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  1 / 4778 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29216295
Autor:Park J; Masaki T; Mezaki Y; Yokoyama H; Nakamura M; Maehashi H; Fujimi TJ; Gouraud SS; Nagatsuma K; Nakagomi M; Kimura N; Matsuura T
Endereço:Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
Título:Alpha-1 antichymotrypsin is involved in astrocyte injury in concert with arginine-vasopressin during the development of acute hepatic encephalopathy.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(12):e0189346, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We developed a bio-artificial liver (BAL) using a radial-flow bioreactor and rescued mini-pig models with lethal acute liver failure (ALF). The point of the rescue is the recovery from hepatic encephalopathy (HE). HE on ALF has sometimes resulted in brain death following brain edema with astrocyte swelling. Several factors, including ammonia and glutamine, have been reported to induce astrocyte swelling and injury. However, many clinicians believe that there are any other factors involved in the development of HE. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel HE-inducible factors, particularly those inducing astrocyte dysfunction. METHODS: Mini-pig plasma samples were collected at three time points: before the administration of toxins (α-amanitin and LPS), when HE occurred after the administration of toxins, and after treatment with extracorporeal circulation (EC) by the BAL. To identify the causative factors of HE, each plasma sample was subjected to a comparative proteome analysis with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. To assess the direct effects of candidate factors on the astrocyte function and injury, in vitro experiments with human astrocytes were performed. RESULTS: Using a proteome analysis, we identified alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (ACT), which was increased in plasma samples from mini-pigs with HE and decreased in those after treatment with EC by BAL. In in vitro experiments with human astrocytes, ACT showed growth-inhibitory and cytotoxic effects on astrocytes. In addition, the expression of water channel protein aquaporin-4, which is induced in injured astrocytes, was increased following ACT treatment. Interestingly, these effects of ACT were additively enhanced by adding arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and were canceled by adding an AVP receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ACT is involved in astrocyte injury and dysfunction in concert with AVP during the development of acute HE.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin); 01Q9PC255D (Ammonium Chloride); 113-79-1 (Arginine Vasopressin)


  2 / 4778 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28458427
Autor:Panigrahi PN; Dey S; Sahoo M; Dan A
Endereço:Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Título:Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant efficacy of pseudostem on ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in rat.
Fonte:Indian J Pharmacol; 49(1):77-83, 2017 Jan-Feb.
ISSN:1998-3751
País de publicação:India
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVE: has been used in the treatment of urolithiasis by the rural people in South India. Therefore, we plan to evaluate its efficacy and possible mechanism of antiurolithiatic effect to rationalize its medicinal use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urolithiasis was induced in hyperoxaluric rat model by giving 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) for 28 days along with 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for the first 14 days. Antiurolithiatic effect of aqueous-ethanol extract of pseudostem (MUSA) was evaluated based on urine and serum biochemistry, microscopy of urine, oxidative/nitrosative indices, kidney calcium content, and histopathology. RESULTS: Administration of EG and AC resulted in increased crystalluria and oxaluria, hypercalciuria, polyuria, crystal deposition in urine, raised serum urea, and creatinine as well as nitric oxide concentration and erythrocytic lipid peroxidation in lithiatic group. However, MUSA treatment significantly restored the impairment in above kidney function test as that of standard treatment, cystone in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrate the efficacy of MUSA in EG-induced urolithiasis, which might be mediated through inhibiting various pathways involved in renal calcium oxalate formation, antioxidant effect, and potential to inhibit biochemical markers of renal impairment.
Tipo de publicação: COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (cystone); 01Q9PC255D (Ammonium Chloride); 2612HC57YE (Calcium Oxalate); FC72KVT52F (Ethylene Glycol)


