Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : D01.625 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 1218 [refinar]
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  1 / 1218 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28774599
Autor:Kristiana I; Liew D; Henderson RK; Joll CA; Linge KL
Endereço:Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6102, Australia. Electronic address: I.Kristiana@curtin.edu.au.
Título:Formation and control of nitrogenous DBPs from Western Australian source waters: Investigating the impacts of high nitrogen and bromide concentrations.
Fonte:J Environ Sci (China); 58:102-115, 2017 Aug.
ISSN:1001-0742
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:We studied the formation of four nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs) classes (haloacetonitriles, halonitromethanes, haloacetamides, and N-nitrosamines), as well as trihalomethanes and total organic halogen (TOX), after chlorination or chloramination of source waters. We also evaluated the relative and additive toxicity of N-DBPs and water treatment options for minimisation of N-DBPs. The formation of halonitromethanes, haloacetamides, and N-nitrosamines was higher after chloramination and positively correlated with dissolved organic nitrogen or total nitrogen. N-DBPs were major contributors to the toxicity of both chlorinated and chloraminated waters. The strong correlation between bromide concentration and the overall calculated DBP additive toxicity for both chlorinated and chloraminated source waters demonstrated that formation of brominated haloacetonitriles was the main contributor to toxicity. Ozone-biological activated carbon treatment was not effective in removing N-DBP precursors. The occurrence and formation of N-DBPs should be investigated on a case-by-case basis, especially where advanced water treatment processes are being considered to minimise their formation in drinking waters, and where chloramination is used for final disinfection.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Bromides); 0 (Disinfectants); 0 (Nitrogen Compounds); 0 (Trihalomethanes); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)


  2 / 1218 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28647146
Autor:Potgieter H; Bekker R; Beigley J; Rohwer E
Endereço:Operations and Analytics Department, Group Technology R&T, Sasolburg, 1947, South Africa. Electronic address: johann.potgieter@sasol.com.
Título:Analysis of oxidised heavy paraffininc products by high temperature comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.
Fonte:J Chromatogr A; 1509:123-131, 2017 Aug 04.
ISSN:1873-3778
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Heavy petroleum fractions are produced during crude and synthetic crude oil refining processes and they need to be upgraded to useable products to increase their market value. Usually these fractions are upgraded to fuel products by hydrocracking, hydroisomerization and hydrogenation processes. These fractions are also upgraded to other high value commercial products like lubricant oils and waxes by distillation, hydrogenation, and oxidation and/or blending. Oxidation of hydrogenated heavy paraffinic fractions produces high value products that contain a variety of oxygenates and the characterization of these heavy oxygenates is very important for the control of oxidation processes. Traditionally titrimetric procedures are used to monitor oxygenate formation, however, these titrimetric procedures are tedious and lack selectivity toward specific oxygenate classes in complex matrices. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is a way of increasing peak capacity for the comprehensive analysis of complex samples. Other groups have used HT-GC×GC to extend the carbon number range attainable by GC×GC and have optimised HT-GC×GC parameters for the separation of aromatics, nitrogen-containing compounds as well as sulphur-containing compounds in heavy petroleum fractions. HT-GC×GC column combinations for the separation of oxygenates in oxidised heavy paraffinic fractions are optimised in this study. The advantages of the HT-GC×GC method in the monitoring of the oxidation reactions of heavy paraffinic fraction samples are illustrated.
Tipo de publicação: EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Nitrogen Compounds); 0 (Petroleum); 0 (Sulfur Compounds); 8002-74-2 (Paraffin)


