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  1 / 12455 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29365346
Autor:Hodder RK; Stacey FG; O'Brien KM; Wyse RJ; Clinton-McHarg T; Tzelepis F; James EL; Bartlem KM; Nathan NK; Sutherland R; Robson E; Yoong SL; Wolfenden L
Endereço:Hunter New England Population Health, Hunter New England Local Health District, Locked Bag 10, Wallsend, Australia, 2287.
Título:Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and under.
Fonte:Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 1:CD008552, 2018 01 25.
ISSN:1469-493X
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase to identify eligible trials on 25 September 2017. We searched Proquest Dissertations and Theses and two clinical trial registers in November 2017. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and handsearched three international nutrition journals. We contacted authors of included studies to identify further potentially relevant trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials, including cluster-randomised controlled trials and cross-over trials, of any intervention primarily targeting consumption of fruit, vegetables or both among children aged five years and under, and incorporating a dietary or biochemical assessment of fruit or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of identified papers; a third review author resolved disagreements. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias of included studies; a third review author resolved disagreements. Due to unexplained heterogeneity, we used random-effects models in meta-analyses for the primary review outcomes where we identified sufficient trials. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs) to account for the heterogeneity of fruit and vegetable consumption measures. We conducted assessments of risks of bias and evaluated the quality of evidence (GRADE approach) using Cochrane procedures. MAIN RESULTS: We included 55 trials with 154 trial arms and 11,108 participants. Thirty-three trials examined the impact of child-feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child vegetable intake. Thirteen trials examined the impact of parent nutrition education in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Eight studies examined the impact of multicomponent interventions (e.g. parent nutrition education and preschool policy changes) in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. One study examined the effect of a nutrition intervention delivered to children in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake.We judged 14 of the 55 included trials as free from high risks of bias across all domains; performance, detection and attrition bias were the most common domains judged at high risk of bias for the remaining studies.Meta-analysis of trials examining child-feeding practices versus no intervention revealed a positive effect on child vegetable consumption (SMD 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.61; n = 1509; 11 studies; very low-quality evidence), equivalent to a mean difference of 4.03 g of vegetables. There were no short-term differences in child consumption of fruit and vegetables in meta-analyses of trials examining parent nutrition education versus no intervention (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.28; n = 3023; 10 studies; very low-quality evidence) or multicomponent interventions versus no intervention (SMD 0.28, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.63; n = 1861; 4 studies; very low-quality evidence).Insufficient data were available to assess long-term effectiveness, cost effectiveness and unintended adverse consequences of interventions. Studies reported receiving governmental or charitable funds, except for three studies reporting industry funding. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Despite identifying 55 eligible trials of various intervention approaches, the evidence for how to increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption remains sparse. There was very low-quality evidence that child-feeding practice interventions are effective in increasing vegetable consumption in children aged five years and younger, however the effect size was very small and long-term follow-up is required. There was very low-quality evidence that parent nutrition education and multicomponent interventions are not effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and younger. All findings should be considered with caution, given most included trials could not be combined in meta-analyses. Given the very low-quality evidence, future research will very likely change estimates and conclusions. Such research should adopt more rigorous methods to advance the field.This is a living systematic review. Living systematic reviews offer a new approach to review updating, in which the review is continually updated, incorporating relevant new evidence as it becomes available. Please refer to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the current status of this review.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW


  2 / 12455 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29253878
Autor:Asam K; Staniszewski A; Zhang H; Melideo SL; Mazzeo A; Voronkov M; Huber KL; Pérez E; Stock M; Stock JB; Arancio O; Nicholls RE
Endereço:Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States of America.
Título:Eicosanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamide (EHT) prevents Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive and electrophysiological impairments in mice exposed to elevated concentrations of oligomeric beta-amyloid.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(12):e0189413, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Soluble forms of oligomeric beta-amyloid (Aß) are thought to play a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Transgenic manipulation of methylation of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase, PP2A, was recently shown to alter the sensitivity of mice to AD-related impairments resulting from acute exposure to elevated levels of Aß. In addition, eicosanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamide (EHT), a naturally occurring component from coffee beans that modulates PP2A methylation, was shown to confer therapeutic benefits in rodent models of AD and Parkinson's disease. Here, we tested the hypothesis that EHT protects animals from the pathological effects of exposure to elevated levels of soluble oligomeric Aß. We treated mice with EHT-containing food at two different doses and assessed the sensitivity of these animals to Aß-induced behavioral and electrophysiological impairments. We found that EHT administration protected animals from Aß-induced cognitive impairments in both a radial-arm water maze and contextual fear conditioning task. We also found that both chronic and acute EHT administration prevented Aß-induced impairments in long-term potentiation. These data add to the accumulating evidence suggesting that interventions with pharmacological agents, such as EHT, that target PP2A activity may be therapeutically beneficial for AD and other neurological conditions.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Amyloid beta-Peptides); 0 (Coffee); 0 (eicosanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamide); 333DO1RDJY (Serotonin)


