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  1 / 21130 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28453637
Autor:Daymont C; Ross ME; Russell Localio A; Fiks AG; Wasserman RC; Grundmeier RW
Endereço:Departments of Pediatrics and Public Health Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.
Título:Automated identification of implausible values in growth data from pediatric electronic health records.
Fonte:J Am Med Inform Assoc; 24(6):1080-1087, 2017 Nov 01.
ISSN:1527-974X
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Objective: Large electronic health record (EHR) datasets are increasingly used to facilitate research on growth, but measurement and recording errors can lead to biased results. We developed and tested an automated method for identifying implausible values in pediatric EHR growth data. Materials and Methods: Using deidentified data from 46 primary care sites, we developed an algorithm to identify weight and height values that should be excluded from analysis, including implausible values and values that were recorded repeatedly without remeasurement. The foundation of the algorithm is a comparison of each measurement, expressed as a standard deviation score, with a weighted moving average of a child's other measurements. We evaluated the performance of the algorithm by (1) comparing its results with the judgment of physician reviewers for a stratified random selection of 400 measurements and (2) evaluating its accuracy in a dataset with simulated errors. Results: Of 2 000 595 growth measurements from 280 610 patients 1 to 21 years old, 3.8% of weight and 4.5% of height values were identified as implausible or excluded for other reasons. The proportion excluded varied widely by primary care site. The automated method had a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94-99%) and a specificity of 90% (95% CI, 85-94%) for identifying implausible values compared to physician judgment, and identified 95% (weight) and 98% (height) of simulated errors. Discussion and Conclusion: This automated, flexible, and validated method for preparing large datasets will facilitate the use of pediatric EHR growth datasets for research.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES


  2 / 21130 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27770258
Autor:Franke D; Steffens R; Thomas L; Pavicic L; Ahlenstiel T; Pape L; Gellermann J; Müller D; Querfeld U; Haffner D; Zivicnjak M
Endereço:Department of Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Children's Hospital, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.
Título:Kidney transplantation fails to provide adequate growth in children with chronic kidney disease born small for gestational age.
Fonte:Pediatr Nephrol; 32(3):511-519, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1432-198X
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Children with chronic kidney disease are frequently born small for gestational age (SGA) and prone to disproportionately short stature. It is unclear how SGA affects growth after kidney transplantation (KTx). METHODS: Linear growth (height, sitting height, and leg length) was prospectively investigated in a cohort of 322 pediatric KTx recipients, with a mean follow-up of 4.9 years. Sitting height index (ratio of sitting height to total body height) was used to assess body proportions. Predictors of growth outcome in KTx patients with (n = 94) and without (n = 228) an SGA history were evaluated by the use of linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Mean z-scores for all linear body dimensions were lower in SGA compared with non-SGA patients (p < 0.001). SGA patients presented with higher target height deficit and degree of body disproportion (p < 0.001). The latter was mainly due to reduced leg growth during childhood. Pubertal trunk growth was diminished in SGA patients, and the pubertal growth spurt of legs was delayed in both groups, resulting in further impairment of adult height, which was more frequently reduced in SGA than in non-SGA patients (50 % vs 18 %, p < 0.001). Use of growth hormone treatment in the pre-transplant period, preemptive KTx, transplant function, and control of metabolic acidosis were the only potentially modifiable correlates of post-transplant growth in SGA groups. By contrast, living related KTx, steroid exposure, and degree of anemia proved to be correlates in non-SGA only. CONCLUSIONS: In children born SGA, growth outcome after KTx is significantly more impaired and affected by different clinical parameters compared with non-SGA patients.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY


  3 / 21130 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29338025
Autor:Ward JL; Harrison K; Viner RM; Costello A; Heys M
Endereço:UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
Título:Adolescent cohorts assessing growth, cardiovascular and cognitive outcomes in low and middle-income countries.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0190443, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Life-course studies are needed to explore how exposures during adolescence, particularly puberty, contribute to later cardiovascular risk and cognitive health in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), where 90% of the world's young people live. The extent of any existing cohorts investigating these outcomes in LMIC has not previously been described. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review to identify population cohort studies of adolescents in LMIC that assessed anthropometry and any of cardiovascular risk (blood pressure, physical activity, plasma glucose/lipid profile and substance misuse), puberty (age at menarche, Tanner staging, or other form of pubertal staging) or cognitive outcomes. Studies that recruited participants on the basis of a pre-existing condition or involved less than 500 young people were excluded. FINDINGS: 1829 studies were identified, and 24 cohorts fulfilled inclusion criteria based in Asia (10), Africa (6) and South / Central America (8). 14 (58%) of cohorts identified were based in one of four countries; India, Brazil, Vietnam or Ethiopia. Only 2 cohorts included a comprehensive cardiovascular assessment, tanner pubertal staging, and cognitive outcomes. CONCLUSION: Improved utilisation of existing datasets and additional cohort studies of adolescents in LMIC that collect contemporaneous measures of growth, cognition, cardiovascular risk and pubertal development are needed to better understand how this period of the life course influences future non-communicable disease morbidity and cognitive outcomes.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW


  4 / 21130 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29300916
Autor:Kougias DG; Cortes LR; Moody L; Rhoads S; Pan YX; Juraska JM
Endereço:Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois.
Título:Effects of Perinatal Exposure to Phthalates and a High-Fat Diet on Maternal Behavior and Pup Development and Social Play.
Fonte:Endocrinology; 159(2):1088-1105, 2018 02 01.
ISSN:1945-7170
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Humans are ubiquitously exposed to many phthalates, a class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals commonly used in many consumer goods, and diet, especially fatty food, is presumed to be a major source of exposure. Here, we use a rat model of human prenatal exposure to investigate the potential interactive effects of an environmentally relevant mixture of phthalates and a maternal high-fat diet (HFD). From gestation through postnatal day (P)10, dams consumed the mixture of phthalates (0, 200, or 1000 µg/kg/d) and were fed a control diet or HFD. In males, perinatal exposure to the mixture of phthalates decreased prepubertal body weight and, in a dose-specific manner, periadolescent social play behavior. A dose-specific effect from phthalates with HFD was also seen in increased time alone in females during social play. HFD resulted in dams consuming more calories, having greater gestational weight gain, and licking and nursing their pups more, such that an early postnatal HFD generally increased pup body weight. There also was a tendency for increased oxidative stress markers at P10 within the medial prefrontal cortex of males exposed to the relatively high dose of phthalates and HFD. Effects on gene expression were inconsistent at P10 and P90 in both the medial prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus. Overall, this study demonstrates that phthalates and a maternal HFD only rarely interacted, except in oxidative stress markers in males. Additionally, perinatal exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of phthalates can have a modest, but lasting, impact on social behaviors in both males and females.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
Nome de substância:0 (Phthalic Acids); 6O7F7IX66E (phthalic acid)


  5 / 21130 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29329320
Autor:Matondo RB; Moreno E; Toussaint MJM; Tooten PCJ; van Essen SC; van Liere EA; Youssef SA; Bongiovanni L; de Bruin A
Endereço:Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Título:Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0190899, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8. In contrast to its critical role in embryonic survival, conditional deletion of both of both atypical E2fs in newborn mice had no impact on postnatal survival and mice lived until old age. However, deficiency of E2f7 or E2f8 alone was sufficient to suppress polyploidization in the pancreas and associated with only a minor decrease in blood serum levels of glucose, insulin, amylase and lipase under 4 hours starvation condition compared to wildtype littermates. In mice with fewer pancreatic polyploid cells that were fed ad libitum, no major impact on hormones or enzymes levels was observed. In summary, we identified atypical E2fs to be essential for polyploidization in the pancreas and discovered that postnatal induced loss of both atypical E2fs in many organs is compatible with life until old age.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (E2F Transcription Factors); 0 (Insulin); EC 3.1.1.3 (Lipase); EC 3.2.1.- (Amylases)


