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PMID:29484748
Autor:Peurala E; Tuominen M; Löyttyniemi E; Syrjänen S; Rautava J
Endereço:Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Institute of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
Título:Eosinophilia is a favorable prognostic marker for oral cavity and lip squamous cell carcinoma.
Fonte:APMIS; 126(3):201-207, 2018 Mar.
ISSN:1600-0463
País de publicação:Denmark
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Eosinophils are frequently encountered with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and it has been proposed that tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) could be of prognostic significance in oral SCC. The aim was to evaluate TATE in 83 oral cavity and 16 lip SCCs as well as the best possible use of TATE as a prognostic marker. The number of eosinophils was counted per high power fields (HPF, ×400) in three different representative areas of the tumor and its stroma. The degree of TATE was analyzed in relation to clinicopathological features of tumors and patients' survival (follow-up mean 40.7 months) using Fisher's exact test. TATE was detected in 58 (70%) oral and 8 (50%) lip SCC samples. The median number of eosinophils between oral and lip SCC was different (p = 0.028) but TATE was similar per HPF (p = 0.085). Totally, 6% of lip and 21% of oral SCC patients died during the follow-up. The patients with the higher TATE had significantly better survival than the patients with the lower TATE (p = 0.0136). The best cut-off value predicting the survival was 4 eosinophils/HPF. TATE is a prognostic marker for oral and lip SCC: more than 4 eosinophils/HPF may predict more favorable prognosis.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Biomarkers, Tumor)


  2 / 127305 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29408935
Autor:Lasser KE; Lunze K; Cheng DM; Blokhina E; Walley AY; Tindle HA; Quinn E; Gnatienko N; Krupitsky E; Samet JH
Endereço:Department of Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine, Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health/Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
Título:Depression and smoking characteristics among HIV-positive smokers in Russia: A cross-sectional study.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(2):e0189207, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Globally, persons with HIV infection, depression and substance use disorders have a higher smoking prevalence and smoke more heavily than other populations. These associations have not been explored among Russian smokers with HIV infection and substance use disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the presence of depressive symptoms and smoking outcomes in an HIV-positive cohort of Russian smokers with a history of substance use disorders (alcohol and/or drug use disorders). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of a cohort of HIV-positive regular smokers with a history of substance use disorders recruited in St. Petersburg, Russia in 2012-2015. The primary outcome was heavy smoking, defined as smoking > 20 cigarettes per day. Nicotine dependence (moderate-very high) was a secondary outcome. The main independent variable was a high level of depressive symptoms in the past 7 days (defined as CES-D > = 24). We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between depressive symptoms and the outcomes, controlling for age, sex, education, income, running out of money for housing/food, injection drug use, and alcohol use measured by the AUDIT. RESULTS: Among 309 regular smokers, 79 participants (25.6%) had high levels of depressive symptoms, and 65 participants (21.0%) were heavy smokers. High levels of depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with heavy smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.50, 95% CI 0.78-2.89) or with moderate-very high levels of nicotine dependence (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 0.75-2.41). CONCLUSIONS: This study did not detect an association between depressive symptoms and smoking outcomes among HIV-positive regular smokers in Russia.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  3 / 127305 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28467207
Autor:Moon S
Endereço:a Department of Nursing , College of Medicine, University of Ulsan , Ulsan , South Korea.
Título:Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Korean People with Metabolic Syndrome.
Fonte:J Community Health Nurs; 34(2):69-79, 2017 Apr-Jun.
ISSN:1532-7655
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:This study identified factors associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors in people with metabolic syndrome in South Korea. The sample consisted of 1,207 subjects with metabolic syndrome from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2014. High-risk alcohol consumption, smoking, aerobic physical activity, leisure physical activity, excessive carbohydrate intake, and fat intake were measured. A secondary data analysis was performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Gender was associated with all unhealthy behaviors. The number of metabolic syndrome components, a poor perceived health status, and attempts to control weight were associated with physical inactivity. Those findings may be helpful to develop a tailored lifestyle modification programs for people with metabolic syndrome.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Dietary Carbohydrates); 0 (Dietary Fats)


  4 / 127305 MEDLINE  
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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
PMID:29267663
Autor:Sordi MB; Massochin RC; Camargo AR; Lemos T; Munhoz EA
Endereço:Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC, Health Science Centre, Department of Stomatology, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.
