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Pesquisa : Z01.678.100 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 815 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27772530
Autor:Yang Y; Royse C; Royse A; Williams K; Canty D
Endereço:Ultrasound Education Group, Department of Surgery, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Y.Yang@wh.org.au.
Título:Survey of the training and use of echocardiography and lung ultrasound in Australasian intensive care units.
Fonte:Crit Care; 20(1):339, 2016 Oct 24.
ISSN:1466-609X
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: LETTER


  2 / 815 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29265666
Autor:Hoffecker JF; Hoffecker IT
Endereço:Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, 80309-0450.
Título:Technological complexity and the global dispersal of modern humans.
Fonte:Evol Anthropol; 26(6):285-299, 2017 Nov.
ISSN:1520-6505
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) dispersed out of Africa roughly 120,000 years ago and again after 75,000 years ago. The early dispersal was geographically restricted to the Arabian Peninsula, Levant, and possibly parts of southern Asia. The later dispersal was ultimately global in scope, including areas not previously occupied by Homo. One explanation for the contrast between the two out-of-Africa dispersals is that the modern humans who expanded into Eurasia 120,000 years ago lacked the functionally and structurally complex technology of recent hunter-gatherers. This technology, which includes, for example, mechanical projectiles, snares and traps, and sewn clothing, provides not only expanded dietary breadth and increased rates of foraging efficiency and success in places where plant and animal productivity is low, but protection from cold weather in places where winter temperatures are low. The absence of complex technology before 75,000 years ago also may explain why modern humans in the Levant did not develop sedentary settlements and agriculture 120,000 years ago (i.e., during the Last Interglacial).
Tipo de publicação: HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  3 / 815 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29250946
Título:Review of global influenza activity, October 2016­October 2017.
Título:Bilan de l'activité grippale mondiale d'octobre 2016 à octobre 2017..
Fonte:Wkly Epidemiol Rec; 92(50):761-79, 2017 Dec 15.
ISSN:0049-8114
País de publicação:Switzerland
Idioma:eng; fre
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Influenza Vaccines)


  4 / 815 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28968809
Autor:Rees F; Doherty M; Grainge MJ; Lanyon P; Zhang W
Endereço:Division of Rheumatology, Orthopaedics and Dermatology, University of Nottingham.
Título:The worldwide incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.
Fonte:Rheumatology (Oxford); 56(11):1945-1961, 2017 Nov 01.
ISSN:1462-0332
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Objectives: The aim was to review the worldwide incidence and prevalence of SLE and variation with age, sex, ethnicity and time. Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE search engines was carried out using Medical Subject Headings and keyword search terms for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus combined with incidence, prevalence and epidemiology in August 2013 and updated in September 2016. Author, journal, year of publication, country, region, case-finding method, study period, number of incident or prevalent cases, incidence (per 100 000 person-years) or prevalence (per 100 000 persons) and age, sex or ethnic group-specific incidence or prevalence were collected. Results: The highest estimates of incidence and prevalence of SLE were in North America [23.2/100 000 person-years (95% CI: 23.4, 24.0) and 241/100 000 people (95% CI: 130, 352), respectively]. The lowest incidences of SLE were reported in Africa and Ukraine (0.3/100 000 person-years), and the lowest prevalence was in Northern Australia (0 cases in a sample of 847 people). Women were more frequently affected than men for every age and ethnic group. Incidence peaked in middle adulthood and occurred later for men. People of Black ethnicity had the highest incidence and prevalence of SLE, whereas those with White ethnicity had the lowest incidence and prevalence. There appeared to be an increasing trend of SLE prevalence with time. Conclusion: There are worldwide differences in the incidence and prevalence of SLE that vary with sex, age, ethnicity and time. Further study of genetic and environmental risk factors may explain the reasons for these differences. More epidemiological studies in Africa are warranted.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW


  5 / 815 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28817982
Autor:Segelov E; Lordick F; Goldstein D; Chantrill LA; Croagh D; Lawrence B; Arnold D; Chau I; Obermannova R; Price TJ
Endereço:a Department of Oncology , Monash Medical Centre and Monash University , Melbourne , Australia.
Título:Current challenges in optimizing systemic therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer: expert perspectives from the Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) with invited international faculty.
Fonte:Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 17(10):951-964, 2017 Oct.
ISSN:1744-8328
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Despite recent progress, the outlook for most patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor. There is variation in how patients are managed globally due to differing interpretations of the evidence, partly because studies in this disease are challenging to undertake. This article collates the evidence upon which current best practice is based and offers an expert opinion from an international faculty on how latest developments should influence current treatment paradigms. Areas covered: Optimal chemotherapy for first and subsequent lines of therapy; optimal management of locally advanced, non-metastatic cancer including the role of neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy, current evidence for adjuvant chemotherapy, major advances in pancreatic cancer genomics and challenges in supportive care particularly relevant to patients with pancreatic cancer. For each section, literature was reviewed by comprehensive search techniques, including clinical trial websites and abstracts from international cancer meetings. Expert commentary: For each section, a commentary is provided. Overall the challenges identified were: difficulties in diagnosing pancreatic cancer early, challenges for performing randomised clinical trials in all stages of the disease, some progress in systemic therapy with new agents and in identifying molecular subtypes that may be clinically relevant and move towards personalized therapy, but still, pancreatic cancer remains a very poor prognosis cancer with significant palliative care needs.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
Nome de substância:0 (Antineoplastic Agents)


  6 / 815 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28686679
Autor:Dorph A; McDonald PG
Endereço:Centre for Behavioural and Physiological Ecology, Zoology, School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia.
Título:The acoustic repertoire and behavioural context of the vocalisations of a nocturnal dasyurid, the eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus).
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(7):e0179337, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Defining an acoustic repertoire is essential to understanding vocal signalling and communicative interactions within a species. Currently, quantitative and statistical definition is lacking for the vocalisations of many dasyurids, an important group of small to medium-sized marsupials from Australasia that includes the eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus), a species of conservation concern. Beyond generating a better understanding of this species' social interactions, determining an acoustic repertoire will further improve detection rates and inference of vocalisations gathered by automated bioacoustic recorders. Hence, this study investigated eastern quoll vocalisations using objective signal processing techniques to quantitatively analyse spectrograms recorded from 15 different individuals. Recordings were collected in conjunction with observations of the behaviours associated with each vocalisation to develop an acoustic-based behavioural repertoire for the species. Analysis of recordings produced a putative classification of five vocalisation types: Bark, Growl, Hiss, Cp-cp, and Chuck. These were most frequently observed during agonistic encounters between conspecifics, most likely as a graded sequence from Hisses occurring in a warning context through to Growls and finally Barks being given prior to, or during, physical confrontations between individuals. Quantitative and statistical methods were used to objectively establish the accuracy of these five putative call types. A multinomial logistic regression indicated a 97.27% correlation with the perceptual classification, demonstrating support for the five different vocalisation types. This putative classification was further supported by hierarchical cluster analysis and silhouette information that determined the optimal number of clusters to be five. Minor disparity between the objective and perceptual classifications was potentially the result of gradation between vocalisations, or subtle differences present within vocalisations not discernible to the human ear. The implication of these different vocalisations and their given context is discussed in relation to the ecology of the species and the potential application of passive acoustic monitoring techniques.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 815 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28600451
Autor:Turner MC; Benke G; Bowman JD; Figuerola J; Fleming S; Hours M; Kincl L; Krewski D; McLean D; Parent ME; Richardson L; Sadetzki S; Schlaefer K; Schlehofer B; Schüz J; Siemiatycki J; Tongeren MV; Cardis E
Endereço:Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), Barcelona, Spain.
Título:Interactions between occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and chemicals for brain tumour risk in the INTEROCC study.
Fonte:Occup Environ Med; 74(11):802-809, 2017 Nov.
ISSN:1470-7926
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVES: In absence of clear evidence regarding possible effects of occupational chemical exposures on brain tumour aetiology, it is worthwhile to explore the hypothesis that such exposures might act on brain tumour risk in interaction with occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF). METHODS: INTEROCC is a seven-country (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, New Zealand and UK), population-based, case-control study, based on the larger INTERPHONE study. Incident cases of primary glioma and meningioma were ascertained from 2000 to 2004. Job titles were coded into standard international occupational classifications and estimates of ELF and chemical exposures were assigned based on job-exposure matrices. Dichotomous indicators of cumulative ELF (≥50th vs <50th percentile, 1-4 year exposure time window) and chemical exposures (ever vs never, 5-year lag) were created. Interaction was assessed on both the additive and multiplicative scales. RESULTS: A total of 1939 glioma cases, 1822 meningioma cases and 5404 controls were included in the analysis, using conditional logistic regression. There was no clear evidence for interactions between ELF and any of the chemical exposures assessed for either glioma or meningioma risk. For glioma, subjects in the low ELF/metal exposed group had a lower risk than would be predicted from marginal effects. Results were similar according to different exposure time windows, to cut-points of exposure or in exposed-only analyses. CONCLUSIONS: There was no clear evidence for interactions between occupational ELF and chemical exposures in relation to glioma or meningioma risk observed. Further research with more refined estimates of occupational exposures is recommended.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 815 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28535779
Autor:Larruga JM; Marrero P; Abu-Amero KK; Golubenko MV; Cabrera VM
Endereço:Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38271 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
Título:Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup R colonized Eurasia and Australasia from a southeast Asia core area.
Fonte:BMC Evol Biol; 17(1):115, 2017 May 23.
ISSN:1471-2148
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: The colonization of Eurasia and Australasia by African modern humans has been explained, nearly unanimously, as the result of a quick southern coastal dispersal route through the Arabian Peninsula, the Indian subcontinent, and the Indochinese Peninsula, to reach Australia around 50 kya. The phylogeny and phylogeography of the major mitochondrial DNA Eurasian haplogroups M and N have played the main role in giving molecular genetics support to that scenario. However, using the same molecular tools, a northern route across central Asia has been invoked as an alternative that is more conciliatory with the fossil record of East Asia. Here, we assess as the Eurasian macrohaplogroup R fits in the northern path. RESULTS: Haplogroup U, with a founder age around 50 kya, is one of the oldest clades of macrohaplogroup R in western Asia. The main branches of U expanded in successive waves across West, Central and South Asia before the Last Glacial Maximum. All these dispersions had rather overlapping ranges. Some of them, as those of U6 and U3, reached North Africa. At the other end of Asia, in Wallacea, another branch of macrohaplogroup R, haplogroup P, also independently expanded in the area around 52 kya, in this case as isolated bursts geographically well structured, with autochthonous branches in Australia, New Guinea, and the Philippines. CONCLUSIONS: Coeval independently dispersals around 50 kya of the West Asia haplogroup U and the Wallacea haplogroup P, points to a halfway core area in southeast Asia as the most probable centre of expansion of macrohaplogroup R, what fits in the phylogeographic pattern of its ancestor, macrohaplogroup N, for which a northern route and a southeast Asian origin has been already proposed.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Mitochondrial); 0 (DNA, Ribosomal)