  6 / 21130 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29324892
Autor:Berg F; Almeland OW; Skadal J; Slotte A; Andersson L; Folkvord A
Endereço:University of Bergen, Department of Biology, Bergen, Norway.
Título:Genetic factors have a major effect on growth, number of vertebrae and otolith shape in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0190995, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, have complex population structures. Mixing of populations is known, but the extent of connectivity is still unclear. Phenotypic plasticity results in divergent phenotypes in response to environmental factors. A marked salinity gradient occurs from Atlantic Ocean (salinity 35) into the Baltic Sea (salinity range 2-12). Herring from both habitats display phenotypic and genetic variability. To explore how genetic factors and salinity influence phenotypic traits like growth, number of vertebrae and otolith shape an experimental population consisting of Atlantic purebreds and Atlantic/Baltic F1 hybrids were incubated and co-reared at two different salinities, 16 and 35, for three years. The F1-generation was repeatedly sampled to evaluate temporal variation. A von Bertalanffy growth model indicated that reared Atlantic purebreds had a higher maximum length (26.2 cm) than Atlantic/Baltic hybrids (24.8 cm) at salinity 35, but not at salinity 16 (25.0 and 24.8 cm, respectively). In contrast, Atlantic/Baltic hybrids achieved larger size-at-age than the wild caught Baltic parental group. Mean vertebral counts and otolith aspect ratios were higher for reared Atlantic purebreds than Atlantic/Baltic hybrids, consistent with the differences between parental groups. There were no significant differences in vertebral counts and otolith aspect ratios between herring with the same genotype but raised in different salinities. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates was applied to analyze the variation in wavelet coefficients that described otolith shape. The first discriminating axis identified the differences between Atlantic purebreds and Atlantic/Baltic hybrids, while the second axis represented salinity differences. Assigning otoliths based on genetic groups (Atlantic purebreds vs. Atlantic/Baltic hybrids) yielded higher classification success (~90%) than based on salinities (16 vs. 35; ~60%). Our results demonstrate that otolith shape and vertebral counts have a significant genetic component and are therefore useful for studies on population dynamics and connectivity.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  7 / 21130 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29238946
Autor:Banaszak-Ziemska M; Niedziela M
Título:PAPP-A2 a new key regulator of growth.
Fonte:Endokrynol Pol; 68(6):682-691, 2017.
ISSN:2299-8306
País de publicação:Poland
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Short stature is the main problem that paediatric endocrinologists have to grapple with. Endocrine disorders account for only 5% of patients with short stature, but this is still one of the most common causes of reports to the endocrine clinic and hospitalisation in the endocrine department. A properly functioning growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis is one of the most important factors in proper growth. A lot of genetic defects in this axis lead to syndromes marked by impaired growth, like Laron syndrome, muta-tions in the STAT5B, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and mutations in the acid labile subunit (ALS). Two proteases important for the proper functioning of the GH/IGF axis: pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2), have been described. The first description of the new syndrome of growth failure associated with mutation in the PAPP-A2 gene was given by Andrew Dauber et al. This review evaluates the current data concerning PAPP-A2 function, and particularly the effect of PAPP-A2 mutation on growth.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Nome de substância:67763-96-6 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor I); 9002-72-6 (Growth Hormone); EC 3.4.- (PAPPA2 protein, human); EC 3.4.24.- (PAPPA2 protein, mouse); EC 3.4.24.- (Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A)