  3 / 4778 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28376396
Autor:Huang Y; Yang F; Ai L; Feng M; Wang C; Wang Z; Liu J
Endereço:State Environmental Protection Engineering Centre for Pollution Treatment and Control in Textile Industry, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, 201620, China.
Título:On the kinetics of organic pollutant degradation with Co /peroxymonosulfate process: When ammonium meets chloride.
Fonte:Chemosphere; 179:331-336, 2017 Jul.
ISSN:1879-1298
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:A large amount of chloride and ammonium ions were produced and released from industrial processes with non-biodegradable organic pollutants to affect efficiencies of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Here, the influences of chloride and ammonium ions on Co/peroxymonosulfate (Co/PMS) reaction system, a widely used AOPs to produce sulfate radicals, were investigated by examining the degradation efficiency of an azo dye (Acid Orange 7, AO7). The experimental results showed that a significant decrease in the degradation rate of AO7 was observed in the presence of NH , while a dual effect of chloride on AO7 bleaching appeared. The presence of NH Cl was unfavorable for AO7 degradation at low concentration (<20 mM), whereas further addition of NH Cl (>20 mM) apparently accelerated AO7 discoloration rate. The apparent effects of the two co-existing inorganic ions were determined by roles of the dominating ions at varied molar ratio of [NH ]/[Cl ]. The present study may have technical implications for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing diverse ions in practice.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Azo Compounds); 0 (Benzenesulfonates); 0 (Coloring Agents); 0 (Ions); 0 (Peroxides); 0 (Sulfates); 0 (Waste Water); 0 (sulfate radical); 01Q9PC255D (Ammonium Chloride); 22047-43-4 (peroxymonosulfate); Q1LIY3BO0U (2-naphthol orange)


  4 / 4778 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28157652
Autor:Mani R; Natesan V; Arumugam R
Endereço:Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608002, India.
Título:Neuroprotective effect of chrysin on hyperammonemia mediated neuroinflammatory responses and altered expression of astrocytic protein in the hippocampus.
Fonte:Biomed Pharmacother; 88:762-769, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1950-6007
País de publicação:France
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Neuroinflammation is an innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) against metabolic and pathogenic toxic wastes. The main hypothesis implies that a state of hyperammonemia which is accountable for both direct and indirect modification in ammonia metabolism with an elevated production of inflammatory cytokines. This study was constructed to explore the modulating effect of chrysin on rudimentary pathophysiologic mechanisms of ammonium chloride (NH Cl) mediated neuroinflammation in the experimental hyperammonemic rats. NH Cl was injected intraperitonally (i.p) in male albino wistar rats for a time period of thrice a week for eight consecutive weeks. Initially, the levels of brain ammonia and water content were assessed. Immunohistochemical, RT-PCR and western blotting analysis revealed that the expression of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) were down-regulated, whereas the expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, p65 NF-κB, iNOS and COX-2 were up-regulated in brain tissue of hyperammonemic rats. Oral supplementation of chrysin (100mg/kg b.w) to hyperammonemic rats considerably restored the levels of brain ammonia, water content, and the expressions of GS, GFAP, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, p65 NF-κB, iNOS and COX-2. Our findings provided substantial evidence that the chrysin synergistically attenuating the neuroinflammatory mechanism by repressing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and up-regulating the astrocytic protein expressions via ammonia-reducing strategies. This data suggests that chrysin effectively acts as a therapeutic agent to treat hyperammonemia mediated neuroinflammation.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Cytokines); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Nerve Tissue Proteins); 0 (Neuroprotective Agents); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 01Q9PC255D (Ammonium Chloride); 3CN01F5ZJ5 (chrysin)


