 cases, 4.9%), and Enterobacter cloacae (3 cases, 3.7%). We found no cases of Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Resistance to methicillin (83.7%), macrolide (81.4%), and aminoglycoside (23.3%) was observed in patients with S. aureus infection. Conjunctivitis that did not improve with erythromycin or tobramycin generally improved with the additional use of tosufloxacin. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of neonatal gonococcal or chlamydial conjunctivitis has decreased in the 21st century. However, methicillin-resistant S. aureus has been increasing, but these cases are responsive to tosufloxacin.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)


  6 / 896 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27871917
Autor:Bodurtha Smith AJ; Holzman SB; Manesh RS; Perl TM
Endereço:Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address: asmit230@jhmi.edu.
Título:Gonococcal Conjunctivitis: A Case Report of an Unusual Mode of Transmission.
Fonte:J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 30(4):501-502, 2017 Aug.
ISSN:1873-4332
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Outside of the newborn period, development of gonococcal conjunctivitis is rare and predominantly occurs through autoinoculation. We report an unusual case of gonococcal conjunctivitis in a young woman exposed through direct inoculation. CASE: A 19-year-old woman presented with purulent ocular discharge, severe pain, and decreased vision unresponsive to topical antibiotics or ganciclovir approximately 3 weeks after accidental ocular exposure to seminal fluid during unprotected oral sex. Cultured ocular drainage grew Neisseria gonorrhea; vaginal and throat cultures were negative. She was successfully treated with ceftriaxone and doxycycline for 10 days. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware of the potential for vision-threatening gonococcal conjunctivitis from exposure during sexual contact.
Tipo de publicação: CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)


  7 / 896 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27871125
Autor:Thomason CA; Leon A; Kirkpatrick LT; Belden LK; Hawley DM
Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
Título:Eye of the Finch: characterization of the ocular microbiome of house finches in relation to mycoplasmal conjunctivitis.
Fonte:Environ Microbiol; 19(4):1439-1449, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1462-2920
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Vertebrate ocular microbiomes are poorly characterized and virtually unexplored in wildlife species. Pathogen defense is considered a key function of microbiomes, but determining microbiome stability during disease is critical for understanding the role of resident microbial communities in infectious disease dynamics. Here, we characterize the ocular bacterial microbiome of house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus), prior to and during experimental infection with an inflammatory ocular disease, Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis, caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum. In ocular tissues of healthy house finches, we identified 526 total bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% similarity), primarily from Firmicutes (92.6%) and Proteobacteria (6.9%), via 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Resident ocular communities of healthy female finches were characterized by greater evenness and phylogenetic diversity compared to healthy male finches. Regardless of sex, ocular microbiome community structure significantly shifted 11 days after experimental inoculation with M. gallisepticum. A suite of OTUs, including taxa from the genera Methylobacterium, Acinetobacter and Mycoplasma, appear to drive these changes, indicating that the whole finch ocular microbiome responds to infection. Further study is needed to quantify changes in absolute abundance of resident taxa and to elucidate potential functional roles of the resident ocular microbiome in mediating individual responses to this common songbird bacterial pathogen.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S)


  8 / 896 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27729762
Autor:Lee KW; Jung JW
Endereço:Department of Ophthalmology and Inha Vision Science Laboratory, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.
Título:Systemic Minocycline Treatment of Methicillin-resistant in Giant Fornix Syndrome.
Fonte:Korean J Ophthalmol; 30(5):394-395, 2016 Oct.
ISSN:2092-9382
País de publicação:Korea (South)
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: CASE REPORTS; LETTER
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); FYY3R43WGO (Minocycline)


  9 / 896 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27642383
Autor:Kokou V; Nidain M; Kassoula NB; Kwassi FA; Meba B; Patrice BK
Endereço:Service d'Ophtalmologie du CHR Tsévié, Lomé, Togo.
Título:[Neonatal conjunctivitis in the district of Glidji in Southern Togo: a cross sectional study about 159 new-borns].
Título:Les conjonctivites néonatales dans le canton de Glidji au Sud du Togo: une étude transversale à propos de 159 nouveau-nés..
Fonte:Pan Afr Med J; 24:42, 2016.
ISSN:1937-8688
País de publicação:Uganda
Idioma:fre
Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Describe the epidemiology of neonatal conjunctivitis in the Canton of Glidji in southern Togo. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 4 Satellite Health Care Units in the Canton of Glidji from 19 March to 13 May 2009 (8 weeks). All newborns were included in the study and neonatal conjunctivitis was defined by the presence in a newborn of at least two of the following signs: conjunctival hyperemia, eyelid swelling, chemosis, purulent discharges, lacrimation. The parameters studied were: age, sex, risk factors, medical history, presence or absence of conjunctivitis, germs responsible for conjunctivitis and evolution under treatment. RESULTS: During the inclusion period, 159 newborns were examined. The average age was 10.9 days with 0-28 day interval. The study involved 80 boys and 79 girls (sex ratio 1.01). Of the 159 infants, 7 cases of conjunctivitis were diagnosed, representing an overall prevalence of 4.4%. Identified risk factors were: vaginal delivery and the presence of STI during pregnancy. Of the 7 cases of conjunctivitis, cytobacteriological examination allowed the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in 2 cases. The evolution of the cases of conjunctivitis under treatment was favorable with regression of the signs since the 3rd day. CONCLUSION: Neonatal conjunctivitis had a prevalence of 4.4% in the Canton of Glidji in southern Togo and Staphylococcus aureus was the causative germ. Their prevention requires good follow-up prenatal visit and the administration of antibiotic eye drops at birth.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)


  10 / 896 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27640958
Autor:Beuste T; Abadie C; Mouriaux F; de La Blanchardière A
Endereço:Service d'ophtalmologie, CHU Côte de Nacre, avenue Côte de Nacre, 14033 Caen cedex 9, France. Electronic address: thomas.beuste@hotmail.fr.
Título:Giant fornix syndrome: Case report and literature review.
Fonte:J Fr Ophtalmol; 39(9):e235-e237, 2016 Nov.
ISSN:1773-0597
País de publicação:France
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: CASE REPORTS; LETTER; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)



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