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  1 / 986 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28454556
Autor:Daw MA; El-Bouzedi A; Ahmed MO; Dau AA; In association with the Libyan Study Group of Hepatitis & HIV
Endereço:Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tripoli, CC 82668, Tripoli, Libya. mohamedadaw@gmail.com.
Título:Molecular and epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 subtypes among Libyan patients.
Fonte:BMC Res Notes; 10(1):170, 2017 Apr 28.
ISSN:1756-0500
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: The epidemiological and clinical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus subtypes are of great interest worldwide. These subtypes are rarely studied in North African countries. Libya is a large country with the longest coast on the Mediterranean Sea, facing the Southern European countries. Studies on the characterization of HIV-1 subtypes are limited in Libya. This study aimed to determine the magnitude of the HIV problem among the Libyan population and to better understand the genetic diversity and the epidemiologic dynamics of HIV 1, as well as to correlate that with the risk factors involved. METHODS: A total of 159 HIV-1 strains were collected from 814 HIV positive patients from the four Libyan regions during a 16-year period (1995-2010). To determine the HIV-1 subtypes, genetic analysis and molecular sequencing were carried out using provirus polygene. Epidemiologic and demographic information was obtained from each participant and correlated with HIV-1 subtypes using logistic regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of HIV among Libyans ranged from 5 to 10 per 100,000 during the study period. It was higher among intravenous drug users (IVDUs) (53.9%), blood recipients (25.9%) and heterosexuals (17.6%) than by vertical transmission (2.6%). Prevalence was higher among males aged 20-40 years (M:F 1:6, P > 0.001). Among the 159 strains of HIV-1 available for typing, 117 strains (73.6%) were subtype B, 29 (18.2%) were CRF02_AG, and 13 (8.2%) were subtype A. HIV-1 subtype B was the most prevalent all over the country, and it was more prevalent in the Northern region, particularly among IVDUs (P < 0.001). GRF02_AG was common in the Eastern region, particularly among blood recipients while subtype A emerged in the Western region, particularly among IVDUs. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 infection is emerging in Libya with a shifting prevalence of subtypes associated with the changing epidemiology of HIV-1 among risk groups. A genetic analysis of HIV-1 strains demonstrated low subtype heterogeneity with the evolution of subtype B, and CRF_20 AG, as well as HIV-1 subtype A. Our study highlights the importance of expanded surveillance programs to control HIV infection and the necessity of introducing public health strategies to target the risk groups, particularly IVDUs.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  2 / 986 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28748841
Autor:Shaibi T; Saadawi WK; Aghila H; Annajar BB
Endereço:Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Tripoli; National Centre for Disease Control, Ministry of Health, Tripoli, Libya.
Título:Prevalence of IgG antibodies for the West Nile virus in human population in Tripoli, Libya.
Fonte:J Vector Borne Dis; 54(2):183-186, 2017 Apr-Jun.
ISSN:0972-9062
País de publicação:India
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: West Nile fever (WNF) is a mosquito-borne viral infection, circulated in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes, particularly Culex species. It is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites, and causes a variety of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic or mild febrile illness to severe men in go encepha- litis with some fatalities observed in older or immunocompromised patients. West Nile virus (WNV) transmission is considerably influenced by environmental conditions; and abundance of avifauna and mosquitoes.There are very few reports on WNV exposure in individuals from Tripoli City in Libya. The main objective was to provide basic epidemiological information about the WNV seroprevalence in the human population of Tripoli. METHODS: A total of 400 serum samples were collected from persons (123 females, 277 males; age range: 15-78 yr) approaching the Tripoli Reference Laboratory for the purpose of obtaining health certificate; during the period from August to October 2013. The presence of WNV IgG antibodies was evaluated by a commercial kit based on WNV immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: It was observed that 2.75% (11/400) samples were found reactive in the WNV ELISA assay. This result suggests that WNV has a low prevalence in the study area. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Seropositivity rates of WNV in Tripoli region of Libya were low. However, continu- ous monitoring of population is important to keep track of the disease prevalence, risk factors, reservoir hosts and vectors for better understaning of the disease epidemiology and designing appropriate control strategies.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antibodies, Viral); 0 (Immunoglobulin G)


  3 / 986 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28980647
Autor:Reardon S
Título:How the latest US travel ban could affect science.
Fonte:Nature; 550(7674):17, 2017 09 27.
ISSN:1476-4687
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: NEWS


