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  1 / 49622 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28465027
Autor:Nevin JA; Craig AR; Cunningham PJ; Podlesnik CA; Shahan TA; Sweeney MM
Endereço:University of New Hampshire, United States. Electronic address: Tony.Nevin@unh.edu.
Título:Quantitative models of persistence and relapse from the perspective of behavioral momentum theory: Fits and misfits.
Fonte:Behav Processes; 141(Pt 1):92-99, 2017 Aug.
ISSN:1872-8308
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:We review quantitative accounts of behavioral momentum theory (BMT), its application to clinical treatment, and its extension to post-intervention relapse of target behavior. We suggest that its extension can account for relapse using reinstatement and renewal models, but that its application to resurgence is flawed both conceptually and in its failure to account for recent data. We propose that the enhanced persistence of target behavior engendered by alternative reinforcers is limited to their concurrent availability within a distinctive stimulus context. However, a failure to find effects of stimulus-correlated reinforcer rates in a Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) paradigm challenges even a straightforward Pavlovian account of alternative reinforcer effects. BMT has been valuable in understanding basic research findings and in guiding clinical applications and accounting for their data, but alternatives are needed that can account more effectively for resurgence while encompassing basic data on resistance to change as well as other forms of relapse.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW


  2 / 49622 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29446575
Autor:Kuchma VR; Tkachuk EA; Tarmaeva IY
Título:[Psychophysiological state of children in conditions of informatization of their life activity and intensification of education].
Fonte:Gig Sanit; 95(12):1183-8, 2016.
ISSN:0016-9900
País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
Idioma:rus
Resumo:The transition to a new stage of the development - the information society is an objective reality and has an influence on all areas of the activity of the society, including the establishment of a child as an object of the hygienic research. In conditions of the general informatization of the society, the appearance of so-called "clip thinking," explains the maladjustment of educational technologies to mechanisms of children ' and teenagers 'perception and is confirmed by the growth of the school pathology and the gain in the morbidity rate. In the investigation on the example of the educational institutions of Irkutsk it was executed the evaluation of the impact of the intensification of informatization of education and personal development. For the investigation there were formed 2 groups ofpreschools with different levels of informatization in the same preschool institution of the central district of the city of Irkutsk but in different periods of time. In total there were observed 211 children aged of 5.5 to 6.5 years. For the study the influence of the intensification (and informatization of training there were formed 2 groups of small schoolchildren with different levels of intensification (and informatization) of education. The total number of cases accountedfor 465 children aged of 7-9 years. There were suggested methodical approaches to the estimation of the health status of the children, with taking into account the inevitable influence offactors of informatization and the intensification of education. The performed investigations have allowed to reveal the following tendencies in the shaping of the psychophysical state of health and development of children: an increase of level of informatization of education and personal and accomplishment; intensification of learning working; reduction of the attention level; imagination and visual divergence; capability to the linear differentiation and construction of inferences; fear to fail to meet the expectations of surrounding people and low resistance to stress; the increase speed of data processing along with fall in quality; the gain in hyperactivity.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  3 / 49622 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29420540
Autor:Rathmann K; Herke MG; Hurrelmann K; Richter M
Endereço:Institute of Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany.
Título:Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(2):e0189335, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  4 / 49622 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29240813
Autor:Yashar A; Denison RN
Endereço:Department of Psychology and Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York, United States of America.
Título:Feature reliability determines specificity and transfer of perceptual learning in orientation search.
Fonte:PLoS Comput Biol; 13(12):e1005882, 2017 12.
