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Pesquisa : I01.240.600.525.500 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 23673 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29360878
Autor:Menigoz K; Nathan A; Heesch KC; Turrell G
Endereço:School of Public Health and Social Work and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Título:Neighbourhood disadvantage, geographic remoteness and body mass index among immigrants to Australia: A national cohort study 2006-2014.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0191729, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Obesity is socioeconomically, geographically and ethnically patterned. Understanding these elements of disadvantage is vital in understanding population obesity trends and the development of effective and equitable interventions. This study examined the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and geographic remoteness with prospective trends in mean body mass index (BMI) among immigrants to Australia. Longitudinal data (2006-2014) from a national panel survey of Australian adults was divided into an immigrant-only sample (n = 4,293, 52.6% women and 19,404 person-year observations). The data were analysed using multi-level random effects linear regression modelling that controlled for individual socioeconomic and demographic factors. Male immigrants living in the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods had significantly higher mean BMI compared with those living in the least disadvantaged. Over time, mean BMI increased for all groups except for men living in the least disadvantaged neighbourhoods, for whom mean BMI remained almost static (0.1 kg/m2 increase from 2006 to 2014), effectively widening neighbourhood inequalities. Among women, mean BMI was also significantly higher in the most compared with the least, disadvantaged neighbourhoods (ß = 2.08 kg/m2; 95%CI: 1.48, 2.68). Neighbourhood inequalities were maintained over time as mean BMI increased for all groups at a similar rate. Male and female immigrants residing in outer regional areas had significantly higher mean BMI compared with those living in major cities; however, differences were attenuated and no longer significant following adjustment for ethnicity, individual socioeconomic position and neighbourhood disadvantage. Over time, mean BMI increased in all male and female groups with no differences based on geographic remoteness. Obesity prevention policy targeted at immigrant cohorts needs to include area-level interventions that address inequalities in BMI arising from neighbourhood disadvantage, and be inclusive of immigrants living outside Australia's major cities.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  2 / 23673 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29360874
Autor:Brzoska P
Endereço:Chemnitz Technical University, Faculty of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Chemnitz, Germany.
Título:Disparities in health care outcomes between immigrants and the majority population in Germany: A trend analysis, 2006-2014.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0191732, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Immigrants often encounter barriers in the health system that may affect their health care outcomes. In order to better cater to the needs of immigrants, many health care institutions have increased their efforts in recent years to provide services which are more sensitive to the needs of an increasingly diverse population. Little is known about whether these efforts are successful. This study examines difference in outcomes of tertiary prevention between immigrants and the autochthonous population in Germany over the period of 2006-2014. METHODS: The analysis is based on a 10% random sample of routine data on completed tertiary preventive treatments in Germany during 2006-2014. Four different indicators of treatment effectiveness were compared between patients with a nationality from Germany, Portugal/Spain/Italy/Greece, Turkey and Former Yugoslavia using logistic regression adjusted for demographic/socioeconomic factors. Interaction terms for year were modeled to examine group differences over time. RESULTS: Depending on the outcome, Turkish and Former Yugoslavian nationals had an 23%-69% higher chance of a poor treatment effectiveness than Germans (OR = 1.23 [95%-CI = 1.15,1.32] and OR = 1.69 [95%-CI = 1.55,1.83], respectively). Fewer differences were observed between nationals from Portugal/Spain/Italy/Greece and Germans. Disparities did not significantly differ between the years in which services were utilized. CONCLUSION: Measures implemented by health care institutions did not reduce existing health care disparities between immigrants and the majority population in Germany. One potential reason is that existing approaches are unsystematic and often not properly evaluated. More targeted strategies and a thorough evaluation is needed in order to improve health care for immigrants sustainably.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  3 / 23673 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29372995
Autor:Harris JM
Título:The Eminent Domain of Sanitary Science and the Usefulness of State Boards in Guarding the Public Welfare.
Fonte:W V Med J; 113(1):10-12, 2017 Jan-Feb.
ISSN:0043-3284
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 23673 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29302036
Autor:Erten EY; van den Berg P; Weissing FJ
Endereço:Theoretical Research in Evolutionary Life Sciences, Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 11103, 9700 CC, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Título:Acculturation orientations affect the evolution of a multicultural society.
Fonte:Nat Commun; 9(1):58, 2018 01 04.
ISSN:2041-1723
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The migration of people between different cultures has affected cultural change throughout history. To understand this process, cross-cultural psychologists have used the 'acculturation' framework, classifying 'acculturation orientations' along two dimensions: the willingness to interact with culturally different individuals, and the inclination to retain the own cultural identity ('cultural conservatism'). Here, using a cultural evolution approach, we construct a dynamically explicit model of acculturation. We show that the evolution of a multicultural society, where immigrant and resident culture stably coexist, is more likely if individuals readily engage in cross-cultural interactions, and if resident individuals are more culturally conservative than immigrants. This result holds if some cultural traits pay off better than others, and individuals use social learning to adopt more advantageous cultural traits. Our study demonstrates that formal dynamic models can help us understand how individual orientations towards immigration eventually determine the population-level distribution of cultural traits.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  5 / 23673 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29253449
Autor:Venkataramani AS; Shah SJ; O'Brien R; Kawachi I; Tsai AC
Endereço:Division of General Internal Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: avenkataramani@partners.org.
