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Pesquisa : Z01.058 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 25777 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29193692
Autor:Sanganyado E; Teta C; Masiri B
Endereço:Marine Biology Institute, Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong Province, China.
Título:Impact of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaptation.
Fonte:Integr Environ Assess Manag; 14(2):189-193, 2018 Mar.
ISSN:1551-3793
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Recent studies show cultural worldviews are a key determinant of environmental risk perceptions; thus, they could influence climate change adaptation strategies. African traditional worldviews encourage harmony between humans and the environment through a complex metaphysical belief system transmitted through folklore, taboos, and traditional knowledge. However, African traditional worldviews hold a belief in traditional gods that was shown to have a low connectedness to nature and a low willingness to change. In Makueni District, Kenya, 45% of agropastoralists surveyed believed drought was god's plan and could not be changed. In contrast, traditional knowledge, which is shaped by African traditional worldviews, is often used to frame adaptive strategies such as migration, changing modes of production, and planting different crop varieties. Furthermore, traditional knowledge has been used as a complement to science in areas where meteorological data was unavailable. However, the role of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaption remains understudied. Hence, there is a need to systematically establish the influence of African traditional worldviews on climate change risk perception, development of adaptive strategies, and policy formulation and implementation. In this commentary, we discuss the potential impacts of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaptation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:189-193. © 2018 SETAC.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  2 / 25777 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29378558
Autor:Kuete V; Ngnintedo D; Fotso GW; Karaosmanoglu O; Ngadjui BT; Keumedjio F; Yeboah SO; Andrae-Marobela K; Sivas H
Endereço:Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon. kuetevictor@yahoo.fr.
Título:Cytotoxicity of seputhecarpan D, thonningiol and 12 other phytochemicals from African flora towards human carcinoma cells.
Fonte:BMC Complement Altern Med; 18(1):36, 2018 Jan 30.
ISSN:1472-6882
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Despite the remarkable progress in cancer therapy in recent years, this disease still remains a serious public health concern. The use of natural products has been and continues to be one of the most effective ways to fight malignancies. The cytotoxicity of 14 compounds from African medicinal plants was evaluated in four human carcinoma cell lines and normal fibroblasts. The tested samples included: ß-spinasterol (1), friedelanone (2), 16ß-hydroxylupeol (3), ß-amyrin acetate (4), lupeol acetate (5), sequoyitol (6), rhamnitrin (7), europetin 3-O-rhamnoside (8), thonningiol (9), glyasperin F (10), seputhecarpan B (11), seputhecarpan C (12), seputhecarpan D (13) and rheediaxanthone A (14). METHODS: The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of samples; caspase-Glo assay, flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) as well as spectrophotometry to measure levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed to detect the mode of action of compounds 9 and 13 in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. RESULTS: Compounds 3, 9-13 displayed cytotoxic effects against the four tested cancer cell lines with IC values below 85 µM. Compounds 9 and 13 had IC values below 10 µM in 4/4 and 3/4 tested cell lines respectively. The IC values varied from 0.36 µM (against MCF7 cells) to 5.65 µM (towards colon carcinoma DLD-1 cells) for 9, from 9.78 µM (against MCF7 cells) to 67.68 µM (against HepG2 cells) for 13 and 0.18 µM (towards HepG2 cells) to 72 µM (towards Caco-2 cells) for the reference drug, doxorubicin. Compounds 9 and 13 induced cell cycle arrest in Go/G1 whilst doxorubicin induced arrest in G2/M. The two molecules (9 and 13) also induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through activation of caspases 3/7 and 9 as well as enhanced ROS production. CONCLUSION: Compounds 9 and 13 are good cytotoxic phytochemicals that should be explored more in future to develop a cytotoxic drug to fight human carcinoma.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (Phytochemicals); 0 (Plant Extracts)


