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  1 / 3505 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29107879
Autor:Shilpi S; Seshadri B; Sarkar B; Bolan N; Lamb D; Naidu R
Endereço:Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia; Co-operative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), PO Box 18, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia.
Título:Comparative values of various wastewater streams as a soil nutrient source.
Fonte:Chemosphere; 192:272-281, 2018 Feb.
ISSN:1879-1298
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:In order to assess whether wastewaters from different industries (winery, abattoir, dairy and municipal) could be used safely to irrigate agricultural crops, a pot experiment in glass house was conducted in a sandy clay loam soil (pH = 6.12) from South Australia. Different concentrations (0, 0.05, 5, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of the wastewaters diluted in an ordinary tap water were applied to soils sown with sunflower and maize seeds, and the effect of these irrigation treatments were evaluated at the early crop growth stages by recording the biomass yields, plant mineral nutrient contents, and also the soil chemical properties. Results showed that the winery effluent reduced the early growth of maize and sunflower when applied without any dilution, but increased yields of both plants when applied at 25% dilution with tap water. At this dilution of the winery wastewater, 80% more dry shoot yield (DSY) of sunflower and 58% more DSY of maize were obtained in comparison to the application of 100% concentration of the wastewater. Abattoir wastewater showed the highest yields at 100% concentration. Furthermore, municipal effluent did not show any inhibitory effect on both the crops. It was observed that metal contents in both the crops were different due to the application of different wastewaters, but did not exceed any toxic level. This study demonstrated that abattoir wastewater as such, and winery and dairy wastewaters at appropriate dilutions could be used for irrigation in agricultural fields to enhance crop productivity.
Tipo de publicação: COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Soil); 0 (Waste Water)


  2 / 3505 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27776510
Autor:Nitschke M; Appleton SL; Li Q; Tucker GR; Shah P; Bi P; Pisaniello DL; Adams RJ
Endereço:Department for Health and Ageing, 11 Hindmarsh Square, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. monika.nitschke@health.sa.gov.au.
Título:Lung function reductions associated with motor vehicle density in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study.
Fonte:Respir Res; 17(1):138, 2016 10 24.
ISSN:1465-993X
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle-related air pollution can potentially impair lung function. The effect of pollution in people with compromised pulmonary function such as in COPD has not been previously investigated. To examine the association of lung function with motor vehicle density in people with spirometrically determined COPD in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: In 2004-06, The North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS), a biomedical cohort of adults assessed pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry (n = 3,103). Traffic density, obtained from the motor vehicle inventory maintained by the South Australian Environment Protection Authority, was expressed as the daily numbers of vehicles travelling within a 200 m diameter zone around participants' geocoded residences. RESULTS: In subjects with COPD (FEV /FVC <0.7, n = 221, 7.1 %), increasing daily vehicle density was associated with statistically significant decreases in lung function parameters after adjustment for smoking and socio-economic variables. Mean (95 % CI) post-bronchodilator % predicted FEV was 81 % (76-87) in the low (≤7179/day) compared with 71 % (67-75) in the high (≥15,270/day) vehicle exposure group (p < 0.05). Linear regression analysis in all subjects with COPD showed significant decrements in post-bronchodilator FEV /FVC ratio and % predicted FEV of 0.03 and 0.05 % respectively per daily increase in 1000 vehicles. In men with COPD (n = 150), the corresponding reductions were 0.03 and 0.06 %. Smaller, non-significant decrements were seen in females. No difference was seen in those without COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Vehicle traffic density was associated with significant reductions in lung function in people with COPD. Urban planning should consider the health impacts for those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Vehicle Emissions)


  3 / 3505 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28467512
Autor:Liversage K
Endereço:Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources, Government of South Australia, Mount Gambier, South Australia, Australia.
Título:First evidence of biogenic habitat from tubeworms providing a near-absolute habitat requirement for high-intertidal Ulva macroