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Pesquisa : D01.268 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 1525 [refinar]
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  1 / 1525 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29318305
Autor:Opatic AM; Necemer M; Kocman D; Lojen S
Título:Geographical Origin Characterization of Slovenian Organic Garlic Using Stable Isotope and Elemental Composition Analyses.
Fonte:Acta Chim Slov; 64(4):1048-1055, 2017 Dec.
ISSN:1318-0207
País de publicação:Slovenia
Idioma:eng
Resumo:In the present research, the applicability of stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S, δ18O) and multi-element (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr) data for determining the geographical origin of garlic (Allium sativum L.) at the scale of Slovenia was examined. Slovenia is a rather small country (20273 km2) with significant geological and biological diversity. Garlic, valued for its medicinal properties, was collected from Slovenian farms with certified organic production and analyzed by elemental analyzer isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with energy dispersive X- ray fluorescence spectrometry. Multivariate discriminant analysis (DA) revealed a distinction between four Slovenian macro-regions: the Alpine, Dinaric, Mediterranean and Pannonian. The model was validated through a leave-10%, 20% and 25% out cross validation. The overall success rate of correctly reclassified samples was 77% (on average), indicating that the model and the proposed methodology could be a promising tool for rapid, inexpensive and robust screening to control the provenance of garlic samples.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Elements); 0 (Isotopes)


  2 / 1525 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29024882
Autor:Ko JA; Furuta N; Lim HB
Endereço:Department of Chemistry, Dankook University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701, South Korea; Future Environmental Research Center, Korea Institute of Toxicology, Jinju 660-844, South Korea.
Título:Quantitative mapping of elements in basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) based on cesium concentration and growth period using laser ablation ICP-MS.
Fonte:Chemosphere; 190:368-374, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1879-1298
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Quantitative elemental mapping of metallic pollutants in sweet basil was studied by laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS. For this, the sweet basil was cultivated in Hoagland nutrient solution spiked with 100 and 1000 ng mL of Cs for 10-60 days. Then, the Cs distribution in collected leaves was determined by LA-ICP-MS using lab-synthesized standard pellets based on NIST 1573a tomato leaves. For comparison, S, Ca, and K were also simultaneously determined in this measurement with a C signal from the leaves as an internal standard. The obtained calibration curves showed linear coefficient of determination (R ) of 0.991 for K and 0.999 for Cs. The concentration of Cs measured in the basil leaves increased with growth period and pollutant concentration, and accumulation followed the order of leaf margin, petiole, midrib, and veins. Although no visible symptom was detected, significant suppression of the growth rate was observed due to the presence of high-concentration Cs. The experimental model demonstrated herein showed potential for studying the influence of radioactive pollutants on plants and other organisms in the food chain.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Cesium Radioisotopes); 0 (Elements); 1KSV9V4Y4I (Cesium)


  3 / 1525 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28449666
Autor:Lee MS; LeBouf RF; Son YS; Koutrakis P; Christiani DC
Endereço:Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Building I Room 1401, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Título:Nicotine, aerosol particles, carbonyls and volatile organic compounds in tobacco- and menthol-flavored e-cigarettes.
Fonte:Environ Health; 16(1):42, 2017 04 27.
ISSN:1476-069X
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the content of electronic cigarette (EC) emissions for five groups of potentially toxic compounds that are known to be present in tobacco smoke: nicotine, particles, carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and trace elements by flavor and puffing time. METHODS: We used ECs containing a common nicotine strength (1.8%) and the most popular flavors, tobacco and menthol. An automatic multiple smoking machine was used to generate EC aerosols under controlled conditions. Using a dilution chamber, we targeted nicotine concentrations similar to that of exposure in a general indoor environment. The selected toxic compounds were extracted from EC aerosols into a solid or liquid phase and analyzed with chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. RESULTS: We found that EC aerosols contained toxic compounds including nicotine, fine and nanoparticles, carbonyls, and some toxic VOCs such as benzene and toluene. Higher mass and number concentrations of aerosol particles were generated from tobacco-flavored ECs than from menthol-flavored ECs. CONCLUSION: We found that diluted machine-generated EC aerosols contain some pollutants. These findings are limited by the small number of ECs tested and the conditions of testing. More comprehensive research on EC exposure extending to more brands and flavor compounds is warranted.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
Nome de substância:0 (Aerosols); 0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Elements); 0 (Particulate Matter); 0 (Volatile Organic Compounds); 1490-04-6 (Menthol); 6M3C89ZY6R (Nicotine)