Título:Oral health assessment for users of marijuana and cocaine/crack substances.
Fonte:Braz Oral Res; 31:e102, 2017 Dec 18.
ISSN:1807-3107
País de publicação:Brazil
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The objective of this study was to assess the oral health status of users of illicit drugs such as marijuana and cocaine/crack and compare it with individuals not using these chemical substances. Questionnaires were applied to 35 illicit drugs users to gather information on demographic status, general health, and use of drugs. Then, a clinical assessment of the oral health condition was performed to collect data on decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index, salivary flow rate (SFR), and mucosal lesions. The control group was composed of 35 non-illicit drug users. In the experimental group, 91.43% were males, 80% were smokers, and 42.85% were alcoholics. Cocaine was the most common drug used (77.15%), followed by marijuana (68.6%), and crack (51.4%). The average DMFT index was 9.8 and the SFR was reduced in 60% of subjects. Mucosal alterations were detected, but no potentially malignant disorders or oral cancer were diagnosed. Compared to control group, significantly higher values for gender (40%, p = 0.0001), smoking (22.86%) and heavy drinking (5.7%) habits (p = 0.0001), SFR (31.4%; p = 0.0308), and oral lesions (p = 0.0488) were found for the experimental group, although significantly higher values were found in the control group for DMFT index (p = 0.0148). It can be concluded that the use of illicit drugs contributed to an increased prevalence of oral mucosa lesions. In addition, a decline on SFR and a reduced DMFT index was observed for illicit drug users.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


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PMID:28459622
Autor:Martinez CH; Murray S; Barr RG; Bleecker E; Bowler RP; Christenson SA; Comellas AP; Cooper CB; Couper D; Criner GJ; Curtis JL; Dransfield MT; Hansel NN; Hoffman EA; Kanner RE; Kleerup E; Krishnan JA; Lazarus SC; Leidy NK; O'Neal W; Martinez FJ; Paine R; Rennard SI; Tashkin DP; Woodruff PG; Han MK; Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study Investigators
Endereço:1 Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Título:Respiratory Symptoms Items from the COPD Assessment Test Identify Ever-Smokers with Preserved Lung Function at Higher Risk for Poor Respiratory Outcomes. An Analysis of the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study Cohort.
Fonte:Ann Am Thorac Soc; 14(5):636-642, 2017 May.
ISSN:2325-6621
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:RATIONALE: Ever-smokers without airflow obstruction scores greater than or equal to 10 on the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) still have frequent acute respiratory disease events (exacerbation-like), impaired exercise capacity, and imaging abnormalities. Identification of these subjects could provide new opportunities for targeted interventions. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the four respiratory-related items of the CAT might be useful for identifying such individuals, with discriminative ability similar to CAT, which is an eight-item questionnaire used to assess chronic obstructive pulmonary disease impact, including nonrespiratory questions, with scores ranging from 0 to 40. METHODS: We evaluated ever-smoker participants in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study without airflow obstruction (FEV /FVC ≥0.70; FVC above the lower limit of normal). Using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, we compared responses to both CAT and the respiratory symptom-related CAT items (cough, phlegm, chest tightness, and breathlessness) and their associations with longitudinal exacerbations. We tested agreement between the two strategies (κ statistic), and we compared demographics, lung function, and symptoms among subjects identified as having high symptoms by each strategy. RESULTS: Among 880 ever-smokers with normal lung function (mean age, 61 yr; 52% women) and using a CAT cutpoint greater than or equal to 10, we classified 51.8% of individuals as having high symptoms, 15.3% of whom experienced at least one exacerbation during 1-year follow-up. After testing sensitivity and specificity of different scores for the first four questions to predict any 1-year follow-up exacerbation, we selected cutpoints of 0-6 as representing a low burden of symptoms versus scores of 7 or higher as representing a high burden of symptoms for all subsequent comparisons. The four respiratory-related items with cutpoint greater than or equal to 7 selected 45.8% participants, 15.6% of whom experienced at least one exacerbation during follow-up. The two strategies largely identified the same individuals (agreement, 88.5%; κ = 0.77; P < 0.001), and the proportions of high-symptoms subjects who had severe dyspnea were similar between CAT and the first four CAT questions (25.9% and 26.8%, respectively), as were the proportions reporting impaired quality of life (66.9% and 70.5%, respectively) and short walking distance (22.4% and 23.1%, respectively). There was no difference in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict 1-year follow-up exacerbations (CAT score ≥10, 0.66; vs. four respiratory items from CAT ≥7 score, 0.65; P = 0.69). Subjects identified by either method also had more depression/anxiety symptoms, poor sleep quality, and greater fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Four CAT items on respiratory symptoms identified high-risk symptomatic ever-smokers with preserved spirometry as well as the CAT did. These data suggest that simpler strategies can be developed to identify these high-risk individuals in primary care.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
Nome de substância:0 (Biomarkers)


  6 / 127305 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28459623
Autor:Morgan AD; Sharma C; Rothnie KJ; Potts J; Smeeth L; Quint JK
Endereço:1 Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London.
