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  1 / 45781 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29458538
Autor:Ma J; Yu L; Song B; Yu Y; Zhang S; Wei Y; Wu Z; Yao D; Yu W; Zhu Z; Cui Y
Endereço:1​College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319, PR China.
Título:The double adjuvants LTB and CpG significantly enhanced the immuno-protective effects of recombinant GIT derived from Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus in mice.
Fonte:J Med Microbiol; 67(3):432-440, 2018 Mar.
ISSN:1473-5644
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:PURPOSE: In this study, we prepared GapC1-150-IsdB126-361-TRAP (GIT) proteins plus heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) as an intra-molecular adjuvant, together with CpG to further enhance its immunogenicity. METHODOLOGY: Initially, the target genes were acquired and inserted into pET-32a (+) vectors to express LTB-GIT protein. LTB-GIT expression was confirmed by Western blotting and its immunocompetence was estimated through ELISA. Further, we immunized BALB/c mice with the LTB-GIT plus CpG adjuvant. After the second immunization, the antigen-specific CD4 cell responses for IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 were monitored by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay. After the third immunization, the level of IgG antibodies in the serum from immunized groups was assessed by ELISA, and the protective immune response was appraised by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae challenge. RESULTS: The ELISA results showed that the OD450nm value of the LTB-GIT group was significantly higher than that of the BSA group. The group immunized with LTB-GIT plus CpG exhibited significantly stronger CD4 T cell responses for IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 compared to the group immunized with LTB-GIT, GIT alone orLTB-GIT plus CpG. In addition, the group immunized with LTB-GIT plus CpG generated the highest level of IgG antibodies against GIT among all of the groups, and our results also showed that LTB-GIT plus CpG markedly improved the survival percentage of mice compared to other groups. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that the novel double adjuvants, LTB and CpG, are able to significantly improve GIT-induced immune responses. This formula could be a promising strategy for enhancing the immune efficacy of multi-subunit vaccines against Staphylococcus aureus and streptococcal infection.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Adjuvants, Immunologic); 0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Antigens, Bacterial); 0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Bacterial Toxins); 0 (Bacterial Vaccines); 0 (CPG-oligonucleotide); 0 (Enterotoxins); 0 (IL10 protein, mouse); 0 (Interleukin-2); 0 (Oligodeoxyribonucleotides); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); 130068-27-8 (Interleukin-10); 207137-56-2 (Interleukin-4); 82115-62-6 (Interferon-gamma)


  2 / 45781 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29458539
Autor:Ma ST; Ding GJ; Huang XW; Wang ZW; Wang L; Yu ML; Shi W; Jiang YP; Tang LJ; Xu YG; Li YJ
Endereço:College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Mu Cai Street No. 59, Xiang Fang District, Harbin, PR China.
Título:Immunogenicity in chickens with orally administered recombinant chicken-borne Lactobacillus saerimneri expressing FimA and OmpC antigen of O78 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.
Fonte:J Med Microbiol; 67(3):441-451, 2018 Mar.
ISSN:1473-5644
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:PURPOSE: Avian colibacillosis is responsible for economic losses to poultry producers worldwide. To combat this, we aimed to develop an effective oral vaccine for chicken against O78 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infection through a Lactobacillus delivery system. METHODOLOGY: Eight Lactobacillus strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens were evaluated based on their in vitro adherence ability to assess their potential as a delivery vector. Fimbrial subunit A (FimA) and outer-membrane protein C (OmpC) of APEC with and without fusion to dendritic cell-targeting peptide (DCpep) and microfold cell-targeting peptide (Co1) were displayed on the surface of Lactobacillus saerimneri M-11 and yielded vaccine groups (pPG-ompC-fimA/M-11 and pPG-ompC-fimA-Co1-DCpep/M-11, respectively). The colonization of the recombinant strains in vivo was assessed and the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of orally administered recombinant strains in chickens were evaluated. RESULTS: The colonization of the recombinant strains in vivo revealed no significant differences between the recombinant and wild-type strains. Chickens orally administered with vaccine groups showed significantly higher levels of OmpC/FimA-specific IgG in serum and mucosal IgA in cecum lavage, nasal lavage and stool compared to the pPG/M-11 group. After challenge with APEC CVCC1553, better protective efficacy was observed in chickens orally immunized with pPG-ompC-fimA/M-11 and pPG-ompC-fimA-Co1-DCpep/M-11, but no significant differences were observed between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Recombinant chicken-borne L. saerimneri M-11 showed good immunogenicity in chickens, suggesting that it may be a promising vaccine candidate against APEC infections. However, the activity of mammalian DCpep and Co1 was not significant in chickens.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Antigens, Bacterial); 0 (Escherichia coli Vaccines); 0 (Immunoglobulin A); 0 (Immunoglobulin G); 0 (OmpC protein); 0 (Porins); 0 (fimbrillin); 147680-16-8 (Fimbriae Proteins)


