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Pesquisa : G16.500.275.553 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 83 [refinar]
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PMID:29357381
Autor:Sala A
Endereço:Italian National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR), Ancona, Italy.
Título:Influence of tow duration on catch performance of trawl survey in the Mediterranean Sea.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0191662, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tow duration on catch per unit of swept area (CPUE), trawl catch performance, and the proportion of the species caught in a trawl survey. Longer tows are expected to have a greater probability of catching species. An average of 26 species were caught in the first 30 minutes, whereas only about one additional species was caught in the next 30 minutes in longer tows. The shorter tows involved a decrement in catch weight for 11 of the 12 target species sampled, demonstrating that tow duration did affect catch per unit of swept area CPUE. The shorter tows were associated with a significant reduction of the overall CPUE in terms of weight of the main target species and of the total catch (circa 60%). The same strong reduction of around 70% was found in particular for European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and surmullet (Mullus spp) and 50% for Nephrops (Nephrops norvegicus). The shorter tows were less efficient in catching large-sized hake, surmullet, Nephrops, Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), and poor cod (Trisopterus minutus), even though the difference was significant only for Nephrops. Regardless of the p-value statistic, these findings suggest that the continuity of survey time series would be severely impaired by changing tow duration. Further work is required to explore a way to reduce tow duration without reducing CPUE.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  2 / 83 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28792495
Autor:Adewumi AO; Chetty S
Endereço:School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Durban, South Africa.
Título:Investigating the enhanced Best Performance Algorithm for Annual Crop Planning problem based on economic factors.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(8):e0180813, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The Annual Crop Planning (ACP) problem was a recently introduced problem in the literature. This study further expounds on this problem by presenting a new mathematical formulation, which is based on market economic factors. To determine solutions, a new local search metaheuristic algorithm is investigated which is called the enhanced Best Performance Algorithm (eBPA). eBPA's results are compared against two well-known local search metaheuristic algorithms; these include Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing. The results show the potential of the eBPA for continuous optimization problems.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  3 / 83 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28477563
Autor:Richardson J; Grose J; Bradbury M; Kelsey J
Endereço:School of Nursing and Midwifery, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, United Kingdom. Electronic address: janet.richardson@plymouth.ac.uk.
Título:Developing awareness of sustainability in nursing and midwifery using a scenario-based approach: Evidence from a pre and post educational intervention study.
Fonte:Nurse Educ Today; 54:51-55, 2017 Jul.
ISSN:1532-2793
País de publicação:Scotland
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: The delivery of healthcare has an impact on the environment and contributes to climate change. As a consequence, the way in which nurses and midwives use and dispose of natural resources in clinical practice, and the subsequent impact on the environment, should be integral component of nursing and midwifery education. Opportunities need to be found to embed such issues into nursing curricula; thus bringing sustainability issues 'closer to home' and making them more relevant for clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The study was designed to measure the impact of a sustainability-focussed, scenario-based learning educational intervention on the attitudes and knowledge of student nurses and midwives. DESIGN: Pre test/Post test intervention study using scenario-based learning as the educational intervention. The Sustainability Attitudes in Nursing Survey (SANS_2) was used as the outcome measure. SETTINGS: Clinical skills session in a UK University School of Nursing and Midwifery. PARTICIPANTS: 676 second year undergraduate nursing and midwifery students. METHODS: The 7-point scale SANS survey was completed before and after the teaching session; standard non-parametric analysis compared pre and post intervention scores. RESULTS: Changes were observed in attitude towards climate change and sustainability and to the inclusion of these topics within the nursing curricula (p=0.000). Participants demonstrated greater knowledge of natural resource use and the cost of waste disposal following the session (p=0.000). Participants also reported that sessions were realistic, and levels of agreement with statements supporting the value of the session and the interactive nature of delivery were higher following the session. CONCLUSIONS: Using a scenario-based learning approach with nursing and midwifery students can change attitudes and knowledge towards sustainability and climate change. Embedding this approach in the context of clinical skills provides a novel and engaging approach that is both educationally sound and clinically relevant.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 83 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28441467
Autor:González-Maya JF; Martínez-Meyer E; Medellín R; Ceballos G
Endereço:Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF, Mexico.
Título:Distribution of mammal functional diversity in the Neotropical realm: Influence of land-use and extinction risk.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(4):e0175931, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Functional diversity represents a measure of diversity that incorporates the role of species in an ecosystem, and therefore its dynamics and resilience. Assessing its drivers and spatial variation represents an important step forward in our understanding of functional ecosystem dynamics and it is also necessary to achieve a comprehensive conservation planning. In this paper, we assessed mammal functional diversity for the 218 ecoregions within the Neotropical realm. We evaluated the overall influence and spatial variation of species richness, ecoregion extent, intervention and species at risk on functional diversity. Using ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression modeling approaches, we found that intervened areas and threatened and non-threatened species are the most influential overall drivers of functional diversity. However, we also detected that these variables do not operate equally across scales. Our local analyses indicated both that the variation explained and local coefficients vary spatially depending on the ecoregion and major habitat type. As estimates of functional diversity are based on current distribution of all mammals, negative influence of intervened areas and positive influence of non-threatened species may reflect a potential degradation of functional processes for some ecosystems. Most generally, the negative influence of intervention together with the influence of threatened species indicates that some areas are currently more susceptible to functional diversity loss. Our results help to pinpoint key areas requiring urgent conservation action to reduce natural land-cover loss and areas where threatened species play influential roles on ecosystem functioning.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