ISSN:1553-7358
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Training can modify the visual system to produce a substantial improvement on perceptual tasks and therefore has applications for treating visual deficits. Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is often specific to the trained feature, which gives insight into processes underlying brain plasticity, but limits VPL's effectiveness in rehabilitation. Under what circumstances VPL transfers to untrained stimuli is poorly understood. Here we report a qualitatively new phenomenon: intrinsic variation in the representation of features determines the transfer of VPL. Orientations around cardinal are represented more reliably than orientations around oblique in V1, which has been linked to behavioral consequences such as visual search asymmetries. We studied VPL for visual search of near-cardinal or oblique targets among distractors of the other orientation while controlling for other display and task attributes, including task precision, task difficulty, and stimulus exposure. Learning was the same in all training conditions; however, transfer depended on the orientation of the target, with full transfer of learning from near-cardinal to oblique targets but not the reverse. To evaluate the idea that representational reliability was the key difference between the orientations in determining VPL transfer, we created a model that combined orientation-dependent reliability, improvement of reliability with learning, and an optimal search strategy. Modeling suggested that not only search asymmetries but also the asymmetric transfer of VPL depended on preexisting differences between the reliability of near-cardinal and oblique representations. Transfer asymmetries in model behavior also depended on having different learning rates for targets and distractors, such that greater learning for low-reliability distractors facilitated transfer. These findings suggest that training on sensory features with intrinsically low reliability may maximize the generalizability of learning in complex visual environments.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  5 / 49622 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29231145
Autor:Pham-The H; Nam NH; Nga DV; Hai DT; Dieguez-Santana K; Marrero-Poncee Y; Castillo-Garit JA; Casanola-Martin GM; Le-Thi-Thu H
Endereço:Hanoi University of Pharmacy, 13-15 Le Thanh Tong, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Título:Learning from Multiple Classifier Systems: Perspectives for Improving Decision Making of QSAR Models in Medicinal Chemistry.
Fonte:Curr Top Med Chem; 17(30):3269-3288, 2018 Feb 09.
ISSN:1873-4294
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling has been widely used in medicinal chemistry and computational toxicology for many years. Today, as the amount of chemicals is increasing dramatically, QSAR methods have become pivotal for the purpose of handling the data, identifying a decision, and gathering useful information from data processing. The advances in this field have paved a way for numerous alternative approaches that require deep mathematics in order to enhance the learning capability of QSAR models. One of these directions is the use of Multiple Classifier Systems (MCSs) that potentially provide a means to exploit the advantages of manifold learning through decomposition frameworks, while improving generalization and predictive performance. In this paper, we presented MCS as a next generation of QSAR modeling techniques and discuss the chance to mining the vast number of models already published in the literature. We systematically revisited the theoretical frameworks of MCS as well as current advances in MCS application for QSAR practice. Furthermore, we illustrated our idea by describing ensemble approaches on modeling histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitors. We expect that our analysis would contribute to a better understanding about MCS application and its future perspectives for improving the decision making of QSAR models.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors)


  6 / 49622 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28462391
Autor:Nishimura M; Casanova JR; Swann JW
Endereço:The Cain Foundation Laboratories, The Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030.
Título:The Impact of Electrographic Seizures on Developing Hippocampal Dendrites Is Calcineurin Dependent.
Fonte:eNeuro; 4(2), 2017 Mar-Apr.
ISSN:2373-2822
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Neurobehavioral abnormalities are commonly associated with intractable childhood epilepsy. Studies from numerous labs have demonstrated cognitive and socialization deficits in rats and mice that have experienced early-life seizures. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Previously, experiments have shown that recurrent seizures in infancy suppress the growth of hippocampal dendrites at the same time they impair learning and memory. Experiments in slice cultures have also demonstrated dendrite growth suppression. Here, we crossed calcineurin B1 (CaNB1) floxed and Thy1GFP-M mice to produce mice that were homozygous for the both the floxed CaNB1 and the Thy1GFP-M transgene. Littermates that were homozygous for wild-type CaNB1 and Thy1GFP-M served as controls. Hippocampal slice cultures from these mice were transfected with an AAV/hSyn-mCherry-Cre virus to eliminate CaNB1 from neurons. Immunohistochemical results showed that CaNB1 was eliminated from at least 90% of the transfected CA1 pyramidal cells. Moreover, the CaN-dependent nuclear translocation of the CREB transcription coactivator, CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator 1 (CRTC1), was blocked in transfected neurons. Cell attach patch recordings combined with live multiphoton imaging demonstrated that the loss of CaNB1 did not prevent neurons from fully participating in electrographic seizure activity. Finally, dendrite reconstruction showed that the elimination of CaNB1 prevented seizure-induced decreases in both dendrite length and branch number. Results suggest that CaN plays a key role in seizure-induced dendrite growth suppression and may contribute to the neurobehavioral comorbidities of childhood epilepsy.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Cabin1 protein, mouse); 0 (Phosphoproteins); EC 3.1.3.16 (Calcineurin)


  7 / 49622 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28743680
Autor:Micheel CM; Anderson IA; Lee P; Chen SC; Justiss K; Giuse NB; Ye F; Kusnoor SV; Levy MA
Endereço:Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States.