  4 / 1525 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28705262
Autor:Li YJ; Li M; Liu XB; Ren TX; Li WD; Yang C; Wu M; Yang LL; Ma YX; Wang J; Piao JH; Yang LC; Yang XG
Endereço:Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition, National Health and Family Planning Commission of China, Department of Trace Element Nutrition, National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.
Título:Zinc Absorption from Representative Diet in a Chinese Elderly Population Using Stable Isotope Technique.
Fonte:Biomed Environ Sci; 30(6):391-397, 2017 Jun.
ISSN:0895-3988
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To determine the dietary zinc absorption in a Chinese elderly population and provide the basic data for the setting of zinc (Zn) recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) for Chinese elderly people. METHODS: A total of 24 elderly people were recruited for this study and were administered oral doses of 3 mg 67Zn and 1.2 mg dysprosium on the fourth day. The primary macronutrients, energy, and phytic acid in the representative diet were examined based on the Chinese National Standard Methods. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for zinc content, 67Zn isotope ratio, and dysprosium content. RESULTS: The mean (± SD) zinc intake from the representative Chinese diet was 10.6 ± 1.5 mg/d. The phytic acid-to-zinc molar ratio in the diet was 6.4. The absorption rate of 67Zn was 27.9% ± 9.2%. The RNI of zinc, which were calculated by the absorption rate in elderly men and women, were 10.4 and 9.2 mg/d, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study got the dietary Zn absorption in a Chinese elderly population. We found that Zn absorption was higher in elderly men than in elderly women. The current RNI in elderly female is lower than our finding, which indicates that more attention is needed regarding elderly females' zinc status and health.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Elements); 0 (Zinc Isotopes); 1D4N45714Q (Dysprosium); J41CSQ7QDS (Zinc)


  5 / 1525 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28371135
Autor:Bui EN; Thornhill AH; González-Orozco CE; Knerr N; Miller JT
Endereço:CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
Título:Climate and geochemistry as drivers of eucalypt diversification in Australia.
Fonte:Geobiology; 15(3):427-440, 2017 May.
ISSN:1472-4669
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Eucalypts cover most of Australia. Here, we investigate the relative contribution of climate and geochemistry to the distribution and diversity of eucalypts. Using geostatistics, we estimate major element concentrations, pH, and electrical conductivity at sites where eucalypts have been recorded. We compare the median predicted geochemistry and reported substrate for individual species that appear associated with extreme conditions; this provides a partial evaluation of the predictions. We generate a site-by-species matrix by aggregating observations to the centroids of 100-km-wide grid cells, calculate diversity indices, and use numerical ecology methods (ordination, variation partitioning) to investigate the ecology of eucalypts and their response to climatic and geochemical gradients. We find that ß-diversity coincides with variations in climatic and geochemical patterns. Climate and geochemistry together account for less than half of the variation in eucalypt species assemblages across Australia but for greater than 80% in areas of high species richness. Climate is more important than geochemistry in explaining eucalypts species distribution and change in assemblages across Australia as a whole but there are correlations between the two sets of environmental variables. Many individual eucalypt species and entire taxonomic sections (Aromatica, Longistylus of subgenus Eucalyptus, Dumaria, and Liberivalvae of subgenus Symphyomyrtus) have distributions affected strongly by geochemistry. We conclude that eucalypt diversity is driven by steep geochemical gradients that have arisen as climate patterns have fluctuated over Australia over the Cenozoic, generally aridifying since the Miocene. The diversification of eucalypts across Australia is thus an excellent example of co-evolution of landscapes and biota in space and time and challenges accepted notions of macroecology.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Elements); 0 (Soil)