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PMID:28231328
Autor:Liang Y; Liu L; Huang J
Endereço:School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
Título:Integrating the SD-CLUE-S and InVEST models into assessment of oasis carbon storage in northwestern China.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(2):e0172494, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Spatio-temporal integrated assessment of land-use change impacts on carbon storage services is a new and important research field in land science and landscape ecology. The objective of this paper is to use an integrated SD-CLUE-S and InVEST model to simulate and predict land-use changes impacts during 2000-2018 on carbon storage at pixel and regional scales in the Zhangye oasis, Northwest China. The SD-CLUE-S model was used to simulate land-use change, and three land-use scenarios (current trend, moderate protection, and strict protection) were defined in collaboration with oasis socioeconomic development and ecological environment conservation by local government. The InVEST model was then used to simulate land-use change impacts on carbon storage at different scales in the oasis. The results showed that: (1) the effects of built-up land expansion were especially notable, with a rapid decrease in cropland during 2009-2018; (2) the strict protection scenario saved the largest amount of carbon storage for the oasis compared with the current trend and moderate protection scenarios. The scientific value of this study has been to show that the proposed modeling method can be used to reflect different land-use patterns and their effects on ecosystem services at multiple scales in the oasis. Furthermore, this research can be used to help government managers encourage stakeholders to contribute funds and strategies to maintain oasis landscape patterns and ecological processes by implementing local plans for potential conservation projects.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  6 / 83 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28222199
Autor:Reside AE; VanDerWal J; Moilanen A; Graham EM
Endereço:Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Sciences, College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.
Título:Examining current or future trade-offs for biodiversity conservation in north-eastern Australia.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(2):e0172230, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:With the high rate of ecosystem change already occurring and predicted to occur in the coming decades, long-term conservation has to account not only for current biodiversity but also for the biodiversity patterns anticipated for the future. The trade-offs between prioritising future biodiversity at the expense of current priorities must be understood to guide current conservation planning, but have been largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we compared the performance of four conservation planning solutions involving 662 vertebrate species in the Wet Tropics Natural Resource Management Cluster Region in north-eastern Australia. Input species data for the four planning solutions were: 1) current distributions; 2) projected distributions for 2055; 3) projected distributions for 2085; and 4) current, 2055 and 2085 projected distributions, and the connectivity between each of the three time periods for each species. The four planning solutions were remarkably similar (up to 85% overlap), suggesting that modelling for either current or future scenarios is sufficient for conversation planning for this region, with little obvious trade-off. Our analyses also revealed that overall, species with small ranges occurring across steep elevation gradients and at higher elevations were more likely to be better represented in all solutions. Given that species with these characteristics are of high conservation significance, our results provide confidence that conservation planning focused on either current, near- or distant-future biodiversity will account for these species.
Tipo de publicação: COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 83 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28175239
Autor:Hiscox J; Savoury M; Toledo S; Kingscott-Edmunds J; Bettridge A; Waili NA; Boddy L
Título:Threesomes destabilise certain relationships: multispecies interactions between wood decay fungi in natural resources.
Fonte:FEMS Microbiol Ecol; 93(3), 2017 Mar 01.
ISSN:1574-6941
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Understanding interspecific interactions is key to explaining and modelling community development and associated ecosystem function. Most interactions research has focused on pairwise combinations, overlooking the complexity of multispecies communities. This study investigated three-way interactions between saprotrophic fungi in wood and across soil, and indicated that pairwise combinations are often inaccurate predictors of the outcomes of multispecies competition in wood block interactions. This inconsistency was especially true of intransitive combinations, resulting in increased species coexistence within the resource. Furthermore, the addition of a third competitor frequently destabilised the otherwise consistent outcomes of pairwise combinations in wood blocks, which occasionally resulted in altered resource decomposition rates, depending on the relative decay abilities of the species involved. Conversely, interaction outcomes in soil microcosms were unaffected by the presence of a third combatant. Multispecies interactions promoted species diversity within natural resources, and made community dynamics less consistent than could be predicted from pairwise interaction studies.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Soil)