Título:Internet-Based Assessment of Oncology Health Care Professional Learning Style and Optimization of Materials for Web-Based Learning: Controlled Trial With Concealed Allocation.
Fonte:J Med Internet Res; 19(7):e265, 2017 Jul 25.
ISSN:1438-8871
País de publicação:Canada
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Precision medicine has resulted in increasing complexity in the treatment of cancer. Web-based educational materials can help address the needs of oncology health care professionals seeking to understand up-to-date treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess learning styles of oncology health care professionals and to determine whether learning style-tailored educational materials lead to enhanced learning. METHODS: In all, 21,465 oncology health care professionals were invited by email to participate in the fully automated, parallel group study. Enrollment and follow-up occurred between July 13 and September 7, 2015. Self-enrolled participants took a learning style survey and were assigned to the intervention or control arm using concealed alternating allocation. Participants in the intervention group viewed educational materials consistent with their preferences for learning (reading, listening, and/or watching); participants in the control group viewed educational materials typical of the My Cancer Genome website. Educational materials covered the topic of treatment of metastatic estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer using cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors. Participant knowledge was assessed immediately before (pretest), immediately after (posttest), and 2 weeks after (follow-up test) review of the educational materials. Study statisticians were blinded to group assignment. RESULTS: A total of 751 participants enrolled in the study. Of these, 367 (48.9%) were allocated to the intervention arm and 384 (51.1%) were allocated to the control arm. Of those allocated to the intervention arm, 256 (69.8%) completed all assessments. Of those allocated to the control arm, 296 (77.1%) completed all assessments. An additional 12 participants were deemed ineligible and one withdrew. Of the 552 participants, 438 (79.3%) self-identified as multimodal learners. The intervention arm showed greater improvement in posttest score compared to the control group (0.4 points or 4.0% more improvement on average; P=.004) and a higher follow-up test score than the control group (0.3 points or 3.3% more improvement on average; P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: Although the study demonstrated more learning with learning style-tailored educational materials, the magnitude of increased learning and the largely multimodal learning styles preferred by the study participants lead us to conclude that future content-creation efforts should focus on multimodal educational materials rather than learning style-tailored content.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 49622 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28461286
Autor:Zhan X; Zhang Z; Sun F; Liu Q; Peng W; Zhang H; Yan W
Endereço:Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, China.
Título:Effects of Improving Primary Health Care Workers' Knowledge About Public Health Services in Rural China: A Comparative Study of Blended Learning and Pure E-Learning.
Fonte:J Med Internet Res; 19(5):e116, 2017 May 01.
