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  1 / 8794 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29175400
Autor:Kaurin A; Cernilogar Z; Lestan D
Endereço:University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Agronomy Department, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Título:Revitalisation of metal-contaminated, EDTA-washed soil by addition of unpolluted soil, compost and biochar: Effects on soil enzyme activity, microbial community composition and abundance.
Fonte:Chemosphere; 193:726-736, 2018 Feb.
ISSN:1879-1298
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Soil remediation mitigates hazards from contaminants but could deprive soils of initial biota and enzymes. Historically contaminated acidic soil from Arnoldstein (Austria) and calcareous soil from Meza (Slovenia) were washed with 30 and 100 mmol kg ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) to remove 78 and 60% of Pb as a main pollutant. Remediation of the Arnoldstein soil decreased urease activity and increased ß-glucosidase activity, measured in a 15-week experiment. The dehydrogenase activity and microbial gene abundances were not significantly impeded compared to the original soil. Conversely, the use of a high dose of EDTA in the Meza soil, necessary for effective remediation of calcareous soils, resulted in pronouncedly decreased enzyme activities (3.2 times on average) and repressed fungal ITS and increased bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance. Remediation shifted the microbial community composition in both soils. For revitalisation, the remediated soils were amended with compost, inocula of un-contaminated soil and (Arnoldstein soil) biochar enriched with soil extract. Amendments inconsistently affected the Arnoldstein soil: compost increased the dehydrogenase activity and altered the microbial community composition, biochar enhanced the ß-glucosidase activity, and all amendments decreased the microbial abundance (1.6 times on average). In contrast, amendments efficiently revitalised the remediated Meza soil; compost and soil inoculum returned the enzyme activities back to the baseline in the original soil, increased the fungal abundance above that in the original soil and restored the microbial community composition.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Metals); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 0 (biochar); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); 9G34HU7RV0 (Edetic Acid)


  2 / 8794 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28985541
Autor:Wang W
Endereço:College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023, China. Electronic address: wwqzs@126.com.
Título:Chromium (â…¥) removal from aqueous solutions through powdered activated carbon countercurrent two-stage adsorption.
Fonte:Chemosphere; 190:97-102, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1879-1298
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:To exploit the adsorption capacity of commercial powdered activated carbon (PAC) and to improve the efficiency of Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions, the adsorption of Cr(VI) by commercial PAC and the countercurrent two-stage adsorption (CTA) process was investigated. Different adsorption kinetics models and isotherms were compared, and the pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the experimental data well. The Cr(VI) removal efficiency was >80% and was improved by 37% through the CTA process compared with the conventional single-stage adsorption process when the initial Cr(VI) concentration was 50 mg/L with a PAC dose of 1.250 g/L and a pH of 3. A calculation method for calculating the effluent Cr(VI) concentration and the PAC dose was developed for the CTA process, and the validity of the method was confirmed by a deviation of <5%.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
Nome de substância:0 (Carcinogens, Environmental); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 0R0008Q3JB (Chromium); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); 18540-29-9 (chromium hexavalent ion)


  3 / 8794 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28837871
Autor:Beltrame KK; Cazetta AL; de Souza PSC; Spessato L; Silva TL; Almeida VC
Endereço:Laboratory of Environmental and Agrochemistry, Agrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, The State University of Maringá, 5790 Colombo Avenue, CEP 87020-900-Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.
Título:Adsorption of caffeine on mesoporous activated carbon fibers prepared from pineapple plant leaves.
Fonte:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf; 147:64-71, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1090-2414
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The present work reports the preparation of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) from pineapple plant leaves, and its application on caffeine (CFN) removal from aqueous solution. The preparation procedure was carried out using the H PO as activating agent and slow pyrolysis under N atmosphere. The characterization of materials was performed from the N adsorption and desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Boehm titration and pH method. ACFs showed high BET surface area value (S = 1031m g ), well-developed mesoporous structure (mesopore volume of 1.27cm³ g ) and pores with average diameter (D ) of 5.87nm. Additionally, ACFs showed features of fibrous material with predominance of acid groups on its surface. Adsorption studies indicated that the pseudo-second order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models were that best fitted to the experimental data. The monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 155.50mgg . thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption process is spontaneous, exothermic and occurs preferably via physisorption. The pineapple leaves are an efficient precursor for preparation of ACFs, which were successful applied as adsorbent material for removal of caffeine from the aqueous solutions.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 0 (carbon fiber); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); 3G6A5W338E (Caffeine); 7440-44-0 (Carbon)