  6 / 1525 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28273516
Autor:Polinski E; Schueler O; Krause L; Wimmer MA; Hemmersbach R; Goldbach HE
Endereço:German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Division of Gravitational Biology, Linder Hoehe, 51147 Cologne, Germany; University of Bonn, Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation, Department of Plant Nutrition, Karlrobert-Kreiten-Str. 16, 53115 Bonn, Germany.
Título:2-D clinorotation alters the uptake of some nutrients in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Fonte:J Plant Physiol; 212:54-57, 2017 May.
ISSN:1618-1328
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Future long-term spaceflight missions rely on bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) in order to provide the required resources for crew survival. Higher plants provide an essential part since they supply food and oxygen and recycle carbon dioxide. There are indications that under space conditions plants might be inefficient regarding the uptake, transport and distribution of nutrients, which in turn affects growth and metabolism. Therefore, Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) seeds were germinated and grown for five days under fast clinorotation (2-D clinostat, 60rpm) in order to simulate microgravity. Concentrations of ten different nutrients (potassium, sulfur, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, and boron) in shoots of plants grown under reduced and normal (1g) gravity conditions were compared. A protocol was developed for the determination of different nutrients by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES), flame emission spectrometry and spectrophotometry. The concentrations of boron and sulfur were significantly decreased in clinorotated shoots, while the concentration of sodium was elevated, suggesting that altered gravity conditions differentially affected nutrient uptake. Possible mechanisms for such effects include reduced transpiration, altered expression of channels or transporters and direct effects on nutrient assimilation. The observed nutrient imbalances might have a negative impact on plant growth and nutritional quality during prolonged space missions.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Elements); 0 (Micronutrients); 27YLU75U4W (Phosphorus); 42Z2K6ZL8P (Manganese); 70FD1KFU70 (Sulfur); 9NEZ333N27 (Sodium); E1UOL152H7 (Iron); I38ZP9992A (Magnesium); J41CSQ7QDS (Zinc); N9E3X5056Q (Boron); RWP5GA015D (Potassium); SY7Q814VUP (Calcium)


  7 / 1525 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28245899
Autor:Houas I; Teyeb H; Rochina-Marco A; Douki W; Najjar MF; Gaha L; Cervera ML; DE LA Guardia M
Endereço:Research Laboratory 'Vulnerability to Psychotic Disorders LR 05 ES 10', Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Monastir, Monastir 5000, Tunisia; Biochemistry and Toxicology Laboratory, Monastir University Hospital, Monastir 5000, Tunisia.
Título:Comparison of Mineral Contents in Three Different Tobacco Formulations.
Fonte:Biomed Environ Sci; 30(1):52-58, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:0895-3988
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:We identified and quantified a variety of mineral elements in 18 tobacco samples purchased from a Tunisian market. In total, 25 mineral elements have been measured in cigarettes, water pipe tobacco, and smokeless tobacco using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy following microwave-assisted digestion. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSSTM, version 18.0. The lowest concentrations of all studied elements were observed in water pipe tobacco. Significantly higher concentrations of Al, Fe, Mg, Na, Ca, Cr, and Co were found in smokeless tobacco, while cigarettes brands contained the highest concentrations of K, Mn, Ni, Ba, and Sr. There was no significant difference between the mineral contents of local and foreign cigarettes and conventional and light cigarettes. Our findings demonstrated that local smokeless tobacco appears to be the most hazardous tobacco type. The concentration of minerals in light cigarettes was not significantly different from the concentration in conventional cigarettes.
Tipo de publicação: COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Elements)