  9 / 815 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28410388
Autor:Maynard AJ; Ambrose L; Cooper RD; Chow WK; Davis JB; Muzari MO; van den Hurk AF; Hall-Mendelin S; Hasty JM; Burkot TR; Bangs MJ; Reimer LJ; Butafa C; Lobo NF; Syafruddin D; Maung Maung YN; Ahmad R; Beebe NW
Endereço:University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Título:Tiger on the prowl: Invasion history and spatio-temporal genetic structure of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894) in the Indo-Pacific.
Fonte:PLoS Negl Trop Dis; 11(4):e0005546, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1935-2735
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Within the last century, increases in human movement and globalization of trade have facilitated the establishment of several highly invasive mosquito species in new geographic locations with concurrent major environmental, economic and health consequences. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an extremely invasive and aggressive daytime-biting mosquito that is a major public health threat throughout its expanding range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals) and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae. albopictus in the Indo-Pacific region and to characterize its population structure. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) was employed to test competing historical routes of invasion of Ae. albopictus within the Southeast (SE) Asian/Australasian region. Our ABC results show that Ae. albopictus was most likely introduced to New Guinea via mainland Southeast Asia, before colonizing the Solomon Islands via either Papua New Guinea or SE Asia. The analysis also supported that the recent incursion into northern Australia's Torres Strait Islands was seeded chiefly from Indonesia. For the first time documented in this invasive species, we provide evidence of a recently colonized population (the Torres Strait Islands) that has undergone rapid temporal changes in its genetic makeup, which could be the result of genetic drift or represent a secondary invasion from an unknown source. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There appears to be high spatial genetic structure and high gene flow between some geographically distant populations. The species' genetic structure in the region tends to favour a dispersal pattern driven mostly by human movements. Importantly, this study provides a more widespread sampling distribution of the species' native range, revealing more spatial population structure than previously shown. Additionally, we present the most probable invasion history of this species in the Australasian region using ABC analysis.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:EC 1.9.3.1 (Electron Transport Complex IV)


  10 / 815 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28295151
Autor:Meyhoff TS; Krag M; Hjortrup PB; Perner A; Møller MH; SUP-ICU inception cohort study investigators
Endereço:Department of Intensive Care 4131, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Título:Use of life support in acutely admitted ICU patients. An international cohort study.
Fonte:Acta Anaesthesiol Scand; 61(5):513-522, 2017 May.
ISSN:1399-6576
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Use of life support in intensive care unit (ICU) patients has been associated with increased risk of poor outcome. The prognostic importance of the duration of support is less studied. We assessed the use of life support and the association between its duration and 90-day mortality in a contemporary cohort of acutely admitted adult ICU patients. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc analysis of the SUP-ICU 7-day inception cohort study (n = 1034), which was conducted in 97 ICUs in 11 countries. We included patients with an ICU stay of 3 days or more. We assessed the use of life support during the first 3 days in ICU and the crude and adjusted association between its duration and 90-day mortality using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: We included 690 patients; their 90-day mortality was 23%. During the first 3 days in ICU mechanical ventilation was used in 65%, vasopressors/inotropes in 57% and renal replacement therapy in 13%. Renal replacement therapy for 3 days or more was associated with a higher 90-day mortality as compared with 1 day of renal replacement therapy [odds ratio 6.5 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 32.8)]. For mechanical ventilation and vasopressors/inotropes the odds ratios were 2.2 [0.9 to 5.3] and 1.2 [0.5 to 2.6], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among acutely admitted adult ICU patients, a higher number of days of renal replacement therapy in the initial ICU stay were associated with increased risk of death within 90 days. We did not observe such an association for mechanical ventilation or vasopressor/inotropic therapy.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Vasoconstrictor Agents)



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