  4 / 8794 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28278777
Autor:Lu YF; Ma LJ; Ma L; Shan B; Chang JJ
Endereço:a School of Ecology and Environmental Science, Yunnan University , Kunming , People's Republic of China.
Título:Improvement of start-up and nitrogen removal of the anammox process in reactors inoculated with conventional activated sludge using biofilm carrier materials.
Fonte:Environ Technol; 39(1):59-67, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:0959-3330
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The start-up of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in three up-flow column reactors seeded with common mixed activated sludge and added with three materials, sponge (R1), sponge + volcanic rock (R2) and sponge + charcoal (R3), as carriers for biofilm formation were comparatively investigated in this study. The supplement of volcanic rock and charcoal could significantly shorten the start-up time of the anammox process, which primarily occurred in the activity-enhanced phase, with ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies stabilized above 92.5% and 93.4% after an operation period of 145, 105 and 121 d for R1, R2 and R3, respectively. After the successful anammox start-up, R2 performed significantly better in TN removal (p < .05), achieving an average rate of 91.0% and 191.5 g N m d compared to R1 of 88.4% and 172.1 g N m d , and R3 of 89.9% and 180.1 g N m d in the steady running phase. The ratios of consumed [Formula: see text] and generated [Formula: see text]/consumed [Formula: see text] after anammox start-up were lower than the theoretical values, probably suggesting the simultaneous existences of anammox, denitrification as well as nitrification processes in the reactors. A reddish brown biofilm was wrapped on the carriers and morphological detection of biofilm displayed the presentations of thick and compact floc aggregates and some filamentous bacteria on the sponge, and spherical-, ovoid- and shortrod-shaped microorganisms on the volcanic rock and charcoal. Using porous material as carrier for biofilm development is an effective strategy for practical application of the anammox reactor.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Ammonium Compounds); 0 (Nitrites); 0 (Sewage); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); N762921K75 (Nitrogen)


  5 / 8794 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29478664
Autor:Xue R; Donovan A; Zhang H; Ma Y; Adams C; Yang J; Hua B; Inniss E; Eichholz T; Shi H
Endereço:Department of Chemistry and Environmental Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409, USA; Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell, and Single Molecule Monitoring (CS(3)M), Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409, USA. Electronic addres
Título:Simultaneous removal of ammonia and N-nitrosamine precursors from high ammonia water by zeolite and powdered activated carbon.
Fonte:J Environ Sci (China); 64:82-91, 2018 Feb.
ISSN:1001-0742
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:When adding sufficient chlorine to achieve breakpoint chlorination to source water containing high concentration of ammonia during drinking water treatment, high concentrations of disinfection by-products (DBPs) may form. If N-nitrosamine precursors are present, highly toxic N-nitrosamines, primarily N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), may also form. Removing their precursors before disinfection should be a more effective way to minimize these DBPs formation. In this study, zeolites and activated carbon were examined for ammonia and N-nitrosamine precursor removal when incorporated into drinking water treatment processes. The test results indicate that Mordenite zeolite can remove ammonia and five of seven N-nitrosamine precursors efficiently by single step adsorption test. The practical applicability was evaluated by simulation of typical drinking water treatment processes using six-gang stirring system. The Mordenite zeolite was applied at the steps of lime softening, alum coagulation, and alum coagulation with powdered activated carbon (PAC) sorption. While the lime softening process resulted in poor zeolite performance, alum coagulation did not impact ammonia and N-nitrosamine precursor removal. During alum coagulation, more than 67% ammonia and 70%-100% N-nitrosamine precursors were removed by Mordenite zeolite (except 3-(dimethylaminomethyl)indole (DMAI) and 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine (DMAP)). PAC effectively removed DMAI and DMAP when added during alum coagulation. A combination of the zeolite and PAC selected efficiently removed ammonia and all tested seven N-nitrosamine precursors (dimethylamine (DMA), ethylmethylamine (EMA), diethylamine (DEA), dipropylamine (DPA), trimethylamine (TMA), DMAP, and DMAI) during the alum coagulation process.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Alum Compounds); 0 (Drinking Water); 0 (Nitrosamines); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 1318-02-1 (Zeolites); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); 34S289N54E (aluminum sulfate); 7664-41-7 (Ammonia); M43H21IO8R (Dimethylnitrosamine)