Título:Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and the Risk of Stroke.
Fonte:Ann Am Thorac Soc; 14(5):754-765, 2017 May.
ISSN:2325-6621
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. The role of COPD in cerebrovascular disease is, however, less certain. Although earlier studies have suggested that the risk for stroke is also increased in COPD, more recent investigations have generated mixed results. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of our review was to quantify the magnitude of the association between COPD and stroke. We also sought to clarify the nature of the relationship between COPD and stroke by investigating whether the risk of stroke in COPD varies with age, sex, smoking history, and/or type of stroke and whether stroke risk is modified in particular COPD phenotypes. RESULTS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched in May 2016 to identify articles that compared stroke outcomes in people with and without COPD. Studies were grouped by study design to distinguish those that reported prevalence of stroke (cross-sectional studies) from those that estimated incidence (cohort or case-control studies). In addition, studies were stratified according to study population characteristics, the nature of COPD case definitions, and adjustment for confounding (smoking). Heterogeneity was assessed using the I statistic. We identified 5,493 studies, of which 30 met our predefined inclusion criteria. Of the 25 studies that reported prevalence ratios, 11 also estimated prevalence odds ratios. The level of heterogeneity among the included cross-sectional studies did not permit the calculation of pooled ratios, save for a group of four studies that estimated prevalence odds ratios adjusted for smoking (prevalence odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.09; I = 45%). All 11 studies that estimated relative risk for nonfatal incident stroke reported increased risk in COPD. Adjustment for smoking invariably reduced the magnitude of the associations. CONCLUSIONS: Although both prevalence and incidence of stroke are increased in people with COPD, the weight of evidence does not support the hypothesis that COPD is an independent risk factor for stroke. The possibility remains that COPD is causal in certain subsets of patients with COPD and for certain stroke subtypes.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW


  7 / 127305 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29186634
Autor:Lein DH; Clark D; Graham C; Perez P; Morris D
Endereço:Department of Physical Therapy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, SHPB 376, 1720 2nd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL, 35294-1212.
Título:A Model to Integrate Health Promotion and Wellness in Physical Therapist Practice: Development and Validation.
Fonte:Phys Ther; 97(12):1169-1181, 2017 Dec 01.
