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  1 / 13126 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29474393
Autor:Guo Y; Chang SS; Sha F; Yip PSF
Endereço:Department of Social Work and Social Administration, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China.
Título:Poverty concentration in an affluent city: Geographic variation and correlates of neighborhood poverty rates in Hong Kong.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(2):e0190566, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Previous investigations of geographic concentration of urban poverty indicate the contribution of a variety of factors, such as economic restructuring and class-based segregation, racial segregation, demographic structure, and public policy. However, the models used by most past research do not consider the possibility that poverty concentration may take different forms in different locations across a city, and most studies have been conducted in Western settings. We investigated the spatial patterning of neighborhood poverty and its correlates in Hong Kong, which is amongst cities with the highest GDP in the region, using the city-wide ordinary least square (OLS) regression model and the local-specific geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. We found substantial geographic variations in small-area poverty rates and identified several poverty clusters in the territory. Factors found to contribute to urban poverty in Western cities, such as socioeconomic factors, ethnicity, and public housing, were also mostly associated with local poverty rates in Hong Kong. Our results also suggest some heterogeneity in the associations of poverty with specific correlates (e.g. access to hospitals) that would be masked in the city-wide OLS model. Policy aimed to alleviate poverty should consider both city-wide and local-specific factors.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  2 / 13126 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29458478
Autor:Teng JLL; Tang Y; Wong SSY; Chiu TH; Zhao Z; Chan E; Ngan AHY; Lau SKP; Woo PCY
Endereço:2​State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR.
Título:Tsukamurella ocularis sp. nov. and Tsukamurella hominis sp. nov., isolated from patients with conjunctivitis in Hong Kong.
Fonte:Int J Syst Evol Microbiol; 68(3):810-818, 2018 Mar.
ISSN:1466-5034
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Three bacterial strains, HKU63 , HKU64 and HKU65 , were isolated from the conjunctival swabs of three patients with conjunctivitis in Hong Kong. The three strains were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, non-sporulating and non-motile bacilli and exhibited unique biochemical profiles distinguishable from closely related Tsukamurella species. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the three strains shared identical sequences with each other, being most closely related to Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens and Tsukamurella pulmonis, sharing 99.9 % sequence identity. Sequence analysis of three additional housekeeping genes, groEL, secA and rpoB, revealed 100 % nucleotide sequence identity between HKU63 and HKU64, 94.2-97.0 % nucleotide sequence identities between HKU63 /HKU64 and HKU65 and the three strains shared 82.9-98.9 % sequence identities with other currently recognized Tsukamurella species. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that they were distinct from other known species of the genus Tsukamurella(23.0±4.2 to 50.7±3.7 % DNA-DNA relatedness), of which HKU63 and HKU64 represented the same species (≥95.2±4.8 % DNA-DNA relatedness) while HKU65 represented another species. Fatty acid, mycolic acid, cell-wall sugar and peptidoglycan analyses showed that they were typical of members of Tsukamurella. The G+C content of strains HKU63 , HKU64 and HKU65 were 71.3±1.9, 71.3±2.0 and 71.2±2.3 mol% (mean±sd; n=3), respectively. A novel species, Tsukamurella ocularis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate strains HKU63 and HKU64, with HKU63 (=JCM 31969 =DSM 105034 ) designated as the type strain whilst another novel species, Tsukamurella hominis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the third strain, HKU65 , which is designated as the type strain (=JCM 31971 =DSM 105036 ).
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Mycolic Acids); 0 (Peptidoglycan); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S)


  3 / 13126 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29206949
Autor:Wan ESF; Ma JLC; Lai KYC; Lo JWK
Endereço:Department of Psychiatry, and Department of Social Work, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin.
Título:The Subjective Experiences of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder of Chinese Families in Hong Kong: Co-Construction of Meanings in Multiple Family Groups.
Fonte:Health Soc Work; 41(3):164-172, 2016 Aug 01.