Título:Health consequences of the US Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration programme: a quasi-experimental study.
Fonte:Lancet Public Health; 2(4):e175-e181, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:2468-2667
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: The effects of changes in immigration policy on health outcomes among undocumented immigrants are not well known. We aimed to examine the physical and mental health effects of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) programme, a 2012 US immigration policy that provided renewable work permits and freedom from deportation for a large number of undocumented immigrants. METHODS: We did a retrospective, quasi-experimental study using nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional data from the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the period January, 2008, to December, 2015. We included non-citizen, Hispanic adults aged 19-50 years in our analyses. We used a difference-in-differences strategy to compare changes in health outcomes among individuals who met key DACA eligibility criteria (based on age at immigration and at the time of policy implementation) before and after programme implementation versus changes in outcomes for individuals who did not meet these criteria. We additionally restricted the sample to individuals who had lived in the USA for at least 5 years and had completed high school or its equivalent, in order to hold fixed two other DACA eligibility criteria. Our primary outcomes were self-reported overall health (measured on a 5 point Likert scale) and psychological distress (Kessler 6 [K6] scale), the latter was administered to a random subset of NHIS respondents. FINDINGS: Our final sample contained 14 973 respondents for the self-reported health outcome and 5035 respondents for the K6 outcome. Of these individuals, 3972 in the self-reported health analysis and 1138 in the K6 analysis met the DACA eligibility criteria. Compared with people ineligible for DACA, the introduction of DACA was associated with no significant change among DACA-eligible individuals in terms of self-reported overall health (b=0·056, 95% CI -0·024 to 0·14, p=0·17) or the likelihood of reporting poor or fair health (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·66-1·44, p=0·91). However, DACA-eligible individuals experienced a reduction in K6 score compared with DACA-ineligible individuals (adjusted incident risk ratio 0·78, 95% CI 0·56-0·95, p=0·020) and were less likely to meet screening criteria for moderate or worse psychological distress (aOR 0·62, 95% CI 0·41-0·93, p=0·022). INTERPRETATION: Economic opportunities and protection from deportation for undocumented immigrants, as offered by DACA, could confer large mental health benefits to such individuals. Health consequences should be considered by researchers and policy makers in evaluations of the broader welfare effects of immigration policy. FUNDING: None.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  6 / 23673 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29280794
Autor:Sofer D
Endereço:Dalia Sofer.
Título:The Top Social Justice News Stories of 2017.
Fonte:Am J Nurs; 118(1):15, 2018 01.
ISSN:1538-7488
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: NEWS


  7 / 23673 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29368870
Autor:Kurbatova OL; Yankovsky NK
Título:[Migration as the main factor of the Russia's urban population dynamics].
Fonte:Genetika; 52(7):831-51, 2016 Jul.
ISSN:0016-6758
País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
Idioma:rus
Resumo:This review summarizes the results of the long-term studies performed at the Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, in the field of genetic demography of migration processes in Russia and its capital. The main population-genetic parameters of migration and their dynamics in Moscow over a hundred years are given. Sociodemographic and population-genetic implications of migration processes are considered. A model predicting the population gene pool dynamics under migration pressure for genes of different localization (autosomal, sex-linked, and mitochondrial), exemplified by predicting the allele frequency dynamics in the Moscow population of some gene markers, including genes accounting for monogenic pathology and genes associated with resistance to socially significant diseases, are presented. The paper discusses the selective character of migration processes, in particular, processes of emigration, with respect to some genetically significant ethnodemographic traits; the problem of adaptation of migrants; and adaptive strategies of consolidation of ethnoconfessional groups in the megalopolis (compact settlement over the urban territory and positive assortative mating with respect to demographic traits). It was shown that, owing to the intense influx of migrants and gene flows between ethnic groups, the population of the megalopolis is of mixed origin in terms of ethnic, anthropologic, and genetic aspects. The results of the study suggest the necessity to develop a specific strategy of genetic database formation for the population of megalopolises for the purposes of medical genetics and forensic medicine.
Tipo de publicação: HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 23673 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29283994
Autor:Pannetier J; Gigonzac V; Lydié N; Desgrées du Loû A; Dray Spira R
Endereço:CEPED, IRD, Université Paris Descartes, INSERM, équipe SAGESUD, Paris, France.
