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  1 / 1082 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29370235
Autor:Li X; Wu GY; Yao J; Yang Y; Ye JN; Sui JF
Endereço:Department of Physiology, College of Basic Medical Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China.
Título:Time-limited involvement of caudal anterior cingulate cortex in trace eyeblink conditioning retrieval is dependent on conditioned stimulus intensity.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0191320, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been widely investigated for its roles in learning and memory. The present study investigated the time-limited involvement of the caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) of the mPFC in the retrieval process for a simple associative motor learning, trace eyeblink conditioning (tEBC), using a 75 dB or 100 dB tone as the conditioned stimulus (CS). The GABAA receptor agonist muscimol was injected into the cACC of guinea pigs at 1 day or 4 weeks after tEBC acquisition. When muscimol was administered 1 day after tEBC acquisition, the conditioned response (CR) of the 75 dB group was severely impaired, whereas the CR of the 100 dB group exhibited no significant change relative to the control. When muscimol was administered 4 weeks after tEBC acquisition, the CR was impaired in both the 75 dB and 100 dB groups. This study indicate that the cACC of the mPFC is necessary for recent retrieval of tEBC with a low-intensity CS but not of tEBC with a high-intensity CS, whereas for remote retrieval of tEBC, the cACC of the mPFC is essential regardless of whether the CS intensity is high or low. These results support a conditional role for the mPFC in modulating recent retrieval of tEBC and a persistent role for its involvement in remote retrieval of tEBC.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (GABA-A Receptor Agonists); 2763-96-4 (Muscimol)


  2 / 1082 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29054591
Autor:Allen MT; Myers CE; Williams D; Servatius RJ
Endereço:School of Psychological Sciences, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO, USA; Rutgers Biomedical Health Sciences, Stress and Motivated Behavior Institute, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, United States. Electronic address: michael.allen@unco.edu.
Título:US alone trials presented during acquisition do not disrupt classical eyeblink conditioning: Empirical and computational findings.
Fonte:Behav Brain Res; 338:101-108, 2018 Feb 15.
ISSN:1872-7549
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Studies of partial reinforcement in eyeblink conditioning have typically shown slower learning of a CS-US association when paired CS-US trials are interleaved with CS-alone trials. However, recent work has shown that CS-US learning is not slowed by interleaved US-alone trials. This discrepancy is surprising since both partial reinforcement protocols reduce the total number of paired CS-US trials. Previously, Kimble et al. (1955) reported that inserting a block of US-alone trials during CS-US training did not disrupt eyeblink acquisition. Here, we sought to replicate and extend these findings by comparing interleaved vs. blocked US-alone trials during CS-US paired training. Ninety-seven undergraduates volunteered for this experiment for research credit. Participants received 60 acquisition trials, consisting of either 100% CS-US paired trials, 50% US-alone trials intermixed with CS-US paired trials, or a block of 20 US-alone trials inserted between blocks of 20 CS-US trials. We also utilized a previously published computational model of hippocampal and cerebellar learning to test the effects of these US-alone protocols. Both empirical and computational results supported the finding that US-alone trials, either intermixed or inserted as a block of trials, do not disrupt acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks. Possible neural substrates of these US-alone effects are discussed.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  3 / 1082 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28575003
Autor:Yao J; Wu B; Wu GY; Li X; Ye JN; Sui JF
Endereço:Department of Physiology, College of Basic Medical Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China.
Título:Establishment and transfer of classical eyeblink conditioning using electrical microstimulation of the hippocampus as the conditioned stimulus.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(6):e0178502, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The present experiment was designed to determine whether classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) can be established by using electrical microstimulation of the hippocampus as a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an air-puff unconditioned stimulus (US). We intended to examine whether EBC transfer could occur when a CS was shifted between microstimulation of the hippocampus as a CS (Hip-CS) and tone as a CS (tone-CS) and to compare the difference in transfer effectiveness between delay EBC (dEBC) and trace EBC (tEBC). Eight groups of guinea pigs, including 4 experimental groups and 4 control groups, were included in the study. First, the experimental groups received either a Hip-CS or a tone-CS paired with a US; then, these groups were exposed to a shifted CS (tone-CS or Hip-CS) paired with the US. The control groups received the corresponding Hip-CS or tone-CS, which was, however, pseudo-paired with the US. The control groups were then shifted to the tone-CS (or Hip-CS) paired with the US. The results show that EBC can be successfully established when using microstimulation of the hippocampus as a CS paired with an air-puff US, and that the acquisition rates of EBC are higher in the experimental groups than in the control groups after switching from the Hip-CS to the tone-CS or vice versa, indicating the occurrence of learning transfer between EBC established with the Hip-CS and tone-CS. The present study also demonstrated that the EBC re-acquisition rates were remarkably higher in dEBC than in tEBC with both types of transfer, which suggests that the saving effect was more evident in dEBC than tEBC. These results significantly expand our knowledge of EBC transfer as well as the functional neural circuit underlying EBC transfer.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 1082 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28542383
Autor:Löwgren K; Bååth R; Rasmussen A; Boele HJ; Koekkoek SKE; De Zeeuw CI; Hesslow G
Endereço:Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Título:Performance in eyeblink conditioning is age and sex dependent.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(5):e0177849, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:A growing body of evidence suggests that the cerebellum is involved in both cognition and language. Abnormal cerebellar development may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, fetal alcohol syndrome, dyslexia, and specific language impairment. Performance in eyeblink conditioning, which depends on the cerebellum, can potentially be used to clarify the neural mechanisms underlying the cerebellar dysfunction in disorders like these. However, we must first understand how the performance develops in children who do not have a disorder. In this study we assessed the performance in eyeblink conditioning in 42 typically developing children between 6 and 11 years old as well as in 26 adults. Older children produced more conditioned eyeblink responses than younger children and adults produced more than children. In addition, females produced more conditioned eyeblink responses than males among both children and adults. These results highlight the importance of considering the influence of age and sex on the performance when studying eyeblink conditioning as a measure of cerebellar development.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  5 / 1082 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28230385
Autor:Campolattaro MM; Savage SW; Lipatova O
Endereço:Department of Psychology, Christopher Newport University.
Título:Auditory cue absence as a conditioned stimulus for delay eyeblink conditioning.
Fonte:Behav Neurosci; 131(2):149-54, 2017 04.
ISSN:1939-0084
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The present experiment was designed to determine if the absence of an auditory cue (i.e., a "tone-off" cue) would be an effective conditioned stimulus (CS) for delay eyeblink conditioning and to test if the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) is part of the sensory pathway for tone-off conditioning. Rats were given paired or unpaired delay eyeblink conditioning to examine if responding to a tone-off CS was due to an associative process. An inactivation technique was performed on a separate group of rats to determine if the MGN is needed to express tone-off conditioning. The results showed that rats given paired conditioning acquired robust conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs) compared with rats given unpaired conditioning and that expression of tone-off elicited CRs was impaired when the MGN was inactivated. The findings suggest that tone-on and tone-off eyeblink conditioning may share a common neural pathway. (PsycINFO Database Record
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (GABA-A Receptor Agonists); 2763-96-4 (Muscimol)


