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  1 / 105 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28412947
Autor:Hora AS; Miyashiro SI; Cassiano FC; Brandão PE; Reche-Junior A; Pena HFJ
Endereço:Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. alineshora@gmail.com.
Título:Report of the first clinical case of intestinal trichomoniasis caused by Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat with chronic diarrhoea in Brazil.
Fonte:BMC Vet Res; 13(1):109, 2017 Apr 17.
ISSN:1746-6148
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Tritrichomonas foetus is an emergent and important enteric pathogen of cats, which causes prolonged diarrhoea in cats. CASE PRESENTATION: This study describes a T. foetus infection in a seven-month-old, entire male domestic shorthair kitten with a six-month history of persistent large intestinal diarrhoea, faecal incontinence, prostration, apathy and weight loss. Parasites were microscopically observed and confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Molecular analyses were carried out comparing the sequence obtained in this study with T. foetus and T. suis. Retrieved from GenBank. After treatment with ronidazole, the cat showed resolution of clinical signs. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first clinical case of T. foetus infection in a chronic diarrheic cat in Brazil and South America, confirming the presence of this pathogen in this part of the world and highlighting the importance of this protozoa being considered in the differential diagnosis of cats presenting diarrhoea of the large intestine. Our case report enriches our knowledge on the geographical distribution of T. foetus in cats in Brazil and provides further understanding of the clinical significance of feline intestinal trichomoniasis in this country.
Tipo de publicação: CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antiprotozoal Agents); 0 (DNA, Protozoan); E01R4M1063 (Ronidazole)


  2 / 105 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28245739
Autor:Gookin JL; Hanrahan K; Levy MG
Endereço:Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC, USA.
Título:The conundrum of feline Trichomonosis.
Fonte:J Feline Med Surg; 19(3):261-274, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1532-2750
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Practical relevance: Trichomonosis of the large intestine of the cat was described as a cause of chronic diarrhea over 20 years ago. The trichomonad was identified as Tritrichomonas foetus, with a genotype that is distinct from venereal T foetus of cattle. Clinical challenges: Despite multiple means for diagnosis of the infection, including light microscopy, protozoal culture and PCR amplification using species-specific primers, tests with even greater sensitivity are needed. Feline trichomonosis is resistant to all commonly used antiprotozoal drugs. Ronidazole is currently the only drug demonstrated to be effective in eliminating the infection from cats; however, this drug has a narrow safety margin and clinical resistance is increasingly recognized. The more we learn about trichomonosis in cats, the more complicated and controversial the infection has become, ranging from what we should call the organism to whether we should even bother trying to treat it. Global importance: Feline trichomonosis is recognized to occur worldwide and is regarded as one of the most common infectious causes of colitis in the domestic cat. The infection is widespread in catteries and shelters; and, while remission of diarrhea may occur over time, persistence of the infection is common. Evidence base: This review provides a comprehensive examination of what is currently known about feline trichomonosis and pinpoints areas, based on the authors' opinion, where further research is needed.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; PORTRAITS; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Antiprotozoal Agents); E01R4M1063 (Ronidazole)


  3 / 105 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27838954
Autor:Mitrowska K; Antczak M
Endereço:a Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology , National Veterinary Research Institute (PIWet) , Pulawy , Poland.
Título:Transfer of nitroimidazoles from contaminated beeswax to honey.
Fonte:Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess; 34(4):573-581, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1944-0057
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Nitroimidazoles are not authorised for the treatment of honey bees in the European Union. However, they can be found in honey largely because they are illegally used in apiculture for the treatment of Nosema. The aim of the study was to examine the possible transfer of nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole and ipronidazole) from contaminated beeswax to honey. The wax foundations fortified with a mixture of four nitroimidazoles at three concentration levels (1000, 10,000 and 100,000 µg kg ) were placed in beehives to let the honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) draw out the contaminated wax foundations to honeycombs. At 1 month from the start, the frames filled with capped honey were removed from the hives for a first sampling of honey. Next, the honeycombs were further incubated for 5 months in the laboratory at 35°C and sampled monthly. In the sampled honey, the concentrations of nitroimidazoles and their main metabolites (hydroxymetronidazole, 2-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, hydroxyipronidazole) were determined by LC-MS/MS and compared with those determined in the nitroimidazole-containing wax foundations. Each of the tested nitroimidazoles could migrate from beeswax to honey kept in the contaminated combs at each tested concentration level. Higher maximum concentrations of residues in honey sampled from contaminated combs at 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 µg kg were observed for metronidazole (28.9, 368.5 and 2589.4 µg kg respectively) and ronidazole (27.4, 232.9 and 2351.2 µg kg respectively), while lower maximum concentrations were measured for dimetridazole (0.98, 8.4 and 67.7 µg kg ) and ipronidazole (0.9, 7.9 and 35.7 µg kg respectively). When we took into account that a frame completely filled with honey on both sides of the comb contained 110 g of beeswax and 2488 g of honey, and that this ratio was constant, then maximum amounts of initial metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole and ipronidazole that migrated from contaminated wax foundations to honey could be calculated: 65-89%, 55-63%, 1.7-2.7% and 1.4-2.3%, respectively.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (Veterinary Drugs); 0 (Waxes); 045BU63E23 (Ipronidazole); 140QMO216E (Metronidazole); 8012-89-3 (beeswax); E01R4M1063 (Ronidazole); K59P7XNB8X (Dimetridazole)