  3 / 45781 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28456528
Autor:Jiang P; Cai Y; Chen J; Ye X; Mao S; Zhu S; Xue X; Chen S; Zhang L
Endereço:Institute of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang, PR China.
Título:Evaluation of tandem Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP multi-epitopes vaccine in BALB/c mice model.
Fonte:Vaccine; 35(23):3096-3103, 2017 05 25.
ISSN:1873-2518
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), an obligate intracellular parasite, is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The best solution to control the spread of Ct is to develop safe and effective vaccines. However, an effective vaccine has not been developed due to some challenges such as selection of appropriate candidate antigens and an effective delivery system. In our previous study, we have developed a Ct vaccine that comprises a multi-epitope peptide of Ct major outer membrane protein (MOMP ) and Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg). The vaccine was evaluated in a murine model with chlamydial genital infection. The results indicated that Ct MOMP multi-epitope delivered by HBcAg could be an effective vaccine for the prevention of Ct. In this study, another two epitopes were selected from the MOMP protein and tandemly linked with MOMP to enhance the immunogenicity and the protective effect of the candidate vaccine. Our results revealed that both the immunogenicity and the protective effect of the tandem Ct MOMP multi-epitopes were much better than that of the single epitope. Therefore, vaccines based on the tandem Ct MOMP multi-epitopes could be more effective immune prophylactics to prevent Ct infection than the single epitope in murine model system.
Tipo de publicação: EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Bacterial Vaccines); 0 (Epitopes); 0 (Porins); 146409-23-6 (omp1 protein, Chlamydia trachomatis)


  4 / 45781 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28455171
Autor:Moberley S; Licciardi PV; Balloch A; Andrews R; Leach AJ; Kirkwood M; Binks P; Mulholland K; Carapetis J; Tang MLK; Skull S
Endereço:Menzies School of Health Research, Child Health Division, Charles Darwin University, Northern Territory, Australia.
Título:Repeat pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Indigenous Australian adults is associated with decreased immune responsiveness.
Fonte:Vaccine; 35(22):2908-2915, 2017 05 19.
ISSN:1873-2518
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Indigenous adults residing in the Northern Territory of Australia experience elevated rates of invasive pneumococcal disease despite the routine use of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV). We hypothesised that the limited protection from 23vPPV may be due to hyporesponsiveness as a result of vaccine failure from repeated vaccination. To explore this possibility, we evaluated the immune response to a first and second dose of 23vPPV in Indigenous adults and a first dose of 23vPPV in non-Indigenous adults. METHODS: Serotype-specific IgG was measured by ELISA for all 23 vaccine serotypes at baseline and at one month post-vaccination. Individuals were considered to have an adequate immune response if paired sera demonstrated either: a four-fold rise in antibody concentration; a two-fold rise if the post vaccination antibody was >1.3µg/ml but <4.0µg/ml; or a post-vaccination antibody concentration >4.0µg/ml for at least half of the serotypes tested (12/23). Our per-protocol analysis included the comparison of outcomes for three groups: Indigenous adults receiving a second 23vPPV dose (N=20) and Indigenous (N=60) and non-Indigenous adults (N=25) receiving their first 23vPPV dose. RESULTS: All non-Indigenous adults receiving a first dose of 23vPPV mounted an adequate immune response (25/25). There was no significant difference in the proportion of individuals with an adequate response using our definition (primary endpoint), with 88% of Indigenous adults mounted an adequate response following first dose 23vPPV (53/60) compared to 70% having an adequate response following a second dose of 23vPPV (14/20; p=0.05). The risk difference between Indigenous participants receiving first dose compared to non-Indigenous participants receiving first dose was significant when comparing a response threshold of at least 70% (-27%, 95% CI: -43% to -11%; p=0.01) and 90% (-38%, 95% CI: -60% to -16%; p=0.006) of serotypes with a positive response. CONCLUSION: Indigenous participants demonstrated a poorer response to a first dose 23vPPV compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts, with lower IgG following a second 23vPPV dose. These findings highlight the critical need to evaluate the efficacy of future pneumococcal vaccine programs in the Australian Indigenous populations that recommend repeated doses of 23vPPV.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine); 0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Immunoglobulin G); 0 (Pneumococcal Vaccines)