  3 / 12455 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29374173
Autor:Shin JH; Kim D; Jung MW
Endereço:Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34141, Korea.
Título:Differential coding of reward and movement information in the dorsomedial striatal direct and indirect pathways.
Fonte:Nat Commun; 9(1):404, 2018 01 26.
ISSN:2041-1723
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia have long been thought to mediate behavioral promotion and inhibition, respectively. However, this classic dichotomous model has been recently challenged. To better understand neural processes underlying reward-based learning and movement control, we recorded from direct (dSPNs) and indirect (iSPNs) pathway spiny projection neurons in the dorsomedial striatum of D1-Cre and D2-Cre mice performing a probabilistic Pavlovian conditioning task. dSPNs tend to increase activity while iSPNs decrease activity as a function of reward value, suggesting the striatum represents value in the relative activity levels of dSPNs versus iSPNs. Lick offset-related activity increase is largely dSPN selective, suggesting dSPN involvement in suppressing ongoing licking behavior. Rapid responses to negative outcome and previous reward-related responses are more frequent among iSPNs than dSPNs, suggesting stronger contributions of iSPNs to outcome-dependent behavioral adjustment. These findings provide new insights into striatal neural circuit operations.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Monoterpenes); 0 (Pentanols); 0 (Receptors, Dopamine D1); 0 (Receptors, Dopamine D2); 75GK9XIA8I (carvone); T7EU0O9VPP (citral); Z135787824 (isoamyl acetate)


  4 / 12455 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29352183
Autor:Zhang TY; Keown CL; Wen X; Li J; Vousden DA; Anacker C; Bhattacharyya U; Ryan R; Diorio J; O'Toole N; Lerch JP; Mukamel EA; Meaney MJ
Endereço:Sackler Program for Epigenetics and Psychobiology, McGill University, Montréal, H4H 1R3, Canada. tieyuan.zhang@mcgill.ca.
Título:Environmental enrichment increases transcriptional and epigenetic differentiation between mouse dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus.
Fonte:Nat Commun; 9(1):298, 2018 01 19.
ISSN:2041-1723
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Early life experience influences stress reactivity and mental health through effects on cognitive-emotional functions that are, in part, linked to gene expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a major site for experience-dependent plasticity associated with sustained transcriptional alterations, potentially mediated by epigenetic modifications. Here, we report comprehensive DNA methylome, hydroxymethylome and transcriptome data sets from mouse dorsal and ventral DG. We find genome-wide transcriptional and methylation differences between dorsal and ventral DG, including at key developmental transcriptional factors. Peripubertal environmental enrichment increases hippocampal volume and enhances dorsal DG-specific differences in gene expression. Enrichment also enhances dorsal-ventral differences in DNA methylation, including at binding sites of the transcription factor NeuroD1, a regulator of adult neurogenesis. These results indicate a dorsal-ventral asymmetry in transcription and methylation that parallels well-known functional and anatomical differences, and that may be enhanced by environmental enrichment.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors); 0 (Nerve Tissue Proteins); 0 (Neurod1 protein, mouse); 9007-49-2 (DNA)


  5 / 12455 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29223397
Autor:Cao B; Ni HY; Li J; Zhou Y; Bian XL; Tao Y; Cai CY; Qin C; Wu HY; Chang L; Luo CX; Zhu DY
Endereço:Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China.
Título:(+)-Borneol suppresses conditioned fear recall and anxiety-like behaviors in mice.
Fonte:Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 495(2):1588-1593, 2018 01 08.
ISSN:1090-2104
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Fear- and anxiety-related psychiatric disorders have been one of the major chronic diseases afflicting patients for decades, and new compounds for treating such disorders remain to be developed. (+)-Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene found in several species of Artemisia and Dipterocarpaceae, is widely used for anxiety, pain and anesthesia in Chinese medicine. Meanwhile, it can potentiate GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) activity directly in recombinant GABAA receptors. The present study was to investigate the effects of (+)-Borneol on both contextual and cued fear recall. Interestingly, microinjection of (+)-Borneol into the dorsal hippocampus inhibited 24 h and 7 d contextual fear, whereas its infusion into ventral hippocampus only reduced 24 h cued fear responses. Moreover, microinjection of (+)-Borneol into dorsal but not ventral hippocampus suppressed anxiety-like behaviors in the open field test, light/dark exploration and the elevated plus maze test. As selective GABA receptor antagonist bicuculline reversed the effect of (+)-Borneol on contextual fear paradigm and the drug potentiated GABA-evoked currents in acute hippocampus slices, modulation of the GABAergic neurotransmission may explain the effects of (+)-Borneol. Our findings suggest that (+)-Borneol can serve as a new therapeutic in fear- and anxiety-related disorders.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Bornanes); 0 (Drugs, Chinese Herbal); 0 (GABA-A Receptor Agonists); 56-12-2 (gamma-Aminobutyric Acid); L88RA8N5EG (isoborneol)