  4 / 105 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26662037
Autor:Grellet A; Makhlouf SE; Desquilbet L; Hovhannessian F; Boogaerts C; Dore V; Anthony M; Espana B; Prouillac C; Kirilov P; Polack B; Perrot S
Endereço:1 Paris East University, National Veterinary School of Alfort, Livestock and Sport Medicine Unit, CHUVA, Maisons-Alfort, France.
Título:Efficacy of guar gum-based ronidazole capsules as a treatment for Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cats.
Fonte:J Feline Med Surg; 19(2):177-184, 2017 Feb.
ISSN:1532-2750
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Objectives The aims of the study were to determine the in vitro drug release of guar gum-coated capsules of ronidazole, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of this formulation for the treatment of cats naturally infected with Tritrichomonas foetus. Methods The pharmacokinetics of ronidazole were evaluated in five healthy cats and five cats infected with T foetus. In a second step, the clinical efficacy of these capsules was evaluated by a controlled, randomised, double-blind clinical trial performed in 47 infected cats from French catteries. In this study, cats were randomly allocated to either the ronidazole treatment group (n = 25) or a placebo group (n = 22). Ronidazole (30 mg/kg) q24h for 14 days was administered to the treated cats. After 14 days of treatment, the presence of T foetus was tested by conventional PCR assay. Results In the pharmacokinetic study, a delayed peak plasma concentration was observed in healthy and infected cats, with no significant difference between these two groups (mean geometric mean of 9 h for time to maximum plasma concentration [T ], 21.6 µg/ml for time to maximum plasma concentration [C ] and 467.4 µg/h/ml for the area under the curve [AUC] in healthy cats; and 9.4 h for T , 17.1 µg/ml for C and 481 µg/h/ml for AUC in infected cats). In the clinical trial, T foetus was detected in 16% of cats from the treated group and 82% of cats from the placebo group at the end of the study ( P <0.001). No clinical signs of adverse drug reactions were observed. Conclusions and relevance Oral administration of guar gum-coated capsules of ronidazole at a dose of 30 mg/kg once daily for 14 days delays the peak plasma concentration and eradicates infection in most cases.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antiprotozoal Agents); 0 (Galactans); 0 (Mannans); 0 (Plant Gums); E01R4M1063 (Ronidazole); E89I1637KE (guar gum)


  5 / 105 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27423157
Autor:Steiner JM; Schwamberger S; Pantchev N; Balzer HJ; Vrhovec MG; Lesina M; Algül H
Endereço:Second Department of Internal Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar of the Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; Gastrointestinal Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, USA. jsteiner@cvm.tamu.edu.
Título:Use of Ronidazole and Limited Culling To Eliminate Tritrichomonas muris from Laboratory Mice.
Fonte:J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci; 55(4):480-3, 2016.
ISSN:1559-6109
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Tritrichomonas muris is occasionally identified during routine fecal screening of laboratory mice. Frequently, entire racks are affected, and because no effective treatment is available, culling of affected mice and rederivation by embryo transfer have been suggested. The current study evaluated whether treatment with ronidazole, a nitroimidazole efficacious against T. fetus infections in cats, combined with limited culling was effective against T. muris in laboratory mice (Mus musculus). A subset (n = 39) of mice were treated with ronidazole (400 mg/L in drinking water) for 15 d, after which 6 of the mice still shed T. muris. Consequently all mice in the affected rack received ronidazole (500 mg /L in drinking water) for 25 d. All mice were retested by using pooled samples, and those positive for T. muris (except for a valuable breeding pair) were culled. The remaining mice continued to receive ronidazole for another 17 d. At the end of the treatment period, all mice were tested (days 60 and 81) and were shown to be negative for T. muris. Over the following year, sentinel mice from the rack were tested every 3 mo and remained negative for tritrichomonads by fecal smear. Thus, a combination of limited culling and treatment with ronidazole in the drinking water successfully cleared research mice of infection with T. muris.
Tipo de publicação: CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antiprotozoal Agents); E01R4M1063 (Ronidazole)


  6 / 105 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26791585
Autor:Kavianinia I; Plieger PG; Cave NJ; Gopakumar G; Dunowska M; Kandile NG; Harding DR
Endereço:Chemistry, Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
Título:Design and evaluation of a novel chitosan-based system for colon-specific drug delivery.
Fonte:Int J Biol Macromol; 85:539-46, 2016 Apr.
ISSN:1879-0003
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Tritrichomonas foetus is a flagellated protozoan parasite that colonizes the feline colon causing colitis and chronic foul smelling diarrhoea. Despite the efficacy of Ronidazole in the treatment of T. foetus, Ronidazole has been reported to cause neurotoxicity in some cats due to rapid absorption in the small intestine. A novel amphoteric derivative of chitosan was synthesised and characterized. A combination of time, pH, and an enzyme controlled system was used in a study of a new compression coated tablet for delivery of Ronidazole to the colon. Axial, radial swelling and erosion of selected tablets were carried out in various media. The effect of weight ratio, enzyme and pH on in vitro drug release profile was investigated. The results show that less than 2% of the drug was released in the physiological environment of the stomach and small intestine.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antiprotozoal Agents); 0 (Drug Carriers); 0 (Tablets); 9012-76-4 (Chitosan); E01R4M1063 (Ronidazole)


  7 / 105 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26591381
Autor:Reinert J; Gerold S; Scheurlen U; Daniels R; Wolm M; Iglauer F
Título:[Treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat colony with delayed release ronidazole tablets in the small intestine].
Título:Behandlung einer an Tritrichomonas foetus erkrankten Katzen-Kolonie mittels Ronidazoltabletten unter verzögerter Wirkstofffreisetzung im Dünndarm..
Fonte:Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr; 128(9-10):362-9, 2015 Sep-Oct.
ISSN:0005-9366
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:ger
Resumo:Seven abyssinian cats (two male, five female) showed intermittent green-yellow mucous diarrhoea, sometimes an inflammation of the anal region and faecal incontinence even after long-time treatment with fenbendazole against Giardia. During necropsy of one of the cats, which had to be euthanized due to another disease, the gut wall of small and large intestine appeared macroscopically thickened. Histological examination indicated flagellates in the lumen of the intestine (initiating at the jejunum) and in the crypts. However Giardia could be excluded. in this case. By PCR of the faeces Tritrichomonas (T) foetus was diagnosed in five of six cats of this colony. Five remaining animals (another cat had to be euthanized) were treated with about 30 mg per kg BW ronidazole p. o. (rededication; Ridzol 10% Bt®, Dr. Hesse Tierpharma GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) daily over 14 days. The special gastro-resistant processing of the ronidazole should ensure a targeted effects. Animals were treated consecutively, isolated from the other cats and were daily examined clinically and neurologically. Neurotoxic adverse effects appeared slightly, therefore--as a precaution--the treatment of two cats was paused for one day. After treatment of all cats, T. foetus wasn't diagnosed by PCR over the period of 345 to > 800 days in any cat. One animal had dubious findings in the ninth week after treatment. Hence it was still kept isolated from the group and PCR showed a negative result at all times afterwards. The treatment protocol shows that elimination of problematic protozoal infections is possible in cat colonies.
Tipo de publicação: ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antiprotozoal Agents); 0 (Delayed-Action Preparations); 0 (Tablets); E01R4M1063 (Ronidazole)


  8 / 105 MEDLINE  
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PMID:25372355
Autor:Gadaj A; Cooper KM; Karoonuthaisiri N; Furey A; Danaher M
Endereço:a Food Safety Department , Teagasc Food Research Centre , Ashtown, Dublin 15 , Ireland.
Título:Determination of the persistence of dimetridazole, metronidazole and ronidazole residues in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) tissue and their stability during cooking.
Fonte:Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess; 32(2):180-93, 2015.
ISSN:1944-0057
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The depletion of three banned nitroimidazole drugs - dimetridazole (DMZ), metronidazole (MNZ) and ronidazole (RNZ) - was investigated in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) following in-water medication. The highest concentrations of residues were measured immediately after the 24-h immersion (d0). At this time, MNZ and MNZ-OH residues were measured in shrimp tissue samples at concentrations ranging from 361 to 4189 and from 0.28 to 6.6 µg kg(-1), respectively. DMZ and its metabolites HMMNI ranged in concentration between 31,509 and 37,780 and between 15.0 and 31.9 µg kg(-1), respectively. RNZ and HMMNI concentrations ranged from 14,530 to 24,206 and from 25.0 to 55 µg kg(-1), respectively. MNZ, DMZ and RNZ were the more persistent marker residues and can be detected for at least 8 days post-treatment. MNZ-OH was only detectable on d0 following treatment with MNZ. HMMNI residues were only detectable up to d1 (0.97-3.2 µg kg(-1)) or d2 (1.2-4.5 µg kg(-1)) following DMZ and RNZ treatment, respectively. The parent drugs MNZ, DMZ and RNZ were still measureable on d8 at 0.12-1.0, 40.5-55 and 8.8-18.7 µg kg(-1), respectively. The study also investigated the stability of nitroimidazole residues under various cooking procedures (frying, grilling, boiling, and boiling followed by microwaving). The experiments were carried out in shrimp muscle tissue containing both high and low concentrations of these residues. Different cooking procedures showed the impact on nitroimidazole residue concentration in shrimp tissue. Residue concentration depleted significantly, but partially, by boiling and/or microwaving, but the compounds were largely resistant to conventional grilling or frying. Cooking cannot therefore be considered as a safeguard against harmful nitroimidazole residues in shrimp.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Food Additives); 140QMO216E (Metronidazole); E01R4M1063 (Ronidazole); K59P7XNB8X (Dimetridazole)


  9 / 105 MEDLINE  
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PMID:25141357
Autor:Qin L; Lin YL; Xu B; Hu CY; Tian FX; Zhang TY; Zhu WQ; Huang H; Gao NY
Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, PR China.
Título:Kinetic models and pathways of ronidazole degradation by chlorination, UV irradiation and UV/chlorine processes.
Fonte:Water Res; 65:271-81, 2014 Nov 15.
ISSN:1879-2448
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Degradation kinetics and pathways of ronidazole (RNZ) by chlorination (Cl2), UV irradiation and combined UV/chlorine processes were investigated in this paper. The degradation kinetics of RNZ chlorination followed a second-order behavior with the rate constants calculated as (2.13 ± 0.15) × 10(2) M(-2) s(-1), (0.82 ± 0.52) × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) and (2.06 ± 0.09) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1) for the acid-catalyzed reaction, as well as the reactions of RNZ with HOCl and OCl(-), respectively. Although UV irradiation degraded RNZ more effectively than chlorination did, very low quantum yield of RNZ at 254 nm was obtained as 1.02 × 10(-3) mol E(-1). RNZ could be efficiently degraded and mineralized in the UV/chlorine process due to the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The second-order rate constant between RNZ and hydroxyl radical was determined as (2.92 ± 0.05) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The degradation intermediates of RNZ during the three processes were identified with Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization - mass spectrometry and the degradation pathways were then proposed. Moreover, the variation of chloropicrin (TCNM) and chloroform (CF) formation after the three processes were further evaluated. Enhanced formation of CF and TCNM precursors during UV/chlorine process deserves extensive attention in drinking water treatment.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 4R7X1O2820 (Chlorine); 7V31YC746X (Chloroform); E01R4M1063 (Ronidazole); I4JTX7Z7U2 (chloropicrin)


  10 / 105 MEDLINE  
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PMID:25059163
Autor:Han C; Chen J; Wu X; Huang YW; Zhao Y
Endereço:Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, USA; Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center, University of Georgia, USA; School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, China; Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Advanced Laser Materials and Devices, China. Elect
Título:Detection of metronidazole and ronidazole from environmental samples by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.
Fonte:Talanta; 128:293-8, 2014 Oct.
ISSN:1873-3573
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:In this study, the surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of two prohibited veterinary drugs, metronidazole (MNZ) and ronidazole (RNZ), have been acquired, and compared to the theoretically calculated spectra using density function theory (DFT). The experimental Raman and SERS spectra of MNZ and RNZ exhibit high resemblance with the DFT calculations. SERS detection of MNZ and RNZ from standard solutions as well as real environmental samples (tap, lake, swamp waters and soil) was performed on highly sensitive and reproducible silver nanorod array substrates. The limits of detection for MNZ and RNZ are 10 and 1 µg/mL in methanol and ultra-pure water, respectively, and 10-50 µg/mL in the environmental samples. The SERS-based method demonstrates its potential as a rapid, simple, and inexpensive means for the onsite screening of banned antibiotics from the aquatic and sediment environments, with minimal requirement for sample pretreatment.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
Nome de substância:0 (Drinking Water); 0 (Soil); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 140QMO216E (Metronidazole); E01R4M1063 (Ronidazole)



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