  3 / 25777 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29446560
Autor:Hosfield R; Cole J; McNabb J
Endereço:Department of Archaeology, School of Archaeology, Geography & Environmental Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AB, UK.
Título:Less of a bird's song than a hard rock ensemble.
Fonte:Evol Anthropol; 27(1):9-20, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1520-6505
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Corbey et al. (2016) propose that the Acheulean handaxe was, at least in part, under genetic control. An alternative perspective is offered here, focusing on the nature of the Acheulean handaxe and the archaeological record, and re-emphasizing their status as cultural artefacts. This is based on four main arguments challenging the proposals of Corbey et al. Firstly, handaxes do not have to track environmental variation to be a cultural artefact, given their role as a hand-held butchery knife or multi-purpose tool. Secondly, while handaxe shapes do cluster around a basic bauplan, there is also significant variability in the Acheulean handaxe record, characterized by site-specific modal forms and locally expressed, short-lived, idiosyncratic traits. Critically, this variability occurs in both time and space, is multi-scalar, and does not appear to be under genetic control. Thirdly, handaxes were produced in social contexts, within which their makers grew up exposed to the sights and sounds of artefact manufacture. Finally, the localized absences of handaxes at different times and places in the Lower Paleolithic world is suggestive of active behavioral choices and population dynamics rather than genetic controls.
Tipo de publicação: HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 25777 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29359899
Autor:Berry MD
Endereço:Thomson Reuters Accelus.
Título:Business of Health: International Healthcare.
Fonte:Issue Brief Health Policy Track Serv; 2017:1-66, 2017 Dec 26.
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  5 / 25777 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29296159
Autor:Ridpath AD; Scobie HM; Shibeshi ME; Yakubu A; Zulu F; Raza AA; Masresha B; Tohme R
Endereço:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Global Immunization Division, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Título:Progress towards achieving and maintaining maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination in the African region.
Fonte:Pan Afr Med J; 27(Suppl 3):24, 2017.
ISSN:1937-8688
País de publicação:Uganda
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Despite the availability of effective tetanus prevention strategies, as of 2016, Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination (MNTE) has not yet been achieved in 18 countries globally. In this paper, we review the status of MNTE in the World Health Organization African Region (AFR),and provide recommendations for achieving and maintaining MNTE in AFR. As of November 2016, 37 (79%) AFR countries have achieved MNTE, with 10 (21%) countries remaining. DTP3 coverage increased from 52% in 2000 to 76% in 2015. In 2015, coverage with at least 2 doses of tetanus containing vaccine (TT2+) and proportion of newborns protected at birth (PAB) were 69% and 77%, compared with 44% and 62% in 2000, respectively. Since 1999, over 79 million women of reproductive age (WRA) have been vaccinated with TT2+ through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Despite the progress, only 54% of births were attended by skilled birth attendants (SBAs), 5 (11%) countries provided the 3 WHO-recommended booster doses to both sexes, and about 5.5 million WRA still need to be reached with SIAs. Coverage disparities still exist between countries that have achieved MNTE and those that have not. In 2015, coverage with DTP3 and PAB were higher in MNTE countries compared with those yet to achieve MNTE: 84% vs. 68% and 86% vs. 69%, respectively. Challenges to achieving MNTE in the remaining AFR countries include weak health systems, competing priorities, insufficient funding, insecurity, and sub-optimal neonatal tetanus (NT) surveillance. To achieve and maintain MNTE in AFR, increasing SBAs and tetanus vaccination coverage, integrating tetanus vaccination with other opportunities (e.g., polio and measles campaigns, mother and child health days), and providing appropriately spaced booster doses are needed. Strengthening NT surveillance and conducting serosurveys would ensure appropriate targeting of MNTE activities and high-quality information for validating the achievement and maintenance of elimination.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Tetanus Toxoid)


  6 / 25777 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29296158
Autor:Manakongtreecheep K
Endereço:Yale University, New Haven, USA.
Título:SMS-reminder for vaccination in Africa: research from published, unpublished and grey literature.
Fonte:Pan Afr Med J; 27(Suppl 3):23, 2017.
ISSN:1937-8688
País de publicação:Uganda
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Immunization for children against vaccine-preventable diseases is one of the most important health intervention method in the world, both in terms of its health impact and cost-effectiveness. Through EPI and various other programs such as the Decades of Vaccines, immunization has been improving the health of children around the world. However, this progress falls short of global immunization targets of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). Furthermore, the African region still lags behind in immunization, and suffers from a high proportion of vaccine preventable diseases as a result. Reminders and recall for vaccination have been shown to improve health care-seeking behaviours, and have been recommended for application in routine and supplemental measles immunization activities. With mobile phones becoming more accessible in Africa, SMS vaccine reminder system has been proposed as a convenient and easily scalable way to inform caregivers of the disease and the importance of immunization, to address any concerns related to immunization safety, and to remind them of vaccination schedules and campaigns. There have been 6 published articles and 1 unpublished article on the effect of SMS reminder system for immunization in Africa. The studies done has shown that SMS vaccination reminder has led to improvements in vaccination uptakes in various metrics, whether is through the increase in vaccination coverage, decrease in dropout rates, increase in completion rate, or decrease in delay for vaccination.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Measles Vaccine); 0 (Vaccines)