  5 / 45781 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28449972
Autor:Sil A; Ravi MD; Patnaik BN; Dhingra MS; Dupuy M; Gandhi DJ; Dhaded SM; Dubey AP; Kundu R; Lalwani SK; Chhatwal J; Mathew LG; Gupta M; Sharma SD; Bavdekar SB; Rout SP; Jayanth MV; D'Cor NA; Mangarule SA; Ravinuthala S; Reddy E J
Endereço:Shantha Biotechnics Private Limited - A Sanofi Company, Hyderabad, India. Electronic address: arijit.sil@sanofi.com.
Título:Effect of prophylactic or therapeutic administration of paracetamol on immune response to DTwP-HepB-Hib combination vaccine in Indian infants.
Fonte:Vaccine; 35(22):2999-3006, 2017 05 19.
ISSN:1873-2518
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Vaccination is considered as the most cost effective method for preventing infectious diseases. Low grade fever is a known adverse effect of vaccination. In India, it is a common clinical practice to prescribe paracetamol either prophylactically or therapeutically to manage fever. Some studies have shown that paracetamol interferes with antibody responses following immunization. This manuscript reports the outcome of a post hoc analysis of data from a clinical trial of a pentavalent vaccine in Indian infants where paracetamol was not used or was used either as prophylaxis or for treatment of fever. METHODS: Pre and post vaccine antibody levels against Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type B were assessed in no paracetamol and paracetamol groups. The paracetamol group was further divided into prophylactic and treatment groups. RESULTS: Similar rates of seroprotection/seroresponse for anti-D, anti-T, anti-wP, anti-PT, anti-HBs and anti-PRP were observed in all the groups. There was no clear tendency for difference in percentage seroprotection/seroresponse and geometric mean (GM) titers in any of the groups. CONCLUSION: The study found no evidence that paracetamol usage either as prophylactic or for treatment impact immunological responses to DTwP-HepB-Hib combination vaccine. [Clinical trial registry of India (study registration number CTRI/2012/08/002872)].
Tipo de publicação: CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine); 0 (DtwP-HepB-Hib vaccine); 0 (Haemophilus Vaccines); 0 (Hepatitis B Antibodies); 0 (Hepatitis B Vaccines); 0 (Vaccines, Conjugate); 362O9ITL9D (Acetaminophen)


  6 / 45781 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28449969
Autor:Le Doare K; Faal A; Jaiteh M; Sarfo F; Taylor S; Warburton F; Humphries H; Birt J; Jarju S; Darboe S; Clarke E; Antonio M; Foster-Nyarko E; Heath PT; Gorringe A; Kampmann B
Endereço:Centre for International Child Health, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK,; Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, St. George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0TE, UK; Vaccines & Immunity Theme, MRC Unit The Gambia, Atlantic Road, Fajara, Gambia
Título:Association between functional antibody against Group B Streptococcus and maternal and infant colonization in a Gambian cohort.
Fonte:Vaccine; 35(22):2970-2978, 2017 05 19.
ISSN:1873-2518
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Vertical transmission of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a prerequisite for early-onset disease and a consequence of maternal GBS colonization. Disease protection is associated with maternally-derived anti-GBS antibody. Using a novel antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition flow cytometry assay which correlates with opsonic killing we developed a model to assess the impact of maternally-derived functional anti-GBS antibody on infant GBS colonization from birth to day 60-89 of life. METHODS: Rectovaginal swabs and cord blood (birth) and infant nasopharyngeal/rectal swabs (birth, day 6 and day 60-89) were obtained from 750 mother/infant pairs. Antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition with cord and infant sera was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: We established that as maternally-derived anti-GBS functional antibody increases, infant colonization decreases at birth and up to three months of life, the critical time window for the development of GBS disease. Further, we observed a serotype (ST)-dependent threshold above which no infant was colonized at birth. Functional antibody above the upper 95th confidence interval for the geometric mean concentration was associated with absence of infant GBS colonization at birth for STII (p<0.001), STIII (p=0.01) and STV (p<0.001). Increased functional antibody was also associated with clearance of GBS between birth and day 60-89. CONCLUSIONS: Higher concentrations of maternally-derived antibody-mediated complement deposition are associated with a decreased risk of GBS colonization in infants up to day 60-89 of life. Our findings are of relevance to establish thresholds for protection following vaccination of pregnant women with future GBS vaccines.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Opsonin Proteins); 80295-43-8 (Complement C3b)