ISSN:0360-7283
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The subjective experiences of Chinese children in Hong Kong with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are underexplored. This article reports the results of a qualitative study that aims to understand the subjective experiences of children with ADHD in Hong Kong, taken from among a clinical sample of Chinese families with children struggling with ADHD who have participated in cross-disciplinary research of multiple family groups (MFG). The participating children revealed the subjective experiences of their struggle with the disorder in response to their parents' concern at a "press conference," one of the MFG activities, which underscored the importance of developing a new social work model to meet the multiple psychosocial service needs of these families. The article concludes with the discussion of the implications for the new model.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 13126 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29351330
Autor:Cowling BJ; Chui CSL; Lim WW; Wu P; Hui CKM; Peiris JSM; Chan EW
Endereço:WHO Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.
Título:Use of influenza antivirals in patients hospitalized in Hong Kong, 2000-2015.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0190306, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe patterns in the usage of antivirals to treat influenza virus infection in hospitals in Hong Kong from 2000 through 2015. METHODS: We analyzed centralized electronic health records that included dispensation information and diagnosis codes. Information collected on admissions included patient age, sex, admission year and month, and medications dispensed, and were matched with the first 15 discharge diagnosis codes. We divided monthly admission episodes by relevant population denominators to obtain admission rates, and stratified analyses by drug type, age group, and diagnosis codes. RESULTS: Amantadine was used for influenza treatment in the early 2000s but changed with recommendations to avoid its use in 2006, and is now mainly used to treat Parkinson's disease. Oseltamivir usage increased substantially in 2009 and is now commonly used, with almost 40,000 hospitalizations treated with oseltamivir in the years 2012 through 2015, 66% of which was in persons ≥65 years of age. During the entire study period, of the 98,253 admission episodes in which oseltamivir was dispensed, 40,698 (41%) included a diagnosis code for influenza, and 80,283 (82%) included any diagnosis code for respiratory illness. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of oseltamivir used from 2012-15 was comparable to a separate ecological estimate of around 13,000 influenza-associated hospitalizations per year on average. We did not have access to individual patient laboratory testing data.
Tipo de publicação: HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Antiviral Agents)


  5 / 13126 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29293514
Autor:Li J; Yip BHK; Leung C; Chung W; Kwok KO; Chan EYY; Yeoh E; Chung P
Endereço:Jockey School of Public Health and Primary Care, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
Título:Screening for latent and active tuberculosis infection in the elderly at admission to residential care homes: A cost-effectiveness analysis in an intermediate disease burden area.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0189531, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in the elderly remains a challenge in intermediate disease burden areas like Hong Kong. Given a higher TB burden in the elderly and limited impact of current case-finding strategy by patient-initiated pathway, proactive screening approaches for the high-risk group could be optimal and increasingly need targeted economic evaluations. In this study, we examined whether and under what circumstance the screening strategies are cost-effective compared with no screening strategy for the elderly at admission to residential care homes. METHODS: A decision analytic process based on Markov model was adopted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of four strategies: (i) no screening, (ii) TB screening (CXR) and (iii) TB screening (Xpert) represent screening for TB in symptomatic elderly by chest X-ray and Xpert® MTB/RIF respectively, and (iv) LTBI/TB screening represents screening for latent and active TB infection by QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube and chest X-ray. The target population was a hypothetical cohort of 65-year-old people, using a health service provider perspective and a time horizon of 20 years. The outcomes were direct medical costs, life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) measured by incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). RESULTS: In the base-case analysis, no screening was the most cost-saving; TB screening (CXR) was dominated by TB screening (Xpert); LTBI/TB screening resulted in more life-years and QALYs accrued. The ICERs of LTBI/TB screening were US$19,712 and US$29,951 per QALY gained compared with no screening and TB screening (Xpert), respectively. At the willingness-to-pay threshold of US$50,000 per QALY gained, LTBI/TB screening was the most cost-effective when the probability of annual LTBI reactivation was greater than 0.155% and acceptability of LTBI/TB screening was greater than 38%. In 1,000 iterations of Monte Carlo simulation, the probabilities of no screening, TB screening (CXR), TB screening (Xpert), and LTBI/TB screening to be cost-effective were 0, 1.3%, 20.1%, and 78.6% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Screening for latent and active TB infection in Hong Kong elderly people at admission to residential care homes appears to be highly effective and cost-effective. The key findings may be the next key factor to bring down TB endemic in the elderly population among intermediate TB burden areas.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  6 / 13126 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29218423
Autor:Chan JCW; Choy BNK; Chan OCC; Li KKW
Endereço:Department of Ophthalmology, United Christian Hospital, 130 Hip Wo Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
Título:Early intraocular pressure change after peripheral iridotomy with ultralow fluence pattern scanning laser and Nd:YAG laser in primary angle-closure suspect: Kowloon East Pattern Scanning Laser Study Report No. 3.