ISSN:1438-8871
País de publicação:Canada
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Primary health care workers (PHCWs) are a major force in delivering basic public health services (BPHS) in rural China. It is necessary to take effective training approaches to improve PHCWs' competency on BPHS. Both electronic learning (e-learning) and blended learning have been widely used in the health workers' education. However, there is limited evidence on the effects of blended learning in comparison with pure e-learning. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a blended-learning approach for rural PHCWs in improving their knowledge about BPHS as well as training satisfaction in comparison with a pure e-learning approach. METHODS: The study was conducted among PHCWs in 6 rural counties of Hubei Province, China, between August 2013 and April 2014. Three counties were randomly allocated blended-learning courses (29 township centers or 612 PHCWs-the experimental group), and three counties were allocated pure e-learning courses (31 township centers or 625 PHCWs-the control group). Three course modules were administered for 5 weeks, with assessments at baseline and postcourse. Primary outcomes were score changes in courses' knowledge. Secondary outcome was participant satisfaction (5-point Likert scale anchored between 1 [strongly agree] and 5 [strongly disagree]). RESULTS: The experimental group had higher mean scores than the control group in knowledge achievement in three course modules: (1) module 1: 93.21 (95% CI 92.49-93.93) in experimental group versus 88.29 (95% CI 87.19-89.40) in the control group; adjusted difference, 4.92 (95% CI 2.61-7.24; P<.001); (2) module 2: 94.05 (95% CI 93.37-94.73) in the experimental group vs 90.22 (95% CI 89.12-91.31) in the control group; adjusted difference, 3.67 (95% CI 1.17-6.18; P=.004); (3) module 3: 93.88 (95% CI 93.08-94.68) in the experimental group versus 89.09 (95% CI 87.89-90.30) in control group; adjusted difference, 4.63 (95% CI 2.12-7.14; P<.001). The participants in the experimental learning group gave more positive responses with the four issues than control group participants: (1) the increase of interest in learning, 1.85 (95% CI 1.22-2.80; P=.003); (2) the increase of interaction with others, 1.77 (95% CI 1.20-2.60; P=.004); (3) the satisfaction with learning experience, 1.78 (95% CI 1.11-2.88; P=.02); and (4) achievement of learning objectives, 1.63 (95% CI 1.08-2.48; P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: Among PHCWs in rural China, a blended-learning approach to BPHS training could result in a higher knowledge achievement and satisfaction level compared with a pure e-learning approach. The findings of the study will contribute knowledge to improve the competency of PHCWs in similar settings.
Tipo de publicação: COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL


  9 / 49622 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29294192
Autor:Balamurali GS; Nicholls E; Somanathan H; Hempel de Ibarra N
Endereço:School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, India.
Título:A comparative analysis of colour preferences in temperate and tropical social bees.
Fonte:Naturwissenschaften; 105(1-2):8, 2018 Jan 02.
ISSN:1432-1904
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The spontaneous occurrence of colour preferences without learning has been demonstrated in several insect species; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not understood. Here, we use a comparative approach to investigate spontaneous and learned colour preferences in foraging bees of two tropical and one temperate species. We hypothesised that tropical bees utilise different sets of plants and therefore might differ in their spontaneous colour preferences. We tested colour-naive bees and foragers from colonies that had been enclosed in large flight cages for a long time. Bees were shortly trained with triplets of neutral, UV-grey stimuli placed randomly at eight locations on a black training disk to induce foraging motivation. During unrewarded tests, the bees' responses to eight colours were video-recorded. Bees explored all colours and displayed an overall preference for colours dominated by long or short wavelengths, rather than a single colour stimulus. Naive Apis cerana and Bombus terrestris showed similar choices. Both inspected long-wavelength stimuli more than short-wavelength stimuli, whilst responses of the tropical stingless bee Tetragonula iridipennis differed, suggesting that resource partitioning could be a determinant of spontaneous colour preferences. Reward on an unsaturated yellow colour shifted the bees' preference curves as predicted, which is in line with previous findings that brief colour experience overrides the expression of spontaneous preferences. We conclude that rather than determining foraging behaviour in inflexible ways, spontaneous colour preferences vary depending on experimental settings and reflect potential biases in mechanisms of learning and decision-making in pollinating insects.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 49622 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28742546
Autor:Day C; Barker C; Bell E; Sefcik E; Flournoy D
Endereço:Author Affiliations: Assistant Professor (Dr Day, Dr Barker, and Dr Bell), Professor (Dr Sefcik), and Associate Professor (Dr Flournoy), College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi.
Título:Flipping the Objective Structured Clinical Examination: A Teaching Innovation in Graduate Nursing Education.
Fonte:Nurse Educ; 43(2):83-86, 2018 Mar/Apr.
ISSN:1538-9855
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Objective evaluation of distance-based family nurse practitioner (FNP) students can be challenging. One FNP program piloted a teaching innovation, the video-enhanced objective structured clinical examination (VE-OSCE) or "flip" of the traditional face-to-face OSCE, to assess student clinical performance in a controlled online environment using a teleconferencing platform. This project sought to assess the VE-OSCE design, implementation, and ability to identify FNP student learning needs.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE



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