ISSN:1538-6724
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Background: Globally, physical therapy professional organizations have called for physical therapists to perform lifestyle behavior management during customary care, or health-focused care, due to increasing morbidity and mortality related to noncommunicable diseases. Given the potential for health-focused care to improve health outcomes, physical therapists should integrate health promotion into their daily clinical practice. A clinical model that illustrates necessary steps to deliver health-focused care would be helpful to educate present and future physical therapists. Objective: The purpose of the study was to develop and validate the Health-Focused Physical Therapy Model (HFPTM) for physical inactivity and smoking. Methods: The authors used a mixed method approach. The preliminary model was informed by previous research and the investigators' shared experience in health promotion and physical therapy. An interdisciplinary group of health professionals provided input into the preliminary model by way of a World Café format. Eight physical therapists with health promotion and education expertise then engaged in a Delphi process to establish content validity. Results: World Café participants indicated that: (1) physical therapists are well positioned to engage in health promotion and wellness, and (2) the model facilitates interdisciplinary collaboration and consultation. Delphi process participants reached majority consensus in 1 round. The average model content validity index (CVI) was .915 for physical inactivity and .899 for smoking. Agreement concerning the model schematic was 88% for either behavior. Investigators made few editorial changes after the Delphi process. Limitations: Limitations of this study include using only 2 unhealthy lifestyle behaviors for testing, and performing the testing in a nonclinical setting. Conclusions: An interdisciplinary group of health professionals believes that physical therapists should practice health-focused care and that the HFPTM is a valid model. This model could help physical therapist educators when educating physical therapist students and clinicians to practice health-focused care.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 127305 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28922778
Autor:Fanidi A; Muller DC; Yuan JM; Stevens VL; Weinstein SJ; Albanes D; Prentice R; Thomsen CA; Pettinger M; Cai Q; Blot WJ; Wu J; Arslan AA; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A; McCullough ML; Le Marchand L; Wilkens LR; Haiman CA; Zhang X; Han J; Stampfer MJ; Smith-Warner SA; Giovannucci E; Giles GG; Hodge AM; Severi G; Johansson M; Grankvist K; Langhammer A; Krokstad S; Næss M; Wang R; Gao YT; Butler LM; Koh WP; Shu XO; Xiang YB; Li H; Zheng W; Lan Q; Visvanathan K; Bolton JH; Ueland PM; Midttun Ø; Ulvik A; Caporaso NE; Purdue M; Ziegler RG; Freedman ND; Buring JE
Endereço:Genetic Epidemiology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, UK; Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Epide
Título:Circulating Folate, Vitamin B6, and Methionine in Relation to Lung Cancer Risk in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3).
Fonte:J Natl Cancer Inst; 110(1), 2018 Jan 01.
ISSN:1460-2105
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Background: Circulating concentrations of B vitamins and factors related to one-carbon metabolism have been found to be strongly inversely associated with lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The extent to which these associations are present in other study populations is unknown. Methods: Within 20 prospective cohorts from the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium, a nested case-control study was designed including 5364 incident lung cancer case patients and 5364 control subjects who were individually matched to case patients by age, sex, cohort, and smoking status. Centralized biochemical analyses were performed to measure circulating concentrations of vitamin B6, folate, and methionine, as well as cotinine as an indicator of recent tobacco exposure. The association between these biomarkers and lung cancer risk was evaluated using conditional logistic regression models. Results: Participants with higher circulating concentrations of vitamin B6 and folate had a modestly decreased risk of lung cancer risk overall, the odds ratios when comparing the top and bottom fourths (OR 4vs1 ) being 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.78 to 1.00) and 0.86 (95% CI = 0.74 to 0.99), respectively. We found stronger associations among men (vitamin B6: OR 4vs1 = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.89; folate: OR 4vs1 = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.93) and ever smokers (vitamin B6: OR 4vs1 = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.91; folate: OR 4vs1 = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.03). We further noted that the association of folate was restricted to Europe/Australia and Asia, whereas no clear association was observed for the United States. Circulating concentrations of methionine were not associated with lung cancer risk overall or in important subgroups. Conclusions: Although confounding by tobacco exposure or reverse causation cannot be ruled out, these study results are compatible with a small decrease in lung cancer risk in ever smokers who avoid low concentrations of circulating folate and vitamin B6.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:8059-24-3 (Vitamin B 6); 935E97BOY8 (Folic Acid); AE28F7PNPL (Methionine); K5161X06LL (Cotinine)


  9 / 127305 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28470154
Autor:Kim JH; Choi YH
Endereço:Department of Nursing, Hosan University, Gyeongsan, Korea.
Título:[Effects of a Strength Based I-Change Smoking Cessation Program for Smoking Middle School Boys].