  6 / 12455 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29184202
Autor:Yu K; Ahrens S; Zhang X; Schiff H; Ramakrishnan C; Fenno L; Deisseroth K; Zhao F; Luo MH; Gong L; He M; Zhou P; Paninski L; Li B
Endereço:Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA.
Título:The central amygdala controls learning in the lateral amygdala.
Fonte:Nat Neurosci; 20(12):1680-1685, 2017 Dec.
ISSN:1546-1726
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Experience-driven synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala is thought to underlie the formation of associations between sensory stimuli and an ensuing threat. However, how the central amygdala participates in such a learning process remains unclear. Here we show that PKC-δ-expressing central amygdala neurons are essential for the synaptic plasticity underlying learning in the lateral amygdala, as they convey information about the unconditioned stimulus to lateral amygdala neurons during fear conditioning.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:EC 2.7.1.- (Prkcd protein, mouse); EC 2.7.11.13 (Protein Kinase C-delta)


  7 / 12455 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28987617
Autor:Goodfellow MJ; Shin YJ; Lindquist DH
Endereço:Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, 1835 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address: mgoodfellow@som.umaryland.edu.
Título:Mitigation of postnatal ethanol-induced neuroinflammation ameliorates trace fear memory deficits in juvenile rats.
Fonte:Behav Brain Res; 338:28-31, 2018 Feb 15.
ISSN:1872-7549
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Impairments in behavior and cognition are common in individuals diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In this study, FASD model rats were intragastrically intubated with ethanol (5g/kg/day; 5E), sham-intubated (SI), or maintained as naïve controls (NC) over postnatal days (PD) 4-9. Ethanol exposure during this human third trimester-equivalent period induces persistent impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. The ability of ibuprofen (IBU), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to diminish ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and rescue deficits in hippocampus-dependent trace fear conditioning (TFC) was investigated in 5E rats. Phosphate buffered saline vehicle (VEH) or IBU was injected 2h following ethanol exposure over PD4-9, followed by quantification of inflammation-related genes in the dorsal hippocampus of PD10 rats. The 5E-VEH rats exhibited significant increases in Il1b and Tnf, but not Itgam or Gfap, relative to NC, SI-VEH, and 5E-IBU rats. In separate groups of PD31-33 rats, conditioned fear (freezing) was significantly reduced in 5E-VEH rats during TFC testing, but not acquisition, compared to SI-VEH and, critically, 5E-IBU rats. Results suggest neuroimmune activation in response to ethanol within the neonate hippocampus contributes to later-life cognitive dysfunction.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal); 0 (Cytokines); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol); WK2XYI10QM (Ibuprofen)


  8 / 12455 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28450301
Autor:Egawa J; Schilling JM; Cui W; Posadas E; Sawada A; Alas B; Zemljic-Harpf AE; Fannon-Pavlich MJ; Mandyam CD; Roth DM; Patel HH; Patel PM; Head BP
Endereço:Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, USA.
Título:Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma.
Fonte:FASEB J; 31(8):3403-3411, 2017 08.
ISSN:1530-6860
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Studies and demonstrate that membrane/lipid rafts and caveolin (Cav) organize progrowth receptors, and, when overexpressed specifically in neurons, Cav-1 augments neuronal signaling and growth and improves cognitive function in adult and aged mice; however, whether neuronal Cav-1 overexpression can preserve motor and cognitive function in the brain trauma setting is unknown. Here, we generated a neuron-targeted Cav-1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mouse [synapsin-driven Cav-1 (SynCav1 Tg)] and subjected it to a controlled cortical impact model of brain trauma and measured biochemical, anatomic, and behavioral changes. SynCav1 Tg mice exhibited increased hippocampal expression of Cav-1 and membrane/lipid raft localization of postsynaptic density protein 95, NMDA receptor, and tropomyosin receptor kinase B. When subjected to a controlled cortical impact, SynCav1 Tg mice demonstrated preserved hippocampus-dependent fear learning and memory, improved motor function recovery, and decreased brain lesion volume compared with wild-type controls. Neuron-targeted overexpression of Cav-1 in the adult brain prevents hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits, restores motor function after brain trauma, and decreases brain lesion size induced by trauma. Our findings demonstrate that neuron-targeted Cav-1 can be used as a novel therapeutic strategy to restore brain function and prevent trauma-associated maladaptive plasticity.-Egawa, J., Schilling, J. M., Cui, W., Posadas, E., Sawada, A., Alas, B., Zemljic-Harpf, A. E., Fannon-Pavlich, M. J., Mandyam, C. D., Roth, D. M., Patel, H. H., Patel, P. M., Head, B. P. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
Nome de substância:0 (Caveolin 1)