Fonte:Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 256(2):363-369, 2018 Feb.
ISSN:1435-702X
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:PURPOSE: Our purpose was to assess the early intraocular pressure (IOP) changes of ultralow fluence laser iridotomy using pattern scanning laser followed by neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-gamet (Nd:YAG) laser. METHODS: This is a prospective interventional study. Thirty-three eyes of 33 adult Chinese primary angle-closure suspect subjects were recruited for prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy. Sequential laser peripheral iridotomy was performed using pattern scanning laser followed by Nd:YAG laser. Visual acuity (VA) and IOP were measured before treatment, at 1 h, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after laser. Laser energy used and complications were documented. Corneal endothelial cell count was examined at baseline and 6 months. Patency of the iridotomy was assessed at each follow-up visit. RESULTS: All subjects achieved patent iridotomy in a single session. The mean energy used was 0.335+/-0.088 J for the pattern scanning laser, and 4.767+/-5.780 mJ for the Nd:YAG laser. The total mean energy was 0.339+/-0.089 J. None of the eyes developed a clinically significant IOP spike (≥ 8 mmHg) at 1 h and 1 day after laser use. Only four eyes developed higher IOP at 1 h and all were ≤3 mmHg compared to baseline. The mean IOP was 13.8+/-2.5 mmHg at 1 h and 11.5+/-2.2 mmHg at 1 day, both were significantly lower than baseline (15.8+/-2.1 mmHg) (P < 0.001). Mean VA (logMAR) was similar at 1 h post laser compared to baseline (0.23 vs 0.26). There was also no statistically significant difference in mean VA at other follow-up visits compared to baseline. Peripheral iridotomy closure was encountered in two (6.1%) eyes, one at 1 month and another at 6 months follow-up. There were no complications including hyphema, peripheral anterior synechia formation nor prolonged inflammation throughout the follow-up period. There was no significant loss in corneal endothelial cell counts at 6 months (2255+/-490) compared to baseline (2303+/-386) (P = 0.347). CONCLUSIONS: Sequential LPI using an ultralow fluence pattern scanning laser, followed by a Nd:YAG laser, is safe and efficacious, and produces no IOP spike in dark irides of primary angle-closure suspects. Further studies to investigate its role in the treatment of other angle-closure conditions are warranted.
Tipo de publicação: CLINICAL STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 13126 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29017113
Autor:Man YB; Chow KL; Tsang YF; Lau FTK; Fung WC; Wong MH
Endereço:Consortium on Health, Environment, Education and Research (CHEER), and Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Education University of Hong Kong, Tai Po, Hong Kong, China.
Título:Fate of bisphenol A, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonate in two different types of sewage treatment works in Hong Kong.
