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  1 / 3583 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27776292
Autor:Macauda G; Bekrater-Bodmann R; Brugger P; Lenggenhager B
Endereço:Neuropsychology Unit, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address: gmacauda@gmx.net.
Título:When less is more - Implicit preference for incomplete bodies in xenomelia.
Fonte:J Psychiatr Res; 84:249-255, 2017 01.
ISSN:1879-1379
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Individuals with xenomelia identify with an amputated rather than with their physically complete, healthy body. They often mimic amputees and show a strong admiration of and sexual attraction towards them. Here we investigated for the first time empirically whether such unusual preference for amputated bodies is present also on an implicit level. Using the well-validated Implicit Association Test we show that individuals with xenomelia manifested a stronger implicit and explicit preference for amputated bodies than a normally-limbed control group and a group of involuntary amputees did. Interestingly, the two latter groups did not differ in their implicit and explicit preference for complete versus amputated bodies. These findings are an important step in understanding how deeply rooted attitudes about a socially normative body appearance may be influenced by a developmentally disordered experience of one's own bodily self. We conclude that this is the first behavioral evidence demonstrating a conflict of self-identification on an implicit level and this enriches current understandings of xenomelia as a primarily neurological disorder.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  2 / 3583 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28406381
Autor:Bahník S; Vranka MA
Endereço:1 Department of Management, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Economics, Prague.
Título:If It's Difficult to Pronounce, It Might Not Be Risky: The Effect of Fluency on Judgment of Risk Does Not Generalize to New Stimuli.
Fonte:Psychol Sci; 28(4):427-436, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1467-9280
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Processing fluency is used as a basis for various types of judgment. For example, previous research has shown that people judge food additives with names that are more difficult to pronounce (i.e., that are disfluent) to be more harmful. We explored the possibility that the association between disfluency and perceived harmfulness might be in the opposite direction for some categories of stimuli. Although we found some support for this hypothesis, an improved analysis and further studies indicated that the effect was strongly dependent on the stimuli used. We then used stimulus sampling and showed that the original association between fluency and perceived safety was not replicable with the newly constructed stimuli. We found the association between fluency and perceived safety using the newly constructed stimuli in a final study, but only when pronounceability was confounded with word length. The results cast doubt on generalizability of the association between pronounceability and perceived safety and underscore the importance of treating stimulus as a random factor.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  3 / 3583 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28319877
Autor:Opie GM; Post AK; Ridding MC; Ziemann U; Semmler JG
Endereço:Discipline of Physiology, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
Título:Modulating motor cortical neuroplasticity with priming paired associative stimulation in young and old adults.
Fonte:Clin Neurophysiol; 128(5):763-769, 2017 May.
ISSN:1872-8952
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of priming paired associative stimulation (PAS) on the modulation of motor cortex (M1) plasticity in young and old adults. METHODS: Fifteen young (20-27yrs) and 15 old (61-79yrs) subjects participated in 3 experimental sessions, with each session involving two consecutive PAS protocols separated by 10mins. The first (priming) protocol was either PAS (ISI=N20 latency+2ms), PAS (ISI=N20 latency-10ms), or PAS (ISI=100ms), whereas the second (test) protocol was always PAS . Changes in M1 excitability were assessed from motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in a hand muscle. RESULTS: In young subjects, MEPs were larger after PAS +PAS than PAS +PAS (P<0.0001) and PAS +PAS (P=0.0008), whereas the response to PAS +PAS was not different to PAS +PAS (P=0.3). In old subjects, MEPs were smaller after PAS +PAS compared with PAS +PAS (P=0.02), whereas PAS +PAS was similar to PAS +PAS (P=0.08). Age-related comparisons within each priming condition showed that the response to PAS +PAS was significantly greater in young subjects (P=0.03). CONCLUSION: Data show that priming with PAS was effective in young but not old subjects. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest a limited utility of priming PAS for augmenting plasticity induction in old adults.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 3583 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28301645
Autor:Nellis JC; Ishii M; Papel ID; Kontis TC; Byrne PJ; Boahene KDO; Bater KL; Ishii LE
Endereço:Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
Título:Association of Face-lift Surgery With Social Perception, Age, Attractiveness, Health, and Success.