  3 / 1218 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28154310
Autor:Zhou Y; Yang YS; Song XD; Lu L; Zhu HL
Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University.
Título:Study of Schiff-Base-Derived with Dioxygenated Rings and Nitrogen Heterocycle as Potential ß-Ketoacyl-acyl Carrier Protein Synthase III (FabH) Inhibitors.
Fonte:Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo); 65(2):178-185, 2017.
ISSN:1347-5223
País de publicação:Japan
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Fatty acid synthesis (FAS) is an essential metabolism during the whole growth and development process of the bacterial. Several key enzymes which involved in this biosynthetic pathway have been considered as useful targets for the development of new antibacterial agents. Among them, ß-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (FabH) is the most magnetic target, since it is central to the initiation of fatty acid biosynthesis and is highly conserved of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Following the previous researches, Schiff-based derivatives with dioxygenated rings and N-heterocycle were synthesized in succession, and their biological activities as potential FabH inhibitors were evaluated in this paper. Among these 15 compounds, compound 2E exhibited the best antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values 1.56-3.13 mg/mL against the tested bacterial strains and showed the most powerful Escherichia coli (E. coli) FabH inhibitory activities with IC of 2.1 µM. Also the conceivable binding conformation of placing compound 2E into the E. coli FabH active site was affirmed docking simulation.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Enzyme Inhibitors); 0 (Heterocyclic Compounds); 0 (Nitrogen Compounds); 0 (Schiff Bases); EC 2.3.1.180 (3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III); EC 2.3.1.41 (3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Synthase)


  4 / 1218 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27784621
Autor:Uchida M; Kurushima H; Ishihara K; Murata Y; Touhata K; Ishida N; Niwa K; Araki T
Endereço:National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research and Education Agency, 2-17-5 Maruishi, Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima 739-0452, Japan. Electronic address: uchida@affrc.go.jp.
Título:Characterization of fermented seaweed sauce prepared from nori (Pyropia yezoensis).
Fonte:J Biosci Bioeng; 123(3):327-332, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1347-4421
País de publicação:Japan
Idioma:eng
Resumo:High-salt content seaweed sauces were prepared for the first time using nori (Pyropia yezoensis) by fermentation and characterized. Components and taste of the two nori sauces (NSs) prepared separately were compared with those of soy and fish sauces. The NSs were rich in total nitrogen compounds (1.5 g N/100 ml on average) and potassium (880 mg/100 g), and had a unique free amino acid composition (e.g., taurine 617 mg/100 g), explaining their unique taste as evaluated by a taste sensing system. As for their food function, inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was observed. As for their food safety, arsenic was detected at a 0.8 mg/100 g level in total, but inorganic arsenic was not detected (<0.05 mg/100 g) and not regarded as a problem. Allergy-causing substances contained in wheat, soy beans, and crustaceans were not detected (<0.1 mg/100 g) with NSs. These results suggest that the nori sauce has a high potential as a novel nutritional source for humans.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Allergens); 0 (Amino Acids); 0 (Nitrogen Compounds); 451W47IQ8X (Sodium Chloride); N712M78A8G (Arsenic); RWP5GA015D (Potassium)


  5 / 1218 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27761794
Autor:Raposo S; Constantino A; Rodrigues F; Rodrigues B; Lima-Costa ME
Endereço:Center for Marine and Environmental Research - CIMA, University of Algarve - Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139, Faro, Portugal. sraposo@ualg.pt.
Título:Nitrogen Sources Screening for Ethanol Production Using Carob Industrial Wastes.
Fonte:Appl Biochem Biotechnol; 181(2):827-843, 2017 Feb.
ISSN:1559-0291
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Nowadays, bioethanol production is one of the most important technologies by the necessity to identify alternative energy resources, principally when based on inexpensive renewable resources. However, the costs of 2nd-generation bioethanol production using current biotechnologies are still high compared to fossil fuels. The feasibility of bioethanol production, by obtaining high yields and concentrations of ethanol, using low-cost medium, is the primary goal, leading the research done today. Batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of high-density sugar from carob residues with different organic (yeast extract, peptone, urea) and inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) was performed for evaluating a cost-effective ethanol production, with high ethanol yield and productivity. In STR batch fermentation, urea has proved to be a very promising nitrogen source in large-scale production of bioethanol, reaching an ethanol yield of 44 % (w/w), close to theoretical maximum yield value and an ethanol production of 115 g/l. Urea at 3 g/l as nitrogen source could be an economical alternative with a great advantage in the sustainability of ethanol production from carbohydrates extracted from carob. Simulation studies, with experimental data using SuperPro Design software, have shown that the bioethanol production biorefinery from carob wastes could be a very promising way to the valorization of an endogenous resource, with a competitive cost.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Galactans); 0 (Industrial Waste); 0 (Mannans); 0 (Nitrogen Compounds); 0 (Plant Gums); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol); V4716MY704 (locust bean gum)