  8 / 83 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28060850
Autor:Duester L; Wahrendorf DS; Brinkmann C; Fabricius AL; Meermann B; Pelzer J; Ecker D; Renner M; Schmid H; Ternes TA; Heininger P
Endereço:Federal Institute of Hydrology, Division G-Qualitative Hydrology, Am Mainzer Tor 1, Koblenz, Germany.
Título:A Framework to Evaluate the Impact of Armourstones on the Chemical Quality of Surface Water.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(1):e0168926, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Today, basic requirements for construction works include the protection of human health and of the environment. In the tension area between economic demands, circular flow economy and environmental safety, a link between the results from standardized leaching tests and the respective environmental quality standards must be created. To derive maximum release limits of metals and metalloids for armourstones in hydraulic engineering, this link is accomplished via a simple model approach. By treating natural materials and industrial by-products the same way, the article delivers an overview on the recent regulative situation in Europe as well as describes and discusses an innovative approach to derive maximum release limits for monolithic construction products in hydraulic engineering on a conceptual level. On a practical level, a list of test parameters is derived by connecting an extensive dataset (seven armourstone materials with five repetitions and 31 elements tested with the worldwide applied dynamic surface leaching test) with surface water quality standards and predicted no effect concentrations. Finally, the leaching tests results are compared with the envisaged maximum release limits, offering a direct comparison between natural materials and industrial by-products.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:059QF0KO0R (Water)


  9 / 83 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28012733
Autor:Leung JYS; Cheung NKM
Endereço:Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. Electronic address: jonathan_0919@hotmail.com.
Título:Feeding behaviour of a serpulid polychaete: Turning a nuisance species into a natural resource to counter algal blooms?
Fonte:Mar Pollut Bull; 115(1-2):376-382, 2017 Feb 15.
ISSN:1879-3363
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Occurrence of algal blooms in coastal waters is predicted to be more prevalent in future. To minimize their occurrence, manipulating the grazing pressure by suspension feeders is a potential management strategy, but its effectiveness may depend on their feeding preference. Therefore, we assessed the clearance rate of a widespread serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans in larval and adult stages on various coastal phytoplankton. Additionally, the growth and development of H. elegans after consuming these phytoplankton were determined to reflect its sustainability to counter algal blooms. Results showed that H. elegans can consume and utilize different phytoplankton, except diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, for growth and development in both life stages. Given the fast-colonizing ability which allows easy manipulation of abundance, H. elegans is considered practically and biologically ideal for tackling algal blooms. Other suspension feeders with different feeding niches could be used in combination to maximize the versatility of the top-down control.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


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PMID:27812797
Autor:Dreiss LM; Hessenauer JM; Nathan LR; O'Connor KM; Liberati MR; Kloster DP; Barclay JR; Vokoun JC; Morzillo AT
Endereço:Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Connecticut, 1376 Storrs Road, Unit 4087, Storrs, CT, 06269-4087, USA. lindsay.dreiss@uconn.edu.
Título:Adaptive Management as an Effective Strategy: Interdisciplinary Perceptions for Natural Resources Management.
Fonte:Environ Manage; 59(2):218-229, 2017 Feb.
ISSN:1432-1009
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Adaptive management is a well-established approach to managing natural resources, but there is little evidence demonstrating effectiveness of adaptive management over traditional management techniques. Peer-reviewed literature attempts to draw conclusions about adaptive management effectiveness using social perceptions, but those studies are largely restricted to employees of US federal organizations. To gain a more comprehensive insight into perceived adaptive management effectiveness, this study aimed to broaden the suite of disciplines, professional affiliations, and geographic backgrounds represented by both practitioners and scholars. A questionnaire contained a series of questions concerning factors that lead to or inhibit effective management, followed by another set of questions focused on adaptive management. Using a continuum representing strategies of both adaptive management and traditional management, respondents selected those strategies that they perceived as being effective. Overall, characteristics (i.e., strategies, stakeholders, and barriers) identified by respondents as contributing to effective management closely aligned with adaptive management. Responses were correlated to the type of adaptive management experience rather than an individual's discipline, occupational, or regional affiliation. In particular, perceptions of characteristics contributing to adaptive management effectiveness varied between respondents who identified as adaptive management scholars (i.e., no implementation experience) and adaptive management practitioners. Together, these results supported two concepts that make adaptive management effective: practitioners emphasized adaptive management's value as a long-term approach and scholars noted the importance of stakeholder involvement. Even so, more communication between practitioners and scholars regarding adaptive management effectiveness could promote interdisciplinary learning and problem solving for improved resources management.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE



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