Fonte:JAMA Facial Plast Surg; 19(4):311-317, 2017 Jul 01.
ISSN:2168-6092
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Importance: Evidence quantifying the influence of face-lift surgery on societal perceptions is lacking. Objective: To measure the association of face-lift surgery with observer-graded perceived age, attractiveness, success, and overall health. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a web-based survey, 526 casual observers naive to the purpose of the study viewed independent images of 13 unique female patient faces before or after face-lift surgery from January 1, 2016, through June 30, 2016. The Delphi method was used to select standardized patient images confirming appropriate patient candidacy and overall surgical effect. Observers estimated age and rated the attractiveness, perceived success, and perceived overall health for each patient image. Facial perception questions were answered on a visual analog scale from 0 to 100, with higher scores corresponding to more positive responses. To evaluate the accuracy of observer age estimation, the patients' preoperative estimated mean age was compared with the patients' actual mean age. A multivariate mixed-effects regression model was used to determine the effect of face-lift surgery. To further characterize the effect of face-lift surgery, estimated ordinal-rank change was calculated for each domain. Main Outcomes and Measures: Blinded casual observer ratings of patients estimated age, attractiveness, perceived success, and perceived overall health. Results: A total of 483 observers (mean [SD] age, 29 [8.6] years; 382 women [79.4%]) successfully completed the survey. Comparing patients' preoperative estimated mean (SD) age (59.6 [9.0] years) and patients' actual mean (SD) age (58.4 [6.9] years) revealed no significant difference (t2662 = -0.47; 95% CI, -6.07 to 3.72; P = .64). On multivariate regression, patients after face-lift surgery were rated as significantly younger (coefficient, -3.69; 95% CI -4.15 to -3.23; P < .001), more attractive (coefficient, 8.21; 95% CI, 7.41-9.02; P < .001), more successful (coefficient, 5.82; 95% CI, 5.05 to 6.59; P < .001), and overall healthier (coefficient, 8.72; 95% CI, 7.88-9.56; P < .001). The ordinal rank changes for an average individual were -21 for perceived age, 21 for attractiveness, 16 for success, and 21 for overall health. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, observer perceptions of face-lift surgery were associated with views that patients appeared younger, more attractive, healthier, and more successful. These findings highlight observer perceptions of face-lift surgery that could positively influence social interactions. Level of Evidence: NA.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  5 / 3583 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28185877
Autor:Barker TH; Bobrovskaya L; Howarth GS; Whittaker AL
Endereço:School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Roseworthy Campus, South Australia, Australia. Electronic address: timothy.barker@adelaide.edu.au.
Título:Female rats display fewer optimistic responses in a judgment bias test in the absence of a physiological stress response.
Fonte:Physiol Behav; 173:124-131, 2017 May 01.