  6 / 1218 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27662031
Autor:Akhtar J; Khan AA; Ali Z; Haider R; Shahar Yar M
Endereço:Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, 110062, India.
Título:Structure-activity relationship (SAR) study and design strategies of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic moieties for their anticancer activities.
Fonte:Eur J Med Chem; 125:143-189, 2017 Jan 05.
ISSN:1768-3254
País de publicação:France
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The present review article offers a detailed account of the design strategies employed for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing anticancer agents. The results of different studies describe the N-heterocyclic ring system is a core structure in many synthetic compounds exhibiting a broad range of biological activities. Benzimidazole, benzothiazole, indole, acridine, oxadiazole, imidazole, isoxazole, pyrazole, triazoles, quinolines and quinazolines including others drugs containing pyridazine, pyridine and pyrimidines are covered. The following studies of these compounds suggested that these compounds showed their antitumor activities through multiple mechanisms including inhibiting protein kinase (CDK, MK-2, PLK1, kinesin-like protein Eg5 and IKK), topoisomerase I and II, microtubule inhibition, and many others. Our concise representation exploits the design and anticancer potency of these compounds. The direct comparison of anticancer activities with the standard enables a systematic analysis of the structure-activity relationship among the series.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (Heterocyclic Compounds); 0 (Nitrogen Compounds)


  7 / 1218 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27611989
Autor:Tian J; Li Z; Yu Z; Zhang Q; Li X
Endereço:College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.
Título:Interactive effect of inoculant and dried jujube powder on the fermentation quality and nitrogen fraction of alfalfa silage.
Fonte:Anim Sci J; 88(4):633-642, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1740-0929
País de publicação:Australia
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The interactive effect of inoculants and dried jujube powder (DJP) on the fermentation and nitrogen fraction (PA, PB1, PB2, PB3 and PC fractions) of alfalfa silage was investigated. Three of the Lactobacillus plantarum inoculants (LP1, LP2 or LP3) were used. The DJP was added at rates of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15% of the whole fresh forage. The combination of DJP and inoculants decreased the pH value and ammonia nitrogen content and increased the PC portion. As the DJP ratio increased, there was a peak in lactic acid : acetic acid ratio (12% of DJP ratio) and PB2 fraction (9% of DJP ratio) while the PA content decreased linearly. The LP1 and LP2 had the highest lactic acid content. Inoculants decreased the PB1 portion of true protein. The LP1 treated silage had the highest acetic acid content with the lowest lactic acid : acetic acid ratio and had lower PB3 and PC and higher PB2 than LP2 or LP3 treated silages. The result showed that the application of DJP or inoculants have positive effect on the fermentation, nutrition and N fraction value in the high moisture alfalfa silages, and the combination of DJP and inoculants preserves best.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Nitrogen Compounds); 0 (Powders); 33X04XA5AT (Lactic Acid); Q40Q9N063P (Acetic Acid)


  8 / 1218 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27611881
Autor:Kamphayae S; Kumagai H; Bureenok S; Narmseelee R; Butcha P
Endereço:Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, Amphur Muang, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
Título:Effects of graded levels of liquid brewer's yeast on chemical composition and fermentation quality in cassava pulp and rice straw-based total mixed ration silage.
Fonte:Anim Sci J; 88(4):618-624, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1740-0929
País de publicação:Australia
Idioma:eng
Resumo:This study aimed to evaluate the effect of liquid brewer's yeast (LBY) addition on chemical composition and fermentation quality of mixture of LBY and cassava pulp (CVP) with rice straw (RS) in different ratios during preservation periods. Four mixtures of LBY, CVP and RS were made, that is mixture ratio of LBY : CVP : RS of 0% LBY, 20% LBY, 35% LBY and 50% LBY were 0:70:30, 20:50:30, 35:35:30 and 50:20:30 as fresh matter, respectively. The bags were opened at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 after storage. The contents of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber ranged 36.4-40.0, 88.9-90.8, 4.0-12.0, 1.1-1.3, 58.8-61.6 and 37.6-40.0, respectively, and the contents of CP and EE increased and the other components decreased in proportion to LBY inclusion (P < 0.01). 50% LBY had the highest (P < 0.05) pH (4.81) and ammonia nitrogen per total nitrogen (NH -N/TN) (7.40%) and the lowest V-score (90.3). Propionic and butyric acid contents were 0.01% or lower in each mixture and storage period. There were rapid pH decrease and NH -N/TN increase during the first week of the storage period. The increases of NH -N/TN and acetic acid content and decreases of pH, lactic acid content and V-score during the preservation were more drastic as LBY inclusion increased. Although higher proportion of LBY produced higher CP and lower fiber contents in the mixture, attention should be paid for the reduction of fermentation quality during longer storage periods.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Dietary Fiber); 0 (Dietary Proteins); 0 (Nitrogen Compounds); 0 (Propionates); 107-92-6 (Butyric Acid); 33X04XA5AT (Lactic Acid); JHU490RVYR (propionic acid); Q40Q9N063P (Acetic Acid)