Fonte:J Korean Acad Nurs; 47(2):164-177, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:2093-758X
País de publicação:Korea (South)
Idioma:kor
Resumo:PURPOSE: This study was done to develop a strength based I-change smoking cessation program for middle school boys and identified its effects. METHODS: The study design was a nonequivalent control group pre-post test design. The participants were 97 middle school students from D city, who were in school from April 6 to September 25, 2015. The experimental group participated in the strength based I-change smoking cessation program, while the comparative group participated in a general smoking cessation program. The control group did not participate in any program. Data analyses involved χ²-test, Fishers' exact test, Bonferroni test, and Repeated measures ANOVA, with the IBM SPSS for Windows (version 20.0) program. RESULTS: Compared to the comparison and control groups, the experimental group showed significant improvement in knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, behavior change. Also cotinine in urine and modeling of social influence in the experimental group significantly decreased after the strength based I-change smoking cessation program. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the strength based I-change smoking cessation program is an effective intervention for middle school boys who smoke. The findings suggest that such programs can be used at public health centers or through school health education to decrease smoking in adolescents.
Tipo de publicação: CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:K5161X06LL (Cotinine)


  10 / 127305 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29367388
Autor:Hackshaw A; Morris JK; Boniface S; Tang JL; Milenkovic D
Endereço:Cancer Research UK and UCL Cancer Trials Centre, University College London, London W1T 4TJ, UK.
Título:Low cigarette consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: meta-analysis of 141 cohort studies in 55 study reports.
Fonte:BMJ; 360:j5855, 2018 01 24.
ISSN:1756-1833
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To use the relation between cigarette consumption and cardiovascular disease to quantify the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke for light smoking (one to five cigarettes/day). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline 1946 to May 2015, with manual searches of references. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Prospective cohort studies with at least 50 events, reporting hazard ratios or relative risks (both hereafter referred to as relative risk) compared with never smokers or age specific incidence in relation to risk of coronary heart disease or stroke. DATA EXTRACTION/SYNTHESIS: MOOSE guidelines were followed. For each study, the relative risk was estimated for smoking one, five, or 20 cigarettes per day by using regression modelling between risk and cigarette consumption. Relative risks were adjusted for at least age and often additional confounders. The main measure was the excess relative risk for smoking one cigarette per day (RR -1) expressed as a proportion of that for smoking 20 cigarettes per day (RR -1), expected to be about 5% assuming a linear relation between risk and consumption (as seen with lung cancer). The relative risks for one, five, and 20 cigarettes per day were also pooled across all studies in a random effects meta-analysis. Separate analyses were done for each combination of sex and disorder. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 55 publications containing 141 cohort studies. Among men, the pooled relative risk for coronary heart disease was 1.48 for smoking one cigarette per day and 2.04 for 20 cigarettes per day, using all studies, but 1.74 and 2.27 among studies in which the relative risk had been adjusted for multiple confounders. Among women, the pooled relative risks were 1.57 and 2.84 for one and 20 cigarettes per day (or 2.19 and 3.95 using relative risks adjusted for multiple factors). Men who smoked one cigarette per day had 46% of the excess relative risk for smoking 20 cigarettes per day (53% using relative risks adjusted for multiple factors), and women had 31% of the excess risk (38% using relative risks adjusted for multiple factors). For stroke, the pooled relative risks for men were 1.25 and 1.64 for smoking one or 20 cigarettes per day (1.30 and 1.56 using relative risks adjusted for multiple factors). In women, the pooled relative risks were 1.31 and 2.16 for smoking one or 20 cigarettes per day (1.46 and 2.42 using relative risks adjusted for multiple factors). The excess risk for stroke associated with one cigarette per day (in relation to 20 cigarettes per day) was 41% for men and 34% for women (or 64% and 36% using relative risks adjusted for multiple factors). Relative risks were generally higher among women than men. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking only about one cigarette per day carries a risk of developing coronary heart disease and stroke much greater than expected: around half that for people who smoke 20 per day. No safe level of smoking exists for cardiovascular disease. Smokers should aim to quit instead of cutting down to significantly reduce their risk of these two common major disorders.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T



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