  6 / 1082 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28169435
Autor:Luck CC; Lipp OV
Endereço:School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
Título:Startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations dissociate during backward fear conditioning.
Fonte:Psychophysiology; 54(5):673-683, 2017 May.
ISSN:1540-5958
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Blink startle magnitude is linearly modulated by affect such that, relative to neutral stimuli, startle magnitude is inhibited during pleasant stimuli and potentiated during unpleasant stimuli. Andreatta, Mühlberger, Yarali, Gerber, and Pauli (2010), however, report a dissociation between startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations during backward conditioning, a procedure in which the unconditional stimulus precedes the conditional stimulus (CS). Relative to controls, startles elicited during the CS were inhibited, suggesting that the CS had acquired positive valence, but participants still evaluated the CS as unpleasant after the experiment. In Experiment 1, we aimed to replicate this dissociation using a trial-by-trial measure of CS valence to measure startle modulation and CS valence simultaneously during forward and backward differential fear conditioning. In Experiment 2, we examined whether early and late portions of the CS could acquire differential valence by presenting startle probes at early and late probe positions during the CS. In both experiments, the dissociation between startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations in backward conditioning replicated, with CS+ evaluated as less pleasant than CS-, but startles elicited during CS+ inhibited relative to CS-. In Experiment 2, we provide preliminary evidence that this inhibition was present early, but not late, during the CS+. The results replicate the dissociation between implicit and explicit CS valence reported by Andreatta et al. (2010) using a trial-by-trial measure of valence. We also provide preliminary evidence that this dissociation may occur because the implicit and explicit measures are recorded at different times during the CS presentation.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 1082 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27540891
Autor:Goldsberry ME; Freeman JH
Endereço:Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
Título:Sensory system development influences the ontogeny of trace eyeblink conditioning.
Fonte:Dev Psychobiol; 59(1):70-76, 2017 01.
ISSN:1098-2302
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The developmental emergence of delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is dependent on the development of the sensory system stimulated by the conditioned stimulus (CS). However, trace EBC has traditionally been believed to be dependent on the development of forebrain structures, such as the hippocampus. If hippocampal development alone is limiting the developmental emergence of trace EBC, then using an earlier developing sensory modality should not affect the rate or asymptote of conditioning. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether using a vibration CS would facilitate the ontogeny of trace EBC relative to an auditory CS. Rat pups received six sessions of trace EBC or unpaired training using either a tone or vibration CS on postnatal day (P) 17-18, 21-22, or 24-25. Training with a vibration CS resulted in rapid conditioning as early as P17-18, whereas training with a tone CS did not result in rapid conditioning until after P17-18. The results suggest that the ontogeny of trace EBC depends, at least in part, on sensory system development.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL


  8 / 1082 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27764172
Autor:Kim J; Goldsberry ME; Harmon TC; Freeman JH
Endereço:Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, United States of America.
Título:Developmental Changes in Hippocampal CA1 Single Neuron Firing and Theta Activity during Associative Learning.
Fonte:PLoS One; 11(10):e0164781, 2016.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Hippocampal development is thought to play a crucial role in the emergence of many forms of learning and memory, but ontogenetic changes in hippocampal activity during learning have not been examined thoroughly. We examined the ontogeny of hippocampal function by recording theta and single neuron activity from the dorsal hippocampal CA1 area while rat pups were trained in associative learning. Three different age groups [postnatal days (P)17-19, P21-23, and P24-26] were trained over six sessions using a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) and a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (US). Learning increased as a function of age, with the P21-23 and P24-26 groups learning faster than the P17-19 group. Age- and learning-related changes in both theta and single neuron activity were observed. CA1 pyramidal cells in the older age groups showed greater task-related activity than the P17-19 group during CS-US paired sessions. The proportion of trials with a significant theta (4-10 Hz) power change, the theta/delta ratio, and theta peak frequency also increased in an age-dependent manner. Finally, spike/theta phase-locking during the CS showed an age-related increase. The findings indicate substantial developmental changes in dorsal hippocampal function that may play a role in the ontogeny of learning and memory.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  9 / 1082 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27753460
Autor:Tarullo AR; Isler JR; Condon C; Violaris K; Balsam PD; Fifer WP
Endereço:Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts. atarullo@bu.edu.
Título:Neonatal eyelid conditioning during sleep.
Fonte:Dev Psychobiol; 58(7):875-882, 2016 11.
ISSN:1098-2302
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Using an eyelid conditioning paradigm modeled after that developed by Little, Lipsitt, and Rovee-Collier (1984), Fifer et al. (2010) demonstrated that newborn infants learn during sleep. This study examined the role of sleep state in neonatal learning. We recorded electroencephalogram (EEG), respiratory, and cardiovascular activity from sleeping full term newborn infants during delay eyelid conditioning. In the experimental group (n = 21), a tone was paired with an air puff to the eye. Consistent with Fifer et al. (2010), newborn infants reliably learned during sleep. The experimental group more than doubled EMR rates to a tone alone, while a control group (n = 17) presented with unpaired tones and puffs maintained low EMR rates. Infant learners were more likely to produce a conditioned EMR during quiet sleep compared to active sleep. Understanding the influence of sleep state on conditioned responses will inform the potential use of eyelid conditioning for early screening.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL


  10 / 1082 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27517083
Autor:Siegel JJ
Endereço:Center for Learning and Memory and the Department of Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin , Austin, Texas 78712.
Título:Prefrontal Single-Neuron Responses after Changes in Task Contingencies during Trace Eyeblink Conditioning in Rabbits.
Fonte:eNeuro; 3(4), 2016 Jul-Aug.
ISSN:2373-2822
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:A number of studies indicate that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a role in mediating the expression of behavioral responses during tasks that require flexible changes in behavior. During trace eyeblink conditioning, evidence suggests that the mPFC provides the cerebellum with a persistent input to bridge the temporal gap between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Therefore, the mPFC is in a position to directly mediate the expression of trace conditioned responses. However, it is unknown whether persistent neural responses are associated with the flexible expression of behavior when task contingencies are changed during trace eyeblink conditioning. To investigate this, single-unit activity was recorded in the mPFC of rabbits during extinction and reacquisition of trace eyeblink conditioning, and during training to a different conditional stimulus. Persistent responses remained unchanged after full extinction, and also did not change during reacquisition training. During training to a different tone, however, the generalization of persistent responses to the new stimulus was associated with an animal's performance-when persistent responses generalized to the new tone, performance was high (>50% response rate). When persistent responses decreased to baseline rates, performance was poor (<50% response rate). The data suggest that persistent mPFC responses do not appear to mediate flexible changes in the expression of the original learning, but do appear to play a role in the generalization of that learning when the task is modified.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE



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