Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : D20.050 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 655 [refinar]
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  1 / 655 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29478665
Autor:Sienkiewicz E; Gasiorowski M
Endereço:Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Research Centre at Warsaw, St. Twarda 51/55, Warsaw PL-00818, Poland. Electronic address: esienkie@twarda.pan.pl.
Título:Limited acid deposition inferred from diatoms during the 20th century - A case study from lakes in the Tatra Mountains.
Fonte:J Environ Sci (China); 64:92-106, 2018 Feb.
ISSN:1001-0742
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Mountain lakes are usually sensitive to the effects of global and regional environmental changes. Since the second half of the 20th century, surface-water acidification has become a significant ecological problem, and many lakes in Europe and North America have anthropogenically acidified. Additionally, following reduction in emissions of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds, recovery from acidification has been observed in many lakes. In this study, we used changes in diatom communities to reconstruct the pH histories based on changes recorded in nine Tatra lakes (Western Carpathians, Poland) since approximately 1850AD. Overall, results indicate that acidic precipitation had little influence on lake-water pH in the Tatra Mountain lakes. Changes in diatom-inferred pH (DI-pH) generally were small and showed little evidence of acidification during the time of the highest air pollution (since the 1960s), and have shown little change since the reduction of acidic deposition since the 1990s. Lakes that showed some evidence of acidification included dystrophic lakes with low acid neutralizing capacity. However, as illustrated by the PCA trajectories of the diatom assemblages, the majority of the lakes currently contain diatom assemblages that are unlike the diatom floras that existed ca. 1850.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Acid Rain)


  2 / 655 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29065171
Autor:Ju S; Wang L; Zhang C; Yin T; Shao S
Endereço:School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China.
Título:Alleviatory effects of silicon on the foliar micromorphology and anatomy of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under simulated acid rain.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(10):e0187021, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Silicon (Si) is a macroelement in plants. The biological effects and mitigation mechanisms of silicon under environmental stress have become hot topics. The main objectives of this study were to elucidate the roles of Si in alleviating the effects on the phenotype, micromorphology and anatomy of the leaves of rice seedlings under acid rain stress. The results indicated that the combined or single effects of Si and simulated acid rain (SAR) stress on rice roots depended on the concentration of Si and the intensity of the SAR stress. The combined or single effects of the moderate concentration of Si (2.0 mM) and light SAR (pH 4.0) enhanced the growth of the rice leaves and the development of the mesophyll cells, and the combined effects were stronger than those of the single treatments. The high concentration of Si (4.0 mM) and severe SAR (pH 3.0 or 2.0) exerted deleterious effects. The incorporation of Si (2.0 or 4.0 mM) into SAR at pH values of 3.0 or 2.0 promoted rice leaf growth, decreased necrosis spots, maintained the structure and function of the mesophyll cells, increased the epicuticular wax content and wart-like protuberance (WP) density, and improved the stomatal characteristics of the leaves of rice seedlings more than the SAR only treatments. The alleviatory effects observed with a moderate concentration of Si (2.0 mM) were better than the effects obtained with the high concentration of Si (4.0 mM). The alleviatory effects were due to the enhancement of the mechanical barriers in the leaf epidermis.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Acid Rain); Z4152N8IUI (Silicon)


  3 / 655 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28820566
Título:The Long-Run Effects of Pollution Exposure on Mortality.
Fonte:Natl Bur Econ Res Bull Aging Health; (3):3, 2017.
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Acid Rain); 0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Coal); 0UZA3422Q4 (Sulfur Dioxide)


  4 / 655 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28571849
Autor:Li B; Wang Z; Zhang X
Endereço:Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Electronic address: bwli@qq.com.
Título:Assessment of the maximum allowed acid deposition load at current stage in China.
Fonte:J Environ Sci (China); 56:140-144, 2017 Jun.
ISSN:1001-0742
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Soil acidification caused by acid deposition has been significant in some forests in southern China. We present an approach for assessing the current stage maximum allowed load (SML) of acid deposition for terrestrial system in the country. The main idea was that soil base cation exchange as a finite buffer to acidity was included in the soil acidity mass balance calculation at current acidification stage. We calculated the SML for five forests in southern China. The usual critical loads for the same forests were also calculated by the steady state mass balance model for comparison. The results showed that the SML is a more tolerant limit than the critical load for the forests with soils not acidified seriously at current stage. However, the SML become a more stringent limit to acid deposition when the forest soils have acidified seriously to very low base cation saturation. In this case the SML assessment is beneficial for the soils recovering from a serious acidified state. Based on a national scale database, the SML mapping for non-agricultural soil system in China was carried out.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Acid Rain); 0 (Soil)