Título:Timing of chronic hepatitis B diagnosis after migration and its determinants among Sub-Saharan African migrants living in France.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(12):e0189196, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVE: In European countries, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) disproportionately affects migrants from medium- and high-endemic areas and is largely underdiagnosed. To inform policy and improve screening strategies, we measured the timing of CHB diagnosis after migration and its determinants among sub-Saharan migrants living in the Paris metropolitan area (France). DESIGN: The PARCOURS study is a retrospective life-event history survey conducted in health care services in 2012-2013 among 779 migrants from sub-Saharan Africa who were receiving care for CHB. We investigated the timing of CHB diagnosis from the time of arrival in France using the Kaplan-Meier method and characteristics associated with CHB diagnosis since the time of arrival in France using discrete-time multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: The median CHB diagnosis occurred during the fourth year spent in France for men and during the second year spent in France for women. Among men, the probability of CHB diagnosis increased during years with (versus without) a temporary resident permit (aOR: 1.6, 95%CI: 1.1-2.2), a precarious accommodation (aOR: 1.7, 95%CI: 1.1-2.6), and hospitalization (aOR: 7.7, 95%CI: 3.4-15.1). Among women, CHB diagnosis was more likely to occur during years with unemployment (aOR: 1.9, 95%CI: 1.1-3.94), pregnancy (aOR: 6.6, 95%CI: 3.5-12.5) and hospitalization (aOR: 9.0, 95%CI: 2.95-32.3). For both sexes, the probability of CHB diagnosis was higher among those who migrated to France because they were threatened in their country. CONCLUSION: This study shows that social hardships (residential, economic, administrative) and contact with the health care system after arrival in France hasten access to a CHB diagnosis.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  9 / 23673 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29246100
Autor:Silva NM; Rio J; Currat M
Endereço:AGP lab, Department of Genetics & Evolution - Anthropology Unit, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
Título:Investigating population continuity with ancient DNA under a spatially explicit simulation framework.
Fonte:BMC Genet; 18(1):114, 2017 Dec 15.
ISSN:1471-2156
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Recent advances in sequencing technologies have allowed for the retrieval of ancient DNA data (aDNA) from skeletal remains, providing direct genetic snapshots from diverse periods of human prehistory. Comparing samples taken in the same region but at different times, hereafter called "serial samples", may indicate whether there is continuity in the peopling history of that area or whether an immigration of a genetically different population has occurred between the two sampling times. However, the exploration of genetic relationships between serial samples generally ignores their geographical locations and the spatiotemporal dynamics of populations. Here, we present a new coalescent-based, spatially explicit modelling approach to investigate population continuity using aDNA, which includes two fundamental elements neglected in previous methods: population structure and migration. The approach also considers the extensive temporal and geographical variance that is commonly found in aDNA population samples. RESULTS: We first showed that our spatially explicit approach is more conservative than the previous (panmictic) approach and should be preferred to test for population continuity, especially when small and isolated populations are considered. We then applied our method to two mitochondrial datasets from Germany and France, both including modern and ancient lineages dating from the early Neolithic. The results clearly reject population continuity for the maternal line over the last 7500 years for the German dataset but not for the French dataset, suggesting regional heterogeneity in post-Neolithic migratory processes. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we demonstrate the benefits of using a spatially explicit method when investigating population continuity with aDNA. It constitutes an improvement over panmictic methods by considering the spatiotemporal dynamics of genetic lineages and the precise location of ancient samples. The method can be used to investigate population continuity between any pair of serial samples (ancient-ancient or ancient-modern) and to investigate more complex evolutionary scenarios. Although we based our study on mitochondrial DNA sequences, diploid molecular markers of different types (DNA, SNP, STR) can also be simulated with our approach. It thus constitutes a promising tool for the analysis of the numerous aDNA datasets being produced, including genome wide data, in humans but also in many other species.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Ancient); 0 (DNA, Mitochondrial)


  10 / 23673 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29281136
Autor:Krystalli R; Hawkins A; Wilson K
Endereço:Humanitarian Evidence Program Manager, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University, and PhD Candidate, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, United States.
Título:'I followed the flood': a gender analysis of the moral and financial economies of forced migration.
Fonte:Disasters; 42 Suppl 1:S17-S39, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1467-7717
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:What would a gender analysis of refugee crises reveal if one expanded the focus beyond female refugees, and acts of physical violence? This paper draws on qualitative research conducted in Denmark, Greece, Jordan, and Turkey in July and August 2016 to spotlight the gendered kinship, hierarchies, networks, and transactions that affect refugees. The coping strategies of groups often overlooked in the gender conversation are examined throughout this study, including those of male refugees and those making crossings outside of the context of a family unit. The analysis is theoretically situated at the intersection of critical humanitarianism and the politics of vulnerability, and rooted in debates about the feminisation of refugees and corresponding protection agendas. A key contribution of this work is the ethnographic tracing of how refugees embody these politics along their journeys. In closing, the paper sketches out some implications of the findings for humanitarian practice and identifies avenues for further research.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE



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