  5 / 4778 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28081193
Autor:Hsu YY; Chou JY
Endereço:Department of Biology, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Título:Environmental Factors Can Influence Mitochondrial Inheritance in the Saccharomyces Yeast Hybrids.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(1):e0169953, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Mitochondria play a critical role in the generation of metabolic energy and are crucial for eukaryotic cell survival and proliferation. In most sexual eukaryotes, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited from only one parent in non-Mendelian inheritance in contrast to the inheritance of nuclear DNA. The model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae is commonly used to study mitochondrial biology. It has two mating types: MATa and MATα. Previous studies have suggested that the mtDNA inheritance patterns in hybrid diploid cells depend on the genetic background of parental strains. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To elucidate the mechanisms, we examined the effects of environmental factors on the mtDNA inheritance patterns in hybrids obtained by crossing S. cerevisiae with its close relative S. paradoxus. The results demonstrated that environmental factors can influence mtDNA transmission in hybrid diploids, and that the inheritance patterns are strain dependent. The fitness competition assay results showed that the fitness differences can explain the mtDNA inheritance patterns under specific conditions. However, in this study, we found that fitness differences cannot fully be explained by mitochondrial activity in hybrids under stress conditions.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Fungal); 0 (DNA, Mitochondrial); 01Q9PC255D (Ammonium Chloride)


  6 / 4778 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28052847
Autor:Schump MD; Fox DM; Bertozzi CR; Riley LW
Endereço:Graduate Group in Infectious Diseases and Immunity, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.
Título:Subcellular Partitioning and Intramacrophage Selectivity of Antimicrobial Compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Fonte:Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 61(3), 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1098-6596
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The efficacy of antimicrobial drugs against , an intracellular bacterial pathogen, is generally first established by testing compounds against bacteria in axenic culture. However, inside infected macrophages, bacteria encounter an environment which differs substantially from broth culture and are subject to important host-dependent pharmacokinetic phenomena which modulate drug activity. Here, we describe how pH-dependent partitioning drives asymmetric antimicrobial drug distribution in infected macrophages. Specifically, weak bases with moderate activity against (fluoxetine, sertraline, and dibucaine) were shown to accumulate intracellularly due to differential permeability and relative abundance of their ionized and nonionized forms. Nonprotonatable analogs of the test compounds did not show this effect. Neutralization of acidic organelles directly with ammonium chloride or indirectly with bafilomycin A1 partially abrogated the growth restriction of these drugs. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we quantified the degree of accumulation and reversibility upon acidic compartment neutralization in macrophages and observed that accumulation was greater in infected than in uninfected macrophages. We further demonstrate that the efficacy of a clinically used compound, clofazimine, is augmented by pH-based partitioning in a macrophage infection model. Because the parameters which govern this effect are well understood and are amenable to chemical modification, this knowledge may enable the rational development of more effective antibiotics against tuberculosis.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Anesthetics, Local); 0 (Antitubercular Agents); 0 (Macrolides); 0 (Protons); 0 (Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors); 01K63SUP8D (Fluoxetine); 01Q9PC255D (Ammonium Chloride); 88899-55-2 (bafilomycin A1); D959AE5USF (Clofazimine); L6JW2TJG99 (Dibucaine); QUC7NX6WMB (Sertraline)