  4 / 986 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28880944
Autor:Amro A; Al-Dwibe H; Gashout A; Moskalenko O; Galafin M; Hamarsheh O; Frohme M; Jaeschke A; Schönian G; Kuhls K
Endereço:Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, Abu-Dies, Jerusalem, Palestine.
Título:Spatiotemporal and molecular epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya.
Fonte:PLoS Negl Trop Dis; 11(9):e0005873, 2017 Sep.
ISSN:1935-2735
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Libya. In this paper, we describe the eco-epidemiological parameters of CL during the armed conflict period from January 2011 till December 2012. Current spatiotemporal distributions of CL cases were explored and projected to the future using a correlative modelling approach. In addition the present results were compared with our previous data obtained for the time period 1995-2008. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated 312 CL patients who presented to the Dermatology Department at the Tripoli Central Hospital and came from 81 endemic areas distributed in 10 districts. The patients presented with typical localized lesions which appeared commonly on the face, arms and legs. Molecular identification of parasites by a PCR-RFLP approach targeting the ITS1 region of the rDNA was successful for 81 patients with two causative species identified: L. major and L. tropica comprised 59 (72.8%) and 22 (27.2%) cases, respectively. Around 77.3% of L. tropica CL and 57.7% of L. major CL caused single lesions. Five CL patients among our data set were seropositive for HIV. L. tropica was found mainly in three districts, Murqub (27.3%), Jabal al Gharbi (27.3%) and Misrata (13.7%) while L. major was found in two districts, in Jabal al Gharbi (61%) and Jafara (20.3%). Seasonal occurrence of CL cases showed that most cases (74.2%) admitted to the hospital between November and March, L. major cases from November till January (69.4%), and L. tropica cases mainly in January and February (41%). Two risk factors were identified for the two species; the presence of previously infected household members, and the presence of rodents and sandflies in patient's neighborhoods. Spatiotemporal projections using correlative distribution models based on current case data and climatic conditions showed that coastal regions have a higher level of risk due to more favourable conditions for the transmitting vectors. CONCLUSION: Future projection of CL until 2060 showed a trend of increasing incidence of CL in the north-western part of Libya, a spread along the coastal region and a possible emergence of new endemics in the north-eastern districts of Libya. These results should be considered for control programs to prevent the emergence of new endemic areas taking also into consideration changes in socio-economical factors such as migration, conflicts, urbanization, land use and access to health care.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Protozoan)


  5 / 986 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28674573
Autor:Elramalli A; Almshawt N; Ahmed MO
Endereço:Tripoli Medical Centre, Tripoli, Libya.
Título:Current problematic and emergence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria: a brief report from a Libyan hospital.
Fonte:Pan Afr Med J; 26:180, 2017.
ISSN:1937-8688
País de publicação:Uganda
Idioma:eng
Resumo:A collection of 94 Gram-negative bacteria isolates, showing different antimicrobial resistance phenotypes including to the carbapenem classes was investigated. Strains were originated form clinical sources from a single hospital in Tripoli, Libya during 2015 and were identified based on cultural and phenotypic characteristics, and fully characterized by the VITEK automated system. Forty-eight percent (48%) of the collection was identified as Acinetobacter baumannii, 50% Klebsiella pneumoniae and 2% Escherichia coli. Resistance to the carbapenem classes was reported in 96% of the A. baumannii strains and 94% of the K. pneumonia strains. Seventy-eight percent (78%) of the isolates showed different multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes, of which K. pneumoniae expressing the highest rates of MDRs(i.e. 91%). Emergence of resistance to carbapenems in the Gram-negative bacteria is a challenging global problem, particularly for Africa. Surveillance of these pathogens and appropriate actions are urgently required in Libyan healthcare settings.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Carbapenems); EC 3.5.2.6 (beta-Lactamases); EC 3.5.2.6 (carbapenemase)


  6 / 986 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28661511
Autor:Reardon S
Título:Scientists in limbo as US Supreme Court allows modified travel ban.
Fonte:Nature; 546(7660):584-585, 2017 06 26.
ISSN:1476-4687
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: NEWS