  9 / 1218 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27600144
Autor:Shibata H; Galloway JN; Leach AM; Cattaneo LR; Cattell Noll L; Erisman JW; Gu B; Liang X; Hayashi K; Ma L; Dalgaard T; Graversgaard M; Chen D; Nansai K; Shindo J; Matsubae K; Oita A; Su MC; Mishima SI; Bleeker A
Endereço:Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, Kita-9, Nishi-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0809, Japan. shiba@fsc.hokudai.ac.jp.
Título:Nitrogen footprints: Regional realities and options to reduce nitrogen loss to the environment.
Fonte:Ambio; 46(2):129-142, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1654-7209
País de publicação:Sweden
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Nitrogen (N) management presents a sustainability dilemma: N is strongly linked to energy and food production, but excess reactive N causes environmental pollution. The N footprint is an indicator that quantifies reactive N losses to the environment from consumption and production of food and the use of energy. The average per capita N footprint (calculated using the N-Calculator methodology) of ten countries varies from 15 to 47 kg N capita year . The major cause of the difference is the protein consumption rates and food production N losses. The food sector dominates all countries' N footprints. Global connections via trade significantly affect the N footprint in countries that rely on imported foods and feeds. The authors present N footprint reduction strategies (e.g., improve N use efficiency, increase N recycling, reduce food waste, shift dietary choices) and identify knowledge gaps (e.g., the N footprint from nonfood goods and soil N process).
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Nitrogen Compounds); N762921K75 (Nitrogen)


  10 / 1218 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27594647
Autor:Mur LAJ; Simpson C; Kumari A; Gupta AK; Gupta KJ
Endereço:Institute of Environmental and Rural Science, Aberystwyth University, Edward Llwyd Building, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA, UK.
Título:Moving nitrogen to the centre of plant defence against pathogens.
Fonte:Ann Bot; 119(5):703-709, 2017 Mar 01.
ISSN:1095-8290
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Background: Plants require nitrogen (N) for growth, development and defence against abiotic and biotic stresses. The extensive use of artificial N fertilizers has played an important role in the Green Revolution. N assimilation can involve a reductase series ( NO3- → NO2- → NH4+ ) followed by transamination to form amino acids. Given its widespread use, the agricultural impact of N nutrition on disease development has been extensively examined. Scope: When a pathogen first comes into contact with a host, it is usually nutrient starved such that rapid assimilation of host nutrients is essential for successful pathogenesis. Equally, the host may reallocate its nutrients to defence responses or away from the site of attempted infection. Exogenous application of N fertilizer can, therefore, shift the balance in favour of the host or pathogen. In line with this, increasing N has been reported either to increase or to decrease plant resistance to pathogens, which reflects differences in the infection strategies of discrete pathogens. Beyond considering only N content, the use of NO3- or NH4+ fertilizers affects the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. NO3- feeding augments hypersensitive response- (HR) mediated resistance, while ammonium nutrition can compromise defence. Metabolically, NO3- enhances production of polyamines such as spermine and spermidine, which are established defence signals, with NH4+ nutrition leading to increased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels which may be a nutrient source for the pathogen. Within the defensive N economy, the roles of nitric oxide must also be considered. This is mostly generated from NO2- by nitrate reductase and is elicited by both pathogen-associated microbial patterns and gene-for-gene-mediated defences. Nitric oxide (NO) production and associated defences are therefore NO3- dependent and are compromised by NH4+ . Conclusion: This review demonstrates how N content and form plays an essential role in defensive primary and secondary metabolism and NO-mediated events.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Fertilizers); 0 (Nitrogen Compounds); N762921K75 (Nitrogen)



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