ISSN:1873-507X
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Metabolic cages are a type of housing used in biomedical research. Metabolic cage housing has been demonstrated to elicit behavioural and physiological changes in rodents housed within them. The nature of this effect has been characterized as anxiogenic. However, few studies have evaluated positive affect in response to metabolic cage housing and the interaction between this, sex and traditional physiological measures of stress. Cognitive biasing, as measured through a judgment bias paradigm has proven a reliable measure of animal affective state, particularly through its ability to measure positive affect. The current study investigated differences in cognitive biasing between male and female rats when transferred from open-top, grouped housing to a metabolic cage. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) (n=60) were trained in a judgment bias paradigm previously validated for use in the rat model. Upon exposure to an intermediate, ambiguous probe rats responded with either an optimistic or pessimistic decision. The animals were also subjected to the sucrose preference test to identify the presence of anhedonia. Faecal corticosterone and changes in adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase were also measured to establish whether a stress-like state was experienced. There was a significant interaction between sex and metabolic cage housing on the number of optimistic decisions made F (1, 56)=7.461, p=0.008. Female rats that remained in control housing responded with a reduced number of days featuring an optimistic decision compared to males in control housing (p=0.036). However, both males and females responded with significantly fewer optimistic decisions in the metabolic cage compared to control (p<0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between treatment and sucrose consumption (r =-0.654, n=195, p<0.001). There was also a significant sex effect for faecal corticosterone concentrations F (1, 30)=6.305, p=0.018) with female rats (4.050±1.285), displaying greater corticosterone concentrations than males (2.291±0.495). No differences between treatment were observed for either corticosterone or tyrosine hydroxylase levels. This data demonstrates that movement into a metabolic cage resulted in rats displaying significantly greater pessimistic cognitive biases as determined through the judgment bias test. Interestingly, male rats that remained in control housing demonstrated cognitive biases that were not equivalent to female rats. Furthermore, despite a behavioural change being evident, a physiological change in corticosterone or tyrosine hydroxylase levels was not observed.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:EC 1.14.16.2 (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase); W980KJ009P (Corticosterone)


  6 / 3583 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28115193
Autor:Haynes BI; Bunce D; Kochan NA; Wen W; Brodaty H; Sachdev PS
Endereço:School of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
Título:Associations between reaction time measures and white matter hyperintensities in very old age.
Fonte:Neuropsychologia; 96:249-255, 2017 Feb.
ISSN:1873-3514
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:In old age, a relationship has been reported between intraindividual variability (IIV) in reaction time and white matter integrity as evidenced by white matter hyperintensities (WMH). However, it is unclear how far such associations are due to incipient neurodegenerative pathology in the samples investigated. The present study examined the relationship between IIV and WMH in older individuals (N=526) drawn from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Using a complex reaction time (RT) task, greater IIV and mean-RT were related to a higher WMH burden in the frontal lobe. Critically, significant associations remained having taken future dementia into account suggesting that they were not explained by incipient dementia. Additionally, independent measures of executive function accounted for the association between RT metrics and WHM. The results are consistent with the view that frontally-supported cognitive processes are involved in IIV-WMH relations, and that RT measures are sensitive to compromise in white matter structures in non-demented older individuals.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 3583 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28032139
Autor:Guillaume F; Baier S; Bourgeois M; Tinard S
Endereço:Aix Marseille Université, Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive (CNRS UMR 7290), Fédération de recherche 3C (Cerveau, Cognition, Comportement), Bâtiment 9 Case D, 3 place Victor Hugo, 13003, Marseille Cedex 3, France. Fabrice.Guillaume@univ-amu.fr.
Título:Format change and semantic relatedness effects on the ERP correlates of recognition: old pairs, new pairs, different stories.
Fonte:Exp Brain Res; 235(4):1007-1019, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1432-1106
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:In this event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated the effects of format change and semantic relatedness in a recognition task using pairs composed of a word and a line drawing. The semantic relatedness of the pairs (related: rabbit-carrot; unrelated: duck-artichoke) influenced their associative properties and corresponding distinctiveness, while format change refers to the switching of an item from the verbal form to the line drawing form between study and recognition (e.g., the word "egg" is associated with a drawing of a hen at study, and a line drawing of an egg is associated with the word "hen" at test). Study-test format change thus prevents visual matching while maintaining conceptual matching. While the N300 potential was only modulated by the semantic relatedness of the pair, both factors modulated recognition performance and corresponding ERP old/new effects with larger mid-frontal N400 old/new effect (300-500 ms) and larger parietal old/new effect (500-800 ms) in the same compared to the different-format condition, as well as for related compared to unrelated pairs. Furthermore, the semantic relatedness of correctly recognized old pairs modulated the anterior N400 while it modulated the posterior N400 for correctly rejected pairs. These results suggest that semantic relatedness and familiarity related to the amount of change between study and test present distinct ERP signatures in the N400 window. They suggest also that the distinctiveness and the ease of the retrieval of the pair could be determining for the parietal old/new effect.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 3583 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28025017
Autor:Arend I; Ashkenazi S; Yuen K; Ofir S; Henik A
Endereço:Department of Psychology and Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel. Electronic address: arend.psy@gmail.com.