  7 / 4778 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27941495
Autor:Li SH; Liao X; Zhou TE; Xiao LL; Chen YW; Wu F; Wang JR; Cheng B; Song JX; Liu HW
Endereço:From the *Department of Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou; †Department of Plastic Surgery, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangdong Province; and ‡Department of Plastic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, P.R. China.
Título:Evaluation of 2 Purification Methods for Isolation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Based on Red Blood Cell Lysis With Ammonium Chloride and Hypotonic Sodium Chloride Solution.
Fonte:Ann Plast Surg; 78(1):83-90, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1536-3708
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to compare 2 purification methods for isolation of human adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction or stem cells (ADSCs) based on red blood cell (RBC) lysis with 155 mM ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and hypotonic sodium chloride (NaCl) solution, and try to develop a safe, convenient, and cost-effective purification method for clinical applications. METHODS: Adipose-derived stem cells and RBC were harvested from the fatty and fluid portions of liposuction aspirates, respectively. The suitable concentration of hypotonic NaCl solution on RBC lysis for purification of ADSCs was developed by RBC osmotic fragility test and flow cytometry analysis. The effects of 155 mM NH4Cl or 0.3% NaCl solution on ADSCs proliferation and RBC lysis efficiency were examined by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and lysis efficiency test, respectively. In addition, the adipogenic and osteogenic capabilities, phenotype and genetic stability of ADSCs were evaluated by oil red staining, alkaline phosphatase activity measurement, flow cytometry, and karyotype analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Sodium chloride solution in 0.3% concentration effectively removed RBCs and did not influence the survival of ADSCs in the 10-minute incubation time. The lysis efficiency did not differ significantly between 0.3% NaCl and 155 mM NH4Cl. Moreover, the adipogenic and osteogenic capabilities, surface marker expression and karyotype of the ADSCs were not affected by lysis solutions or by lysis per se. However, the proliferation capacity in the 0.3% NaCl group was superior to that in 155 mM NH4Cl group. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that 0.3% NaCl solution is useful for isolating ADSCs from liposuction aspirate for clinical applications with safety, convenience, and cost-effect.
Tipo de publicação: COMPARATIVE STUDY; EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Hypotonic Solutions); 01Q9PC255D (Ammonium Chloride); 451W47IQ8X (Sodium Chloride)


  8 / 4778 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27935220
Autor:Choudhary AK; Dey CS
Endereço:Kusuma School of Biological Sciences (KSBS), Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)-Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, 110016, India.
Título:Nuclear co-repressor (NCoR) is required to maintain insulin sensitivity in C C myotubes.
Fonte:Cell Biol Int; 41(2):204-212, 2017 Feb.
ISSN:1095-8355
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Nuclear co-repressor (NCoR) regulates peripheral insulin sensitivity; however, its role in modulating insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle remains elusive. Present study investigated protein expression and effect of NCoR on insulin sensitivity in murine skeletal muscle cell line C C . Myotubes as compared to myoblasts of C C cells were found to be more sensitive in response to insulin as increase in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT at serine 473 residue (pAKT ) was significantly higher in myotubes. Incidentally, reduced protein level of NCoR coincided with differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes of C C cells. However, insulin stimulation per se failed to affect protein level of NCoR either in myoblasts or myotubes of C C cells. To assess the role of NCoR on insulin sensitivity, NCoR was transiently knocked down using siRNA in myotubes of C C . In fact, transient silencing of NCoR led to significant reduction in insulin-stimulated pAKT and impaired glucose uptake. This observation is in contrast to published studies where NCoR has been reported to negatively regulate insulin signaling cascade. Furthermore, transient silencing of NCoR failed to improve insulin sensitivity in chronic hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin-resistant model of C C cells. Importantly, inhibition of lysosomal protein degradation pathway using ammonium chloride restored protein level of NCoR but failed to increase glucose uptake in serum-starved C C myotubes. Collectively, data from present study show differential protein level of NCoR under different cell state (myoblast and myotubes) of C C cells and NCoR proves to be vital for maintaining insulin sensitivity in C C myotubes.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Co-Repressor Proteins); 0 (Insulin); 0 (Leupeptins); 0 (RNA, Small Interfering); 01Q9PC255D (Ammonium Chloride); EC 2.7.11.1 (Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt); IY9XDZ35W2 (Glucose); RF1P63GW3K (benzyloxycarbonylleucyl-leucyl-leucine aldehyde)