Fonte:Chemosphere; 190:358-367, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1879-1298
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:This study aimed at investigating the removal efficiencies of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) of two major sewage treatment works in Hong Kong: Stonecutters Island STW (SCISTW) which adopts chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process and Sha Tin STW (STSTW) which employs biological treatment. Liquid portion (LP) and particulate matter (PM) of liquid sewage samples and sludge samples were collected and followed by liquid chromatograph system. It was found that BPA (44.6 ± 35.1%) generally achieved higher TRE than the two other chemicals (PFOS (-18.8 ± 34.8%) and PFOA (-104 ± 86.8%)) in STSTW (p < 0.05). Most of the PFOA, PFOS and BPA was discharged through final effluent (PFOA: 95.6 ± 1.00% and 94.5 ± 3.13%; PFOS: 77.7 ± 1.48% and 72.6 ± 6.07%; BPA: 99.2 ± 0.950% and 92.8 ± 7.25%, respectively) rather than stored in the sludge/cake (PFOA: 4.45 ± 1.00% and 5.47 ± 3.13%, PFOS: 22.3 ± 1.48% and 27.4 ± 6.07%, BPA: 0.844 ± 0.950% and 7.20 ± 7.25%, respectively). After the sewage purification process, the two STW released considerable amounts of PFOA, PFOS and BPA in the final effluent (PFOA: 0.638 ± 0.227 kg/year; PFOS: 0.409 ± 0.126 kg/year; BPA: 10.4 ± 3.83 kg/year in STSTW; PFOA: 3.08 ± 1.415 kg/year; PFOS: 2.13 ± 0.452 kg/year; BPA: 714 ± 768 kg/year in SCISTW) and in the sludge (PFOA: 0.0360 ± 0.0250 kg/year; PFOS: 0.149 ± 0.00100 kg/year; BPA: 1.09 ± 1.47 kg/year in STSTW; PFOA: 0.139 ± 0.0670 kg/year; PFOS: 0.606 ± 0.0780 kg/year; BPA: 3.05 ± 3.95 kg/year in SCISTW). This study may help to provide crucial information for further development of municipal sewage system in treating synthetic emerging chemicals.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Alkanesulfonic Acids); 0 (Benzhydryl Compounds); 0 (Caprylates); 0 (Fluorocarbons); 0 (Phenols); 0 (Sewage); 947VD76D3L (perfluorooctanoic acid); 9H2MAI21CL (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid); MLT3645I99 (bisphenol A)


  8 / 13126 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29278800
Autor:Leung WH; Ma WM; Chan PKY
Endereço:Hong Kong Observatory, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address: whleung@hko.gov.hk.
Título:Nuclear accident consequence assessment in Hong Kong using JRODOS.
Fonte:J Environ Radioact; 183:27-36, 2018 Mar.
ISSN:1879-1700
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The JRODOS (Java-based Real-time Online DecisiOn Support) is a decision support system for off-site emergency management for releases of radioactive material into the environment. This paper documents the application of JRODOS by the Hong Kong Observatory in accident consequence assessment and emergency preparedness studies. For operational considerations, the most computational efficient dispersion model in JRODOS, ATSTEP, is adopted. Verification studies for JRODOS's ATSTEP model have been conducted. Comparison with tracer experiment results showed that under neutral atmospheric conditions and distances up to 50 km, the JRODOS simulation outputs were in general of the same order of magnitude with the tracer data. To further evaluate the capability of JRODOS in short-range simulation, a case study on the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was also carried out. JRODOS was able to produce realistic simulation results which were comparable to the actual airborne monitoring data of the Cs-137 ground deposition from the Fukushima accident. Furthermore, the results of a comprehensive study to assess the potential consequences of accidents at a nearby nuclear power station are presented. Simulation using the French S3 source term for the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station at Daya Bay showed that the projected effective doses within Hong Kong remain far below the IAEA generic criteria of projected dose for urgent protective actions in sheltering/evacuation, while the projected equivalent dose in thyroid may meet the IAEA generic criteria for use of thyroid blocking agent at some areas in the northeastern part of Hong Kong, at distances of up to about 40 km from Daya Bay depending on the prevailing weather conditions in different seasons.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Air Pollutants, Radioactive); 0 (Cesium Radioisotopes)


  9 / 13126 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28464809
Autor:Bonsaksen T; Brown T; Lim HB; Fong K
Endereço:Department of Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, PO Box 4, St. Olavs Plass, Oslo, 0130, Norway. tore.bonsaksen@hioa.no.