Título:Automatic numerical-spatial association in synaesthesia: An fMRI investigation.
Fonte:Neuropsychologia; 95:259-266, 2017 Jan 27.
ISSN:1873-3514
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:A horizontal mental number line (MNL) is used to describe how quantities are represented across space. In humans, the neural correlates associated with such a representation are found in different areas of the posterior parietal cortex, especially, the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). In a phenomenon known as number-space synaesthesia, individuals visualise numbers in specific spatial locations. The experience of a MNL for number-space synaesthetes is explicit, idiosyncratic, and highly stable over time. It remains an open question whether the mechanisms underlying numerical-spatial association are shared by synaesthetes and nonsynaesthetes. We address the neural correlates of number-space association by examining the brain response in a number-space synaestheste (MkM) whose MNL differs dramatically in its ordinality and direction from that of a control group. MkM and 15 nonsynaesthetes compared the physical size of two numbers, while ignoring their numerical value, during an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging session (fMRI). Two factors were analysed: the numerical distance effect (NDE; e.g., 2-4 small distance vs. 1-6 large distance), and the size congruity effect (e.g., 2-8 congruent vs. 2-8 incongruent). Only for MkM, the NDE elicited significant activity in the left and right IPS, supramarginal gyrus (bilateral), and in the left angular gyrus. These results strongly support the role of the parietal cortex in the automatic coding of space and quantity in number-space synaesthesia, even when numerical values are task-irrelevant.
Tipo de publicação: CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  9 / 3583 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28024253
Autor:Goodhew SC; Kidd E
Endereço:Research School of Psychology, The Australian National University, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for the Dynamics of Language, Australia. Electronic address: stephanie.goodhew@anu.edu.au.
Título:Language use statistics and prototypical grapheme colours predict synaesthetes' and non-synaesthetes' word-colour associations.
Fonte:Acta Psychol (Amst); 173:73-86, 2017 Feb.
ISSN:1873-6297
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Synaesthesia is the neuropsychological phenomenon in which individuals experience unusual sensory associations, such as experiencing particular colours in response to particular words. While it was once thought the particular pairings between stimuli were arbitrary and idiosyncratic to particular synaesthetes, there is now growing evidence for a systematic psycholinguistic basis to the associations. Here we sought to assess the explanatory value of quantifiable lexical association measures (via latent semantic analysis; LSA) in the pairings observed between words and colours in synaesthesia. To test this, we had synaesthetes report the particular colours they experienced in response to given concept words, and found that language association between the concept and colour words provided highly reliable predictors of the reported pairings. These results provide convergent evidence for a psycholinguistic basis to synaesthesia, but in a novel way, showing that exposure to particular patterns of associations in language can predict the formation of particular synaesthetic lexical-colour associations. Consistent with previous research, the prototypical synaesthetic colour for the first letter of the word also played a role in shaping the colour for the whole word, and this effect also interacted with language association, such that the effect of the colour for the first letter was stronger as the association between the concept word and the colour word in language increased. Moreover, when a group of non-synaesthetes were asked what colours they associated with the concept words, they produced very similar reports to the synaesthetes that were predicted by both language association and prototypical synaesthetic colour for the first letter of the word. This points to a shared linguistic experience generating the associations for both groups.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 3583 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28004958
Autor:Bhatia S
Endereço:University of Pennsylvania.
Título:Associative judgment and vector space semantics.
Fonte:Psychol Rev; 124(1):1-20, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1939-1471
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:I study associative processing in high-level judgment using vector space semantic models. I find that semantic relatedness, as quantified by these models, is able to provide a good measure of the associations involved in judgment, and, in turn, predict responses in a large number of existing and novel judgment tasks. My results shed light on the representations underlying judgment, and highlight the close relationship between these representations and those at play in language and in the assessment of word meaning. In doing so, they show how one of the best-known and most studied theories in decision making research can be formalized to make quantitative a priori predictions, and how this theory can be rigorously tested on a wide range of natural language judgment problems. (PsycINFO Database Record
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE



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