  6 / 8794 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29478642
Autor:Ning P; Liu S; Wang C; Li K; Sun X; Tang L; Liu G
Endereço:Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China.
Título:Adsorption-oxidation of hydrogen sulfide on Fe/walnut-shell activated carbon surface modified by NH -plasma.
Fonte:J Environ Sci (China); 64:216-226, 2018 Feb.
ISSN:1001-0742
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Walnut-shell activated carbon (WSAC) supported ferric oxide was modified by non-thermal plasma (NTP), and the removal efficiency for hydrogen sulfide over Fe/WSAC modified by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was significantly promoted. The sample modified for 10min and 6.8kV output (30V input voltage) maintained 100% H S conversion over a long reaction time of 390min. The surface properties of adsorbents modified by NTP under different conditions were evaluated by the methods of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), to help understand the effect of the NTP treatment. NTP treatment enhanced the adsorption capacity of Fe/WSAC, which could due to the formation of micro-pores with sizes of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.75nm. XPS revealed that chemisorbed oxygen changed into lattice oxygen after NTP treatment, and lattice oxygen is beneficial for H S oxidation. From the in-situ FTIR result, transformation of the reaction path on Fe/WSAC was observed after NTP modification. The research results indicate that NTP is an effective method to improve the surface properties of the Fe/WSAC catalyst for H S adsorption-oxidation.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Plasma Gases); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); 7664-41-7 (Ammonia); E1UOL152H7 (Iron); YY9FVM7NSN (Hydrogen Sulfide)


  7 / 8794 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29245134
Autor:Sun D; Hale L; Kar G; Soolanayakanahally R; Adl S
Endereço:Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N5A8, Canada. Electronic address: daquansun1010@gmail.com.
Título:Phosphorus recovery and reuse by pyrolysis: Applications for agriculture and environment.
Fonte:Chemosphere; 194:682-691, 2018 Mar.
ISSN:1879-1298
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Phosphorus ore extraction for soil fertilization supports the demand of modern agriculture, but extractable resource limitations, due to scarcity, impose a P reuse and recycling research agenda. Here we propose to integrate biochar production (pyrogenic carbon) with municipal and agricultural waste management systems, to recover and reuse phosphorous that would otherwise be lost from the ecological food web. A meta-analysis and available data on total P in biochar indicated that P-enriched feedstocks include animal manure, human excreta, and plant-biomass collected from P-polluted sites. Phosphorus in biochar could participate in P equilibriums in soils and is expected to supply P. The release, sorption and desorption of P by biochar will codetermine the potential of P replenishment by biochar and P loss from biochar-amended soils. Abiotic and biotic factors are expected to affect sorption/desorption of P between biochar and soil aggregates, and P acquisition by plants. Chemical extraction, using acid or alkaline solutions, is considered as a means for P retrieval from high P biochar, especially for biochar with high heavy metal contents. To bridge the gap between academia and practice, this paper proposes future development for phosphorus acclamation by pyrolysis: 1) identification of high-P bio-waste for pyrolysis; 2) retrieval of P by using biochar as soil amendment or by chemical leaching; 3) biochar modification by inorganic nutrients, P solubilizing microorganisms and other organic matter; and 4) compatible pyrolysis equipment fit to the current waste management context, such as households, and waste water treatment plants.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Soil); 0 (biochar); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); 27YLU75U4W (Phosphorus)


  8 / 8794 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29373575
Autor:Waqas M; Shahzad R; Hamayun M; Asaf S; Khan AL; Kang SM; Yun S; Kim KM; Lee IJ
Endereço:School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
Título:Biochar amendment changes jasmonic acid levels in two rice varieties and alters their resistance to herbivory.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0191296, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Biochar addition to soil not only sequesters carbon for the long-term but enhances agricultural productivity. Several well-known benefits arise from biochar amendment, including constant provision of nutrients, increased soil moisture retention, decreased soil bulk density, and sometimes the induction of systemic resistance against foliar and soil borne plant pathogens. However, no research has investigated the potential of biochar to increase resistance against herbivory. The white-backed plant hopper (WBPH) (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) is a serious agricultural pest that targets rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple crop that feeds half of the world's human population. Therefore, we investigated the (1) optimization of biochar amendment levels for two rice varieties ('Cheongcheong' and 'Nagdong') and (2) subsequent effects of different biochar amendments on resistance and susceptibility of these two varieties to WBPH infestation. Initial screening results for the optimization level revealed that the application of biochar 10% (w/w) to the rooting media significantly improved plant physiological characteristics of both rice varieties. However, levels of biochar amendment, mainly 1, 2, 3, and 20%, resulted in negative effects on plant growth characteristics. Cheongcheong and Nagdong rice plants grown with the optimum biochar level showed contrasting reactions to WBPH infestation. Specifically, biochar application significantly increased plant growth characteristics of Nagdong when exposed to WBPH infestation and significantly decreased these characteristics in Cheongcheong. The amount of WBPH-induced damage to plants was significantly lower and higher in Nagdong and Cheongcheong, respectively, compared to that in the controls. Higher levels of jasmonic acid caused by the biochar priming effect could have accumulated in response to WBPH infestation, resulting in a maladaptive response to stress, negatively affecting growth and resistance to WBPH in Cheongcheong. This study highlights the importance of investigating the effects of biochar on different rice varieties before application on a commercial scale to avoid potential crop losses.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Cyclopentanes); 0 (Oxylipins); 0 (Soil); 0 (biochar); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); 6RI5N05OWW (jasmonic acid)