  8 / 1525 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28237996
Autor:Bang J; Li L; Seong H; Kwon YW; Lee DY; Han NS
Endereço:Brain Korea 21 Center for Bio-Resource Development, Division of Animal, Horticultural and Food Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Republic of Korea.
Título:Macromolecular and Elemental Composition Analyses of ATCC 8293 Cultured in a Chemostat.
Fonte:J Microbiol Biotechnol; 27(5):939-942, 2017 May 28.
ISSN:1738-8872
País de publicação:Korea (South)
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The cellular composition and metabolic compounds of ATCC 8293 were analyzed after cultivation in an anaerobic chemostat. The macromolecular composition was 24.4% polysaccharide, 29.7% protein, 7.9% lipid, 2.9% DNA, and 7.4% RNA. Its amino acid composition included large amounts of lysine, glutamic acid, alanine, and leucine. Elements were in the order of C > O > N > H > S. The metabolites in chemostat culture were lactic acid (73.34 mM), acetic acid (7.69 mM), and mannitol (9.93 mM). These data provide a first view of the cellular composition of for use in metabolic flux analysis.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Amino Acids); 0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Elements); 0 (Lipids); 0 (Polysaccharides); 0 (Proteins); 0 (RNA, Bacterial); 30237-26-4 (Fructose); 33X04XA5AT (Lactic Acid); 3OWL53L36A (Mannitol); Q40Q9N063P (Acetic Acid)


  9 / 1525 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28168317
Autor:Shen H; Zhang X; Gong Z; Wang Y; Yu X; Yang X; Zhao ZK
Endereço:Division of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Rd., Dalian, 116023, People's Republic of China. hongweish@dicp.ac.cn.
Título:Compositional profiles of Rhodosporidium toruloides cells under nutrient limitation.
Fonte:Appl Microbiol Biotechnol; 101(9):3801-3809, 2017 May.
ISSN:1432-0614
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Lipid production by the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was explored under nutrient limitation. To determine the compositional profiles of R. toruloides cells, samples were prepared using a continuous cultivation process under nutrient limitation and analyzed via several methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Under nitrogen limitation, as the dilution rate increased, the cellular lipid content decreased but the carbohydrate and protein contents increased. Under carbon limitation, the cellular lipid, protein, and carbohydrate contents remained relatively constant at the different dilution rates. Moreover, the cellular elemental composition was essentially identical under nitrogen and carbon limitation at a high dilution rate of 0.20 h . We also analyzed the consumed carbon to nitrogen (C/N) under different nutrition conditions. The results indicated that the consumed C/N had a major influence on cell metabolism and product formation, which contributed to our understanding of the physiological characteristics of R. toruloides.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Carbohydrates); 0 (Culture Media); 0 (Elements); 0 (Lipids); 0 (Proteins); 7440-44-0 (Carbon); N762921K75 (Nitrogen)


  10 / 1525 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28128071
Autor:Gadd GM
Endereço:Geomicrobiology Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom and Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, People's Republic of China.
Título:The Geomycology of Elemental Cycling and Transformations in the Environment.
Fonte:Microbiol Spectr; 5(1), 2017 Jan.
ISSN:2165-0497
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Geomicrobiology addresses the roles of microorganisms in geological and geochemical processes, and geomycology is a part of this topic focusing on the fungi. Geoactive roles of fungi include organic and inorganic transformations important in nutrient and element cycling, rock and mineral bioweathering, mycogenic biomineral formation, and metal-fungal interactions. Lichens and mycorrhizas are significant geoactive agents. Organic matter decomposition is important for cycling of major biomass-associated elements, e.g., C, H, N, O, P, and S, as well as all other elements found in lower concentrations. Transformations of metals and minerals are central to geomicrobiology, and fungi affect changes in metal speciation, as well as mediate mineral formation or dissolution. Such mechanisms are components of biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks, and minerals, e.g., S, P, and metalloids. Fungi may have the greatest geochemical influence within the terrestrial environment. However, they are also important in the aquatic environment and are significant components of the deep subsurface, extreme environments, and habitats polluted by xenobiotics, metals, and radionuclides. Applications of geomycology include metal and radionuclide bioleaching, biorecovery, detoxification, bioremediation, and the production of biominerals or metal(loid) elements with catalytic or other properties. Adverse effects include biodeterioration of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g., concrete), cultural heritage, metals, alloys, and related substances and adverse effects on radionuclide mobility and containment. The ubiquity and importance of fungi in the biosphere underline the importance of geomycology as a conceptual framework encompassing the environmental activities of fungi.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Elements); 0 (Metals); 0 (Minerals)



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