  8 / 21130 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28459932
Autor:Martin RM; Kramer MS; Patel R; Rifas-Shiman SL; Thompson J; Yang S; Vilchuck K; Bogdanovich N; Hameza M; Tilling K; Oken E
Endereço:School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom2University Hospitals Bristol National Health Services Foundation Trust National Institute for Health Research Bristol Nutrition Biomedical Research Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom3Medical Res
Título:Effects of Promoting Long-term, Exclusive Breastfeeding on Adolescent Adiposity, Blood Pressure, and Growth Trajectories: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.
Fonte:JAMA Pediatr; 171(7):e170698, 2017 Jul 03.
ISSN:2168-6211
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Importance: Evidence that breastfeeding reduces child obesity risk and lowers blood pressure (BP) is based on potentially confounded observational studies. Objective: To investigate the effects of a breastfeeding promotion intervention on adiposity and BP at age 16 years and on longitudinal growth trajectories from birth. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cluster-randomized Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial. Belarusian maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics (the clusters) were allocated into intervention (n = 16) or control arms (n = 15) in 1996 and 1997. The trial participants were 17 046 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs; of these, 13 557 children (79.5%) were followed up at 16 years of age between September 2012 and July 2015. Interventions: Breastfeeding promotion, modeled on the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. Main Outcomes and Measures: Body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); fat and fat-free mass indices and percentage of body fat from bioimpedance; waist circumference; overweight and obesity; height; BP; and longitudinal growth trajectories. The primary analysis was modified intention-to-treat (without imputation for losses to follow-up) accounting for within-clinic clustering. Results: We examined 13 557 children at a median age of 16.2 years (48.5% were girls). The intervention substantially increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity compared with the control arm (exclusively breastfed: 45% vs 6% at 3 months, respectively). Mean differences at 16 years between intervention and control groups were 0.21 (95% CI, 0.06-0.36) for BMI; 0.21 kg/m2 (95% CI, -0.03 to 0.44) for fat mass index; 0.00 kg/m2 (95% CI, -0.21 to 0.22) for fat-free mass index; 0.71% (95% CI, -0.32 to 1.74) for percentage body fat; -0.73 cm (-2.48 to 1.02) for waist circumference; 0.05 cm (95% CI, -0.85 to 0.94) for height; -0.54 mm Hg (95% CI, -2.40 to 1.31) for systolic BP; and 0.71 mm Hg (95% CI, -0.68 to 2.10) for diastolic BP. The odds ratio for overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile vs <85th percentile) was 1.14 (95% CI, 1.02-1.28) and the odds ratio for obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile vs <95th percentile) was 1.09 (95% CI, 0.92-1.29). The intervention resulted in a more rapid rate of gain in postinfancy height (1 to 2.8 years), weight (2.8 to 14.5 years), and BMI (2.8 to 8.5 years) compared with the control arm. The intervention had little effect on BMI z score changes after 8.5 years. Conclusions and Relevance: A randomized intervention that increased the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding was not associated with lowered adolescent obesity risk or BP. On the contrary, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in the intervention arm. All mothers initiated breastfeeding, so findings may not apply to comparisons of the effects of breastfeeding vs formula feeding. Trial Registration: isrctn.org: ISRCTN37687716; and clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01561612.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL


  9 / 21130 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29183937
Autor:Irvine KD; Shraiman BI
Endereço:Waksman Institute and Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway NJ 08854, USA Irvine@waksman.rutgers.edu Shraiman@kitp.ucsb.edu.
Título:Mechanical control of growth: ideas, facts and challenges.
Fonte:Development; 144(23):4238-4248, 2017 Dec 01.
ISSN:1477-9129
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:In his classic book , D'Arcy Thompson discussed the necessity of a physical and mathematical approach to understanding the relationship between growth and form. The past century has seen extraordinary advances in our understanding of biological components and processes contributing to organismal morphogenesis, but the mathematical and physical principles involved have not received comparable attention. The most obvious entry of physics into morphogenesis is via tissue mechanics. In this Review, we discuss the fundamental role of mechanical interactions between cells induced by growth in shaping a tissue. Non-uniform growth can lead to accumulation of mechanical stress, which in the context of two-dimensional sheets of tissue can specify the shape it assumes in three dimensions. A special class of growth patterns - conformal growth - does not lead to the accumulation of stress and can generate a rich variety of planar tissue shapes. Conversely, mechanical stress can provide a regulatory feedback signal into the growth control circuit. Both theory and experiment support a key role for mechanical interactions in shaping tissues and, via mechanical feedback, controlling epithelial growth.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW


  10 / 21130 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29183941
Autor:Abzhanov A
Endereço:Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Ascot SL5 7PY, UK a.abzhanov@imperial.ac.uk.
Título:The old and new faces of morphology: the legacy of D'Arcy Thompson's 'theory of transformations' and 'laws of growth'.
Fonte:Development; 144(23):4284-4297, 2017 Dec 01.
ISSN:1477-9129
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:In 1917, the publication of by D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson challenged both mathematicians and naturalists to think about biological shapes and diversity as more than a confusion of chaotic forms generated at random, but rather as geometric shapes that could be described by principles of physics and mathematics. Thompson's work was based on the ideas of Galileo and Goethe on morphology and of Russell on functionalism, but he was first to postulate that physical forces and internal growth parameters regulate biological forms and could be revealed via geometric transformations in morphological space. Such precise mathematical structure suggested a unifying generative process, as reflected in the title of the book. To Thompson it was growth that could explain the generation of any particular biological form, and changes in ontogeny, rather than natural selection, could then explain the diversity of biological shapes. Whereas adaptationism, widely accepted in evolutionary biology, gives primacy to extrinsic factors in producing morphological variation, Thompson's 'laws of growth' provide intrinsic directives and constraints for the generation of individual shapes, helping to explain the 'profusion of forms, colours, and other modifications' observed in the living world.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW



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