Título:Approaches to studying predict academic performance in undergraduate occupational therapy students: a cross-cultural study.
Fonte:BMC Med Educ; 17(1):76, 2017 May 02.
ISSN:1472-6920
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Learning outcomes may be a result of several factors including the learning environment, students' predispositions, study efforts, cultural factors and approaches towards studying. This study examined the influence of demographic variables, education-related factors, and approaches to studying on occupational therapy students' Grade Point Average (GPA). METHODS: Undergraduate occupational therapy students (n = 712) from four countries completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). Demographic background, education-related factors, and ASSIST scores were used in a hierarchical linear regression analysis to predict the students' GPA. RESULTS: Being older, female and more time engaged in self-study activities were associated with higher GPA among the students. In addition, five ASSIST subscales predicted higher GPA: higher scores on 'seeking meaning', 'achieving', and 'lack of purpose', and lower scores on 'time management' and 'fear of failure'. The full model accounted for 9.6% of the variance related to the occupational therapy students' GPA. CONCLUSIONS: To improve academic performance among occupational therapy students, it appears important to increase their personal search for meaning and motivation for achievement, and to reduce their fear of failure. The results should be interpreted with caution due to small effect sizes and a modest amount of variance explained by the regression model, and further research on predictors of academic performance is required.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 13126 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28966030
Autor:Cui JL; Zhao YP; Li JS; Beiyuan JZ; Tsang DCW; Poon CS; Chan TS; Wang WX; Li XD
Endereço:Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
Título:Speciation, mobilization, and bioaccessibility of arsenic in geogenic soil profile from Hong Kong.
Fonte:Environ Pollut; 232:375-384, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1873-6424
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The behaviour of arsenic (As) from geogenic soil exposed to aerobic conditions is critical to predict the impact of As on the environment, which processes remain unresolved. The current study examined the depth profile of As in geologically derived subsoil cores from Hong Kong and investigated the mobilization, plant availability, and bioaccessibility of As in As-contaminated soil at different depths (0-45.8 m). Results indicated significant heterogeneity, with high levels of As in three layers of soil reaching up to 505 mg/kg at a depth of 5 m, 404 mg/kg at a depth of 15 m, and 1510 mg/kg at a depth of 27-32 m. Arsenic in porewater samples was <11.5 µg/L in the study site. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicated that main As species in soil was arsenate (As(V)), as adsorbed fraction to Fe oxides (41-69% on goethite and 0-8% on ferrihydrite) or the mineral form scorodite (30-57%). Sequential extraction procedure demonstrated that 0.5 ± 0.4% of As was exchangeable. Aerobic incubation experiments exhibited that a very small amount (0.14-0.48 mg/kg) of As was desorbed from the soil because of the stable As(V) complex structure on abundant Fe oxides (mainly goethite), where indigenous microbes partly (59 ± 18%) contributed to the release of As comparing with the sterilized control. Furthermore, no As toxicity in the soil was observed with the growth of ryegrass. The bioaccessibility of As was <27% in the surface soil using simplified bioaccessibility extraction test. Our systematic evaluation indicated that As in the geogenic soil profile from Hong Kong is relatively stable exposing to aerobic environment. Nevertheless, children and workers should avoid incidental contact with excavated soil, because high concentration of As was present in the digestive solution (<0.1-268 µg/L).
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Arsenicals); 0 (Ferric Compounds); 0 (Iron Compounds); 0 (Minerals); 0 (Oxides); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 0 (scorodite); 1310-14-1 (goethite); 87PZU03K0K (ferric oxyhydroxide); N712M78A8G (Arsenic)



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