  9 / 4778 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27741460
Autor:Xu Q; Yang L; Yang W; Bai Y; Hou P; Zhao J; Zhou L; Zuo Z
Endereço:School of Forestry and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Agriculture & Forestry University, Lin'an 311300, China.
Título:Volatile organic compounds released from Microcystis flos-aquae under nitrogen sources and their toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris.
Fonte:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf; 135:191-200, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1090-2414
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Eutrophication promotes massive growth of cyanobacteria and algal blooms, which can poison other algae and reduce biodiversity. To investigate the differences in multiple nitrogen (N) sources in eutrophicated water on the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cyanobacteria, and their toxic effects on other algal growth, we analyzed VOCs emitted from Microcystis flos-aquae with different types and concentrations of nitrogen, and determined the effects under Normal-N and Non-N conditions on Chlorella vulgaris. M. flos-aquae released 27, 22, 20, 27, 19, 25 and 17 compounds, respectively, with NaNO , NaNO , NH Cl, urea, Ser, Lys and Arg as the sole N source. With the reduction in N amount, the emission of VOCs was increased markedly, and the most VOCs were found under Non-N condition. C. vulgaris cell propagation, photosynthetic pigment and Fv/Fm declined significantly following exposure to M. flos-aquae VOCs under Non-N condition, but not under Normal-N condition. When C. vulgaris cells were treated with two terpenoids, eucalyptol and limonene, the inhibitory effects were enhanced with increasing concentrations. Therefore, multiple N sources in eutrophicated water induce different VOC emissions from cyanobacteria, and reduction in N can cause nutrient competition, which can result in emissions of more VOCs. Those VOCs released from M. flos-aquae cells under Non-N for nutrient competition can inhibit other algal growth. Among those VOCs, eucalyptol and limonene are the major toxic agents.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Cyclohexanols); 0 (Cyclohexenes); 0 (Monoterpenes); 0 (Nitrates); 0 (Terpenes); 0 (Volatile Organic Compounds); 01Q9PC255D (Ammonium Chloride); 452VLY9402 (Serine); 8M4L3H2ZVZ (sodium nitrate); 8W8T17847W (Urea); 94ZLA3W45F (Arginine); 9MC3I34447 (limonene); K3Z4F929H6 (Lysine); M0KG633D4F (Sodium Nitrite); N762921K75 (Nitrogen); RV6J6604TK (eucalyptol)


  10 / 4778 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27710845
Autor:Li X; Zheng H; Gao B; Sun Y; Liu B; Zhao C
Endereço:Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region's Eco-Environment, State Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China; National Centre for International Research of Low-carbon and Green Buildings, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China.
Título:UV-initiated template copolymerization of AM and MAPTAC: Microblock structure, copolymerization mechanism, and flocculation performance.
Fonte:Chemosphere; 167:71-81, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1879-1298
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Flocculation as the core technology of sludge pretreatment can improve the dewatering performance of sludge that enables to reduce the cost of sludge transportation and the subsequent disposal costs. Therefore, synthesis of high-efficiency and economic flocculant is remarkably desired in this field. This study presents a cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) flocculant with microblock structure synthesized through ultraviolet (UV)-initiated template copolymerization by using acrylamide (AM) and methacrylamido propyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (MAPTAC) as monomers, sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) as template, and 2,2'-azobis [2-(2-imidazolin-2-yl) propane] dihydrochloride (VA-044) as photoinitiator. The microblock structure of the CPAM was observed through nuclear magnetic resonance ( H NMR and C NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Furthermore, thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) analysis was used to evaluate its thermal decomposition property. The copolymerization mechanism was investigated through the determination of the binding constant M and study on polymerization kinetics. Results showed that the copolymerization was conducted in accordance with the I (ZIP) template polymerization mechanism, and revealed the coexistence of bimolecular termination free-radical reaction and mono-radical termination in the polymerization process. Results of sludge dewatering tests indicated the superior flocculation performance of microblock flocculant than random distributed CPAM. The residual turbidity, filter cake moisture content, and specific resistance to filtration reached 9.37 NTU, 68.01%, and 6.24 (10 m kg ), respectively, at 40 mg L of template poly(AM-MAPTAC) and pH 6.0. Furthermore, all flocculant except commercial CPAM showed a wide scope of pH application.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Acrylic Resins); 0 (MAPTAC); 0 (Methacrylates); 0 (Sewage); 01Q9PC255D (Ammonium Chloride); 20R035KLCI (Acrylamide); 4Q93RCW27E (carbopol 940); 9003-05-8 (polyacrylamide)



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