  7 / 45781 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27773873
Autor:Rourk AR; Nolte FS; Litwin CM
Título:Performance Characteristics of the Reverse Syphilis Screening Algorithm in a Population With a Moderately High Prevalence of Syphilis.
Fonte:Am J Clin Pathol; 146(5):572-577, 2016 Nov 01.
ISSN:1943-7722
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Objectives: With the recent introduction of automated treponemal tests, a new reverse syphilis algorithm has been proposed and now used by many clinical laboratories. We analyzed the impact of instituting the reverse screening syphilis algorithm in a laboratory that serves a geographic area with a moderately high prevalence of syphilis infection. Methods: Serum samples sent for syphilis testing were tested using a treponemal enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as the screening assay. EIA reactive samples were tested by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and titered to end point if reactive. RPR nonreactive samples were analyzed by the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test (TP-PA). Pertinent medical records were reviewed for false-reactive screens and samples with evidence of past syphilis infection. Results: Among 10,060 patients tested, 502 (5%) were reactive on the initial EIA screen. The RPR was reactive in 150 (1.5%). TP-PA testing determined that 103 (1.0%) were falsely reactive on initial EIA screen. The reverse screening algorithm, however, identified 242 (2.4%) with evidence of latent, secondary, or past syphilis, 21 of whom had no or unknown prior treatment with antibiotics. Conclusions: Despite a 1.0% false-reactive rate, the reverse syphilis algorithm detected 21 patients with possible latent syphilis that may have gone undetected by traditional syphilis screening.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Antigens, Bacterial); 0 (Immunoglobulin G)


  8 / 45781 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28461446
Autor:Pequegnat B; Laird RM; Ewing CP; Hill CL; Omari E; Poly F; Monteiro MA; Guerry P
Endereço:Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Título:Phase-Variable Changes in the Position of -Methyl Phosphoramidate Modifications on the Polysaccharide Capsule of Campylobacter jejuni Modulate Serum Resistance.
Fonte:J Bacteriol; 199(14), 2017 07 15.
ISSN:1098-5530
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:polysaccharide capsules (CPS) are characterized by the presence of nonstoichiometric -methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modifications. The lack of stoichiometry is due to phase variation at homopolymeric tracts within the MeOPN transferase genes. strain 81-176 contains two MeOPN transferase genes and has been shown previously to contain MeOPN modifications at the 2 and 6 positions of the galactose (Gal) moiety in the CPS. We demonstrate here that one of the two MeOPN transferases, encoded by CJJ81176_1435, is bifunctional and is responsible for the addition of MeOPN to both the 2 and the 6 positions of Gal. A new MeOPN at the 4 position of Gal was observed in a mutant lacking the CJJ81176_1435 transferase and this was encoded by the CJJ81176_1420 transferase. During routine growth of 81-176, the CJJ81176_1420 transferase was predominantly in an off configuration, while the CJJ81176_1435 transferase was primarily on. However, exposure to normal human serum selected for cells expressing the CJJ81176_1420 transferase. MeOPN modifications appear to block binding of naturally occurring antibodies to the 81-176 CPS. The absence of MeOPN-4-Gal resulted in enhanced sensitivity to serum killing, whereas the loss of MeOPN-2-Gal and MeOPN-6-Gal resulted in enhanced resistance to serum killing, perhaps by allowing more MeOPN to be put onto the 4 position of Gal. undergoes phase variation in genes encoding surface antigens, leading to the concept that a strain of this organism consists of multiple genotypes that are selected for fitness in various environments. Methyl phosphoramidate modifications on the capsule of block access of preexisting antibodies in normal human sera to the polysaccharide chain, thus preventing activation of the classical arm of the complement cascade. We show that the capsule of strain 81-176 contains more sites of MeOPN modifications than previously recognized and that one site, on the 4 position of galactose, is more critical to complement resistance than the others. Exposure to normal human serum selects for variants in the population expressing this MeOPN modification.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Amides); 0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Immune Sera); 0 (Immunodominant Epitopes); 0 (Phosphoric Acids); 0 (Polysaccharides, Bacterial); 9Q189608GB (phosphoramidic acid)