  7 / 986 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28366201
Autor:Jacobs Z; Li B; Farr L; Hill E; Hunt C; Jones S; Rabett R; Reynolds T; Roberts RG; Simpson D; Barker G
Endereço:ARC Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage & Centre for Archaeological Science, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. Electronic address: zenobia@uow.edu.au.
Título:The chronostratigraphy of the Haua Fteah cave (Cyrenaica, northeast Libya) - Optical dating of early human occupation during Marine Isotope Stages 4, 5 and 6.
Fonte:J Hum Evol; 105:69-88, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1095-8606
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The paper presents the results of optical dating of potassium-rich feldspar grains obtained from the Haua Fteah cave in Cyrenaica, northeast Libya, focussing on the chronology of the Deep Sounding excavated by Charles McBurney in the 1950s and re-excavated recently. Samples were also collected from a 1.25 m-deep trench (Trench S) excavated during the present project below the basal level of the Deep Sounding. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) data sets for multi-grain, single aliquots of quartz for samples from the Middle Trench were previously published. Re-analyses of these OSL data confirm significant variation in the dose saturation levels of the quartz signal, but allow the most robust OSL ages to be determined for comparison with previous age estimates and with those obtained in this study for potassium-rich feldspars from the Deep Sounding. The latter indicate that humans may have started to visit the cave as early as ∼150 ka ago, but that major use of the cave occurred during MIS 5, with the accumulation of the Deep Sounding sediments. Correlations between optical ages and episodes of "Pre-Aurignacian" artefact discard indicate that human use of the cave during MIS 5 was highly intermittent. The earliest phases of human activity appear to have occurred during interstadial conditions (5e and 5c), with a later phase of lithic discard associated with more stadial conditions, possibly MIS 5b. We argue that the "Pre-Aurignacian" assemblage can probably be linked with modern humans, like the succeeding "Levalloiso-Mousterian" assemblage; two modern human mandibles associated with the latter are associated with a modelled age of 73-65 ka. If this attribution is correct, then the new chronology implies that modern humans using "Pre-Aurignacian" technologies were in Cyrenaica as early as modern humans equipped with "Aterian" technologies were in the Maghreb, raising new questions about variability among lithic technologies during the initial phases of modern human dispersals into North Africa.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 986 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28287390
Autor:Moravec F; Chaabane A; Neifar L; Gey D; Justine JL
Endereço:Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Branisovská 31, 370 05 Ceské Budejovice, Czech Republic.
Título:Species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae) from fishes off the Mediterranean coast of Africa, with a description of Philometra rara n. sp. from Hyporthodus haifensis and a molecular analysis of Philometra saltatrix from Pomatomus saltatrix.
Título:Espèces de Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae) parasites de poissons en Méditerranée au large de l'Afrique, avec une description de Philometra rara n. sp. de Hyporthodus haifensis et une analyse moléculaire de Philometra saltatrix de Pomatomus saltatrix..
Fonte:Parasite; 24:8, 2017.
ISSN:1776-1042
País de publicação:France
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) were recorded for the first time from marine perciform fishes off Tunisia and Libya: Philometra rara n. sp. from the rare, deep-water Haifa grouper Hyporthodus haifensis (Serranidae) off Libya and Philometra saltatrix Ramachandran, 1973 from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Pomatomidae) off Tunisia. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. Light and scanning electron microscope studies of Ph. rara n. sp. showed that it is characterized by the length of spicules (216-219 µm) and the gubernaculum (90-93 µm), the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio (1:2.32-2.43), and mainly by the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum (shovel-shaped with a wide median smooth field in dorsal view), appearing as having a dorsal protuberance in lateral view, and by the structure of the male caudal mound (dorsally interrupted); large subgravid females (70-137 mm long) are characterized by the presence of four oval submedian cephalic elevations, each of them bearing a pair of cephalic papillae of the outer circle. The finding of Ph. saltatrix off Tunisia confirms that this species is widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. A molecular analysis of our Ph. saltatrix specimens and other available philometrid cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) sequences showed that most species have robust clades. Sequences of Ph. saltatrix from Tunisia diverge from Ph. saltatrix from Brazil and the USA, suggesting that speciation is currently occurring between populations from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  9 / 986 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28277525
Autor:Reardon S
Título:How the fallout from Trump's travel ban is reshaping science.
Fonte:Nature; 543(7644):157-158, 2017 03 02.
ISSN:1476-4687
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 986 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28188137
Autor:McCarthy M
Endereço:Seattle.
Título:Appeal court upholds stay on Trump's travel ban.
Fonte:BMJ; 356:j758, 2017 Feb 10.
ISSN:1756-1833
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE



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