  5 / 655 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28299408
Autor:Zheng S; Pan T; Ma C; Qiu D
Endereço:College of Horticulture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.
Título:Differential Gene Expression of Longan Under Simulated Acid Rain Stress.
Fonte:Bull Environ Contam Toxicol; 98(5):726-731, 2017 May.
ISSN:1432-0800
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Differential gene expression profile was studied in Dimocarpus longan Lour. in response to treatments of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 3.5, and a control (pH 5.6) using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR). Results showed that mRNA differential display conditions were optimized to find an expressed sequence tag (EST) related with acid rain stress. The potential encoding products had 80% similarity with a transcription initiation factor IIF of Gossypium raimondii and 81% similarity with a protein product of Theobroma cacao. This fragment is the transcription factor activated by second messenger substances in longan leaves after signal perception of acid rain.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Acid Rain); 0 (RNA, Plant)


  6 / 655 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28291806
Autor:Ju S; Yin N; Wang L; Zhang C; Wang Y
Endereço:School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China.
Título:Effects of silicon on Oryza sativa L. seedling roots under simulated acid rain stress.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(3):e0173378, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Silicon (Si) has an important function in reducing the damage of environmental stress on plants. Acid rain is a serious abiotic stress factor, and Si can alleviate the stress induced by acid rain on plants. Based on these assumptions, we investigated the effects of silicon on the growth, root phenotype, mineral element contents, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidative enzymes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling roots under simulated acid rain (SAR) stress. The results showed that the combined or single effects of Si and/or SAR on rice roots depend on the concentration of Si and the pH of the SAR. The combined or single effects of a low or moderate concentration of Si (1.0 or 2.0 mM) and light SAR (pH 4.0) enhanced the growth of rice roots, and the combined effects were stronger than those of the single treatment. A high concentration of Si (4.0 mM) or severe SAR (pH 2.0) exerted deleterious effects. The incorporation of Si (1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mM) into SAR with pH 3.0 or 2.0 promoted the rice root growth, decreased the H2O2 content, increased the Si concentration and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, maintained the balance of mineral element (K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu) concentrations in the roots of rice seedlings compared with SAR alone. The alleviatory effects observed with a moderate concentration of Si (2.0 mM) were better than the effects obtained with a low or high concentration of Si (1.0 or 4.0 mM). The observed effects were due to disruptions in the absorption and utilization of mineral nutrients and impacts on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in roots, and this conclusion suggests that the degree of rice root damage caused by acid rain might be attributed to not only acid rain but also the level of Si in the soil.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Acid Rain); Z4152N8IUI (Silicon)


  7 / 655 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28185178
Autor:Du W; Hong Z; Chen Y; Deng J; Chen J; Xu L; Hong Y; Xiao H
Endereço:Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021, People's Republic of China.
Título:Spatiotemporal distribution and source apportionment of low molecular weight organic acids in wet precipitation at a coastal city, China.
Fonte:Environ Sci Pollut Res Int; 24(9):8399-8410, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1614-7499
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:To investigate the characteristics and sources of low molecular weight (LMW) organic acids in wet precipitation at a coastal city, Xiamen, a total of 313 rainwater samples were collected at seven different functional areas from September 2012 to August 2013. Spatiotemporal characteristics of LMW organic acids as well as pH and electrical conductivity were analyzed. Meanwhile, air mass clusters in different seasons and the positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportion model were comprehensively used to identify the sources of organic acids. In conclusion, the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of formic (3.20 µmol/L), acetic (1.84 µmol/L), lactic (0.44 µmol/L), and oxalic acid (0.53 µmol/L) were obtained, which jointly contributed to 4.33% of the total free acidity (TFA). At the same time, the highest wet deposition flux of LMW organic acids and contribution of that to TFA were achieved at the forest protection area during growing season in Xiamen. In addition, biogenic emissions (77.12%), sea salts (13.77%), regional agriculture activities (3.92%), soil emissions (2.56%), biomass burning (1.47%), and secondary aerosols (1.15%) were determined as the source of LMW organic acids. Besides, the dominancy of biomass burning via long-range transport in non-growing season (NGS) and the contribution of biogenic emission in growing season (GS) were recognized. Finally, the considerable influence of sea salts on the LMW organic acids (13.77%) in Xiamen was quantified, especially for oxalic acid.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Acid Rain); 0 (Aerosols); 0 (Soil)