  9 / 8794 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29329343
Autor:Liu Z; Dugan B; Masiello CA; Wahab LM; Gonnermann HM; Nittrouer JA
Endereço:Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America.
Título:Effect of freeze-thaw cycling on grain size of biochar.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0191246, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Biochar may improve soil hydrology by altering soil porosity, density, hydraulic conductivity, and water-holding capacity. These properties are associated with the grain size distributions of both soil and biochar, and therefore may change as biochar weathers. Here we report how freeze-thaw (F-T) cycling impacts the grain size of pine, mesquite, miscanthus, and sewage waste biochars under two drainage conditions: undrained (all biochars) and a gravity-drained experiment (mesquite biochar only). In the undrained experiment plant biochars showed a decrease in median grain size and a change in grain-size distribution consistent with the flaking off of thin layers from the biochar surface. Biochar grain size distribution changed from unimodal to bimodal, with lower peaks and wider distributions. For plant biochars the median grain size decreased by up to 45.8% and the grain aspect ratio increased by up to 22.4% after 20 F-T cycles. F-T cycling did not change the grain size or aspect ratio of sewage waste biochar. We also observed changes in the skeletal density of biochars (maximum increase of 1.3%), envelope density (maximum decrease of 12.2%), and intraporosity (porosity inside particles, maximum increase of 3.2%). In the drained experiment, mesquite biochar exhibited a decrease of median grain size (up to 4.2%) and no change of aspect ratio after 10 F-T cycles. We also document a positive relationship between grain size decrease and initial water content, suggesting that, biochar properties that increase water content, like high intraporosity and pore connectivity large intrapores, and hydrophilicity, combined with undrained conditions and frequent F-T cycles may increase biochar breakdown. The observed changes in biochar particle size and shape can be expected to alter hydrologic properties, and thus may impact both plant growth and the hydrologic cycle.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Sewage); 0 (Soil); 0 (biochar); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal)


  10 / 8794 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29406113
Autor:Ni N; Shi R; Liu Z; Bian Y; Wang F; Song Y; Jiang X
Endereço:Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address: nni@issas.ac.cn.
Título:Effects of biochars on the bioaccessibility of phenanthrene/pyrene/zinc/lead and microbial community structure in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
Fonte:J Environ Sci (China); 63:296-306, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1001-0742
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The immobilization of co-contaminants of organic and inorganic pollutants by biochar is an efficient remediation strategy. However, the effect of biochar amendments on the bioaccessibility of the co-contaminants in dry versus flooded soils has rarely been compared. In batch experiments, bamboo-derived biochar (BB) had a higher sorption capacity for phenanthrene (Phe)/pyrene (Pyr)/zinc (Zn) than corn straw-derived biochar (CB), while CB had a higher sorption capacity for lead (Pb) than BB. After 150days of incubation, the amendments of 2% CB, 0.5% BB and 2% BB effectively suppressed the dissipation and reduced the bioaccessibility of Phe/Pyr by 15.65%/18.02%, 17.07%/18.31% and 25.43%/27.11%, respectively, in the aerobic soils. This effectiveness was more significant than that in the anaerobic soils. The accessible Zn/Pb concentrations were also significantly lower in the aerobic soils than in the anaerobic soils, regardless of treatments. The Gram-negative bacterial biomass and the Shannon-Weaver index in the aerobic soil amended with 2% CB were the highest. The soil microbial community structure was jointly affected by changes in the bioaccessibility of the co-contaminants and the soil physiochemical properties caused by biochar amendments under the two conditions. Therefore, dry land farming may be more reliable than paddy soil cultivation at reducing the bioaccessibility of Phe/Pyr/Zn/Pb and enhancing the soil microbial diversity in the short term.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Phenanthrenes); 0 (Pyrenes); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 0 (biochar); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); 2P299V784P (Lead); J41CSQ7QDS (Zinc)



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