  9 / 12455 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28743603
Autor:Corrales A; Parisotto EB; Vidal V; García-Cerro S; Lantigua S; Diego M; Wilhem Filho D; Sanchez-Barceló EJ; Martínez-Cué C; Rueda N
Endereço:Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
Título:Pre- and post-natal melatonin administration partially regulates brain oxidative stress but does not improve cognitive or histological alterations in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.
Fonte:Behav Brain Res; 334:142-154, 2017 09 15.
ISSN:1872-7549
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Melatonin administered during adulthood induces beneficial effects on cognition and neuroprotection in the Ts65Dn (TS) mouse model of Down syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of pre- and post-natal melatonin treatment on behavioral and cognitive abnormalities and on several neuromorphological alterations (hypocellularity, neurogenesis impairment and increased oxidative stress) that appear during the early developmental stages in TS mice. Pregnant TS females were orally treated with melatonin or vehicle from the time of conception until the weaning of the offspring, and the pups continued to receive the treatment from weaning until the age of 5 months. Melatonin administered during the pre- and post-natal periods did not improve the cognitive impairment of TS mice as measured by the Morris Water maze or fear conditioning tests. Histological alterations, such as decreased proliferation (Ki67+ cells) and hippocampal hypocellularity (DAPI+ cells), which are typical in TS mice, were not prevented by melatonin. However, melatonin partially regulated brain oxidative stress by modulating the activity of the primary antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase in the cortex and catalase in the cortex and hippocampus) and slightly decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus of TS mice. These results show the inability of melatonin to prevent cognitive impairment in TS mice when it is administered at pre- and post-natal stages. Additionally, our findings suggest that to induce pro-cognitive effects in TS mice during the early stages of development, in addition to attenuating oxidative stress, therapies should aim to improve other altered processes, such as hippocampal neurogenesis and/or hypocellularity.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Ki-67 Antigen); 0 (Neuroprotective Agents); EC 1.11.1.6 (Catalase); EC 1.15.1.1 (Superoxide Dismutase); JL5DK93RCL (Melatonin)


  10 / 12455 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28464876
Autor:Lan A; Kalimian M; Amram B; Kofman O
Endereço:Department of Psychology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653, Beer-Sheva, 84105, Israel.
Título:Prenatal chlorpyrifos leads to autism-like deficits in C57Bl6/J mice.
Fonte:Environ Health; 16(1):43, 2017 05 02.
ISSN:1476-069X
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Children are at daily risk for exposure to organophosphate insecticides, of which the most common is chlorpyrifos (CPF). Exposure of pregnant women to CPF was linked to decreased birth weight, abnormal reflexes, reduction in IQ, as well as increased maternal reports of signs of pervasive developmental disorder. The aim of current study was to examine the long term effects of prenatal exposure to CPF in C57BL/6 J (B6) mice with specific focus on social and repetitive behavior. METHODS: B6 female mice were treated with vehicle, 2.5 mg/kg CPF or 5 mg/kg of CPF on gestational days 12-15 by oral gavage. On postnatal days (PND's) 6-12 early development and neuromotor ability were assessed by measuring 3 neonatal reflexes in the offspring. In adulthood, PND 90, social behavior was investigated using the social preference, social novelty and social conditioned place preference tasks. Object recognition and restricted interest, measured by the repetitive novel object contact task (RNOC), were also assessed on PN D 90. In order to rule out the possibility that CPF administration induced alterations in maternal care, the dams' behavior was evaluated via the maternal retrieval task. RESULTS: CPF treatment resulted in delayed development of neonatal reflexes on PND's 6-12. On PND 90, mice treated prenatally with the 5.0 mg/kg dose exhibited reduced preference towards an unfamiliar conspecific in the social preference test and reduced social conditioned place preference. In the RNOC task, mice exposed prenatally to 2.5 mg/kg dose of CPF showed enhanced restricted interest. CPF administration did not impair dams' behavior and did not cause memory or recognition deficit as was observed in the object recognition task. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that gestational exposure to CPF has long-term deleterious effects on social behavior and limits exploration of novel objects.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Insecticides); JCS58I644W (Chlorpyrifos)



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