  8 / 655 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28115140
Autor:Zhao B; Liu A; Wu G; Li D; Guan Y
Endereço:Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China.
Título:Characterization of heavy metal desorption from road-deposited sediment under acid rain scenarios.
Fonte:J Environ Sci (China); 51:284-293, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1001-0742
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Road-deposited sediments (RDS) on urban impervious surfaces are important carriers of heavy metals. Dissolved heavy metals that come from RDS influenced by acid rain, are more harmful to urban receiving water than particulate parts. RDS and its associated heavy metals were investigated at typical functional areas, including industrial, commercial and residential sites, in Guangdong, Southern China, which was an acid rain sensitive area. Total and dissolved heavy metals in five particle size fractions were analyzed using a shaking method under acid rain scenarios. Investigated heavy metals showed no difference in the proportion of dissolved fraction in the solution under different acid rain pHs above 3.0, regardless of land use. Dissolved loading of heavy metals related to organic carbon content were different in runoff from main traffic roads of three land use types. Coarse particles (>150µm) that could be efficiently removed by conventional street sweepers, accounted for 55.1%-47.1% of the total dissolved metal loading in runoff with pH3.0-5.6. The obtained findings provided a significant scientific basis to understand heavy metal release and influence of RDS grain-size distribution and land use in dissolved heavy metal pollution affected by acid rain.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Acid Rain); 0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)


  9 / 655 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28082250
Autor:Beier CM; Caputo J; Lawrence GB; Sullivan TJ
Endereço:Department of Forest and Natural Resources Management, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, NY, 13210, United States. Electronic address: cbeier@esf.edu.
Título:Loss of ecosystem services due to chronic pollution of forests and surface waters in the Adirondack region (USA).
Fonte:J Environ Manage; 191:19-27, 2017 Apr 15.
ISSN:1095-8630
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Sustaining recent progress in mitigating acid pollution could require lower emissions caps that will give rise to real or perceived tradeoffs between healthy ecosystems and inexpensive energy. Because most impacts of acid rain affect ecosystem functions that are poorly understood by policy-makers and the public, an ecosystem services (ES) framework can help to measure how pollution affects human well-being. Focused on the Adirondack region (USA), a global 'hot-spot' of acid pollution, we measured how the chronic acidification of the region's forests, lakes, and streams has affected the potential economic and cultural benefits they provide to society. We estimated that acid-impaired hardwood forests provide roughly half of the potential benefits of forests on moderate to well-buffered soils - an estimated loss of ∼ $10,000 ha in net present value of wood products, maple syrup, carbon sequestration, and visual quality. Acidic deposition has had only nominal impact - relative to the effects of surficial geology and till depth - on the capacity of Adirondack lakes and streams to provide water suitable for drinking. However, as pH declines in lakes, the estimated value of recreational fishing decreases significantly due to loss of desirable fish such as trout. Hatchery stocking programs have partially offset the pollution-mediated losses of fishery value, most effectively in the pH range 4.8-5.5, but are costly and limited in scope. Although any estimates of the monetary 'damages' of acid rain have significant uncertainties, our findings highlight some of the more tangible economic and cultural benefits of pollution mitigation efforts, which continue to face litigation and political opposition.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Acid Rain)


  10 / 655 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28056417
Autor:Xia B; Sun Z; Wang L; Zhou Q; Huang X
Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Anaerobic Biotechnology, College of Environment and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; Jiangsu Cooperative Innovation Center of Water Treatment Technology and Materials, Suzhou University of Scien
Título:Analysis of the combined effects of lanthanum and acid rain, and their mechanisms, on nitrate reductase transcription in plants.
Fonte:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf; 138:170-178, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1090-2414
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Rare earth element (REE) pollution and acid rain are major global environmental concerns, and their spatial distributions overlap. Thus, both forms of pollution combine to act on plants. Nitrogen is important for plant growth, and nitrate reductase (NR) is a key plant enzyme that catalyzes nitrogen assimilation. Studying the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plant nitrogen-based nutrients has important environmental significance. Here, soybean (Glycine max) plants, commonly used for toxicological studies, were exposed to lanthanum (La), a REE, and acid rain to study the NR activities and NR transcriptional levels in the roots. To explain how the pollution affected the NR transcriptional level, we simultaneously observed the contents of intracellular La and nutrient elements, protoplast morphology, membrane lipid peroxidation and intracellular pH. A combined treatment of 0.08mmol/L La and pH 4.5 acid rain increased the NR activity, decreased the NR transcriptional level, increased the intracellular nutrient elements' contents and caused deformations in membrane structures. Other combined treatments significantly decreased the aforementioned parameters and caused serious damage to the membrane structures. The variation in the amplitudes of combined treatments was greater than those of individual treatments. Compared with the control and individual treatments, combined treatments increased membrane permeability, the malondialdehyde content, and intracellular H and La contents, and with an increasing La concentration or acid strength, the change in amplitude increased. Thus, the combined effects on NR gene transcription in soybean seedling roots were related to the intracellular nutrient elements' contents, protoplast morphology, membranous lipid peroxidation, intracellular pH and La content.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Acid Rain); 0 (Membrane Lipids); 4Y8F71G49Q (Malondialdehyde); 6I3K30563S (Lanthanum); EC 1.7.99.4 (Nitrate Reductase)



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