  7 / 25777 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29296152
Autor:Breakwell L; Tevi-Benissan C; Childs L; Mihigo R; Tohme R
Endereço:Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Título:The status of hepatitis B control in the African region.
Fonte:Pan Afr Med J; 27(Suppl 3):17, 2017.
ISSN:1937-8688
País de publicação:Uganda
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The World Health Organization (WHO) African Region has approximately 100 million people with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This review describes the status of hepatitis B control in the Region. We present hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) coverage data and from available data in the published literature, the impact of HepB vaccination on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence, a marker of chronic infection, among children, HBsAg prevalence in pregnant women, and risk of perinatal transmission. Lastly, we describe challenges with HepB birth dose (HepB-BD) introduction reported in the Region, and propose strategies to increase coverage. In 2015, regional three dose HepB coverage was 76%, and 16(34%) of 47 countries reported ≥ 90% coverage. Overall, 11 countries introduced HepB-BD; only nine provide universal HepB-BD, and of these, five reported ≥ 80% coverage. From non-nationally representative serosurveys among children, HBsAg prevalence was lower among children born after HepB introduction compared to those born before HepB introduction. However, some studies still found HBsAg prevalence to be above 2%. From limited surveys among pregnant women, the median HBsAg prevalence varied by country, ranging from 1.9% (Madagascar) to 16.1% (Niger); hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) prevalence among HBsAg-positive women ranged from 3.3% (Zimbabwe) to 28.5% (Nigeria). Studies in three countries indicated that the risk of perinatal HBV transmission was associated with HBeAg expression or high HBV DNA viral load. Major challenges for timely HepB-BD administration were poor knowledge of or lack of national HepB-BD vaccination guidelines, high prevalence of home births, and unreliable vaccine supply. Overall, substantial progress has been made in the region. However, countries need to improve HepB3 coverage and some countries might need to consider introducing the HepB-BD to help achieve the regional hepatitis B control goal of < 2% HBsAg prevalence among children < 5 years old by 2020. To facilitate HepB-BD introduction and improve timely coverage, strategies are needed to reach both facility-based and home births. Strong political commitment, clear policy recommendations and staff training on HepB-BD administration are also required. Furthermore, high quality nationally representative serosurveys among children are needed to inform decision makers about progress towards the regional control goal.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Hepatitis B Surface Antigens); 0 (Hepatitis B Vaccines); 0 (Hepatitis B e Antigens)


  8 / 25777 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29296156
Autor:Shimp L; Mohammed N; Oot L; Mokaya E; Kiyemba T; Ssekitto G; Alminana A
Endereço:John Snow, Inc, USA.
Título:Immunization review meetings: "Low Hanging Fruit" for capacity building and data quality improvement?
Fonte:Pan Afr Med J; 27(Suppl 3):21, 2017.
ISSN:1937-8688
País de publicação:Uganda
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Introduction: Although systematic program review meetings are common practice in many health and immunization programs, there is little documentation on their implementation and role. Adult education principles espouse opportunities for peer exchange to build capacity and cross-learning, for which review meetings have been a forum utilized in immunization programs for many years. This study describes the process and use of review meetings to build immunization technical capacity in four African countries since 2011. Methods: A longitudinal case study providing retrospective descriptive analysis and qualitative data collected on immunization program implementation and review meetings conducted within the years of 2011-2016 with district and facility health staff and technical partners from Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Results: Based on summarized findings and analyses from over 200 review meetings conducted in the four countries within the time period of 2011-2016, these meetings have been shown to be effective tools for improving immunization program performance and the capacity of health staff. Conclusion: Review meetings (ideally conducted quarterly) provide health workers with beneficial and low cost opportunities for adult learning, including building skills in data analysis and review, which can be sustained at district and health facility levels. In combination with other performance improvement approaches implemented and supported in countries (such as supportive supervision, training, and on-the-job learning and assessment), review meetings can also contribute to achievement of immunization and health outcomes.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  9 / 25777 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29296155
Autor:Benke A; Williams AJ; MacNeil A
Endereço:The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Título:The Stop Transmission of Polio Data Management (STOP DM) assignment and its role in polio eradication and immunization data improvement in Africa.
Fonte:Pan Afr Med J; 27(Suppl 3):20, 2017.
ISSN:1937-8688
País de publicação:Uganda
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The availability and use of high quality immunization and surveillance data are crucial for monitoring all components of the Global Polio Eradication Program (GPEI). The Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program was initiated in 1999 to train and mobilize human resources to provide technical support to polio endemic and at-risk countries and in 2002 the STOP data management (STOP DM) deployment was created to provide capacity development in the area of data management for immunization and surveillance data for these countries. Since 2002, Africa has received the majority of support from the STOP DM program, with almost 80% of assignments being placed in African countries. The STOP DM program has played a valuable role in improving the quality and use of data for the GPEI and has increasingly supported other immunization program data needs. In this report we provide an overview of the history, current status, and future of the STOP DM program, with a specific focus on the African continent.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Poliovirus Vaccines)


  10 / 25777 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29296153
Autor:Tamandjou CR; Maponga TG; Chotun N; Preiser W; Andersson MI
Endereço:Division of Medical Virology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
Título:Is hepatitis B birth dose vaccine needed in Africa?
Fonte:Pan Afr Med J; 27(Suppl 3):18, 2017.
ISSN:1937-8688
País de publicação:Uganda
Idioma:eng
Resumo:This commentary describes the need for a birth dose monovalent hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine and an effective programme for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HBV in Africa. Current World Health Organization guidelines recommend routine maternal screening for HBV followed by treatment of highly infectious HBV-infected mothers, and HBV birth dose vaccination and the administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin for HBV-exposed infants as an effective strategy for the prevention of HBV MTCT. None of these practices are currently in place in most parts of Africa. To date, fewer than 10 African countries vaccinate children at birth against HBV. Despite the hurdles associated with implementing this practice, its expansion to the rest of Africa is feasible and crucial to reducing the global number of new HBV infections by 90% by 2030, as targeted by the current Global Health Strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Hepatitis B Vaccines); 0 (Immunoglobulins); XII270YC6M (hepatitis B hyperimmune globulin)



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