  9 / 45781 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28457619
Autor:D'Arco C; Dattwyler RJ; Arnaboldi PM
Endereço:Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, United States.
Título:Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgA in Lyme Disease.
Fonte:EBioMedicine; 19:91-97, 2017 May.
ISSN:2352-3964
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is currently dependent on the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of the disease. The significance of serum IgA against B. burgdorferi remains unclear. The production of intrathecal IgA has been noted in patients with the late Lyme disease manifestation, neuroborreliosis, but production of antigen-specific IgA during early disease has not been evaluated. In the current study, we assessed serum IgA binding to the B. burgdorferi peptide antigens, C6, the target of the FDA-cleared C6 EIA, and FlaB(211-223)-modVlsE(275-291), a peptide containing a Borrelia flagellin epitope linked to a modified VlsE sequence, in patients with early and late Lyme disease. Specific IgA was detected in 59 of 152 serum samples (38.8%) from early Lyme disease patients. Approximately 50% of early Lyme disease patients who were seropositive for peptide-specific IgM and/or IgG were also seropositive for peptide-specific IgA. In a subpopulation of patients, high peptide-specific IgA could be correlated with disseminated disease, defined as multiple erythema migrans lesions, and neurological disease complications. These results suggest that there may be an association between elevated levels of antigen-specific IgA and particular disease manifestations in some patients with early Lyme disease.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Antigens, Bacterial); 0 (Immunoglobulin A); 0 (Immunoglobulin G); 0 (Immunoglobulin M)


  10 / 45781 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27774610
Autor:Lee S; Kim HW; Kim KH
Endereço:Center for Vaccine Evaluation and Study, Medical Research Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Título:Functional antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type B, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae contained in intravenous immunoglobulin products.
Fonte:Transfusion; 57(1):157-165, 2017 01.
ISSN:1537-2995
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) replacement therapy is used to prevent invasive infections in patients with primary antibody deficiency (PAD). However, few studies have functionally evaluated specific antibodies against encapsulated bacteria that cause invasive infection in patients with PAD. In this study, functional antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci), and Neisseria meningitidis (meningococci) in IVIG therapy were evaluated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen lots of IVIG products prepared by two Korean manufacturers (Products A and B) were evaluated. The functional antibodies were measured by serum bactericidal assay for Hib and four meningococcal serogroups and by multiplexed opsonophagocytic assay for 26 pneumococcal serotypes. The estimated trough levels of antibodies against Hib, pneumococcus, and meningococcus were calculated to determine whether the usual IVIG dose is appropriate for protecting patients with PAD. RESULTS: The functional antibody levels for Hib were similar in all of the IVIG products. In contrast, serum bacterial indices of meningococcal serogroups A and Y showed significant differences between products A and B. Opsonic indices to pneumococci varied depending on the serotype in each IVIG product. The estimated trough levels of antibodies against Hib, pneumococcus, and meningococcus exceeded the protective levels in most of the IVIG products except for the antibodies against two pneumococcal serotypes. CONCLUSION: Most of the tested commercial IVIG products had sufficient functional antibodies against Hib, pneumococcus, and meningococcus to protect patients with PAD receiving IVIG treatment. Regular and continuous evaluation of IVIG products is necessary to maintain an optimal therapeutic effect.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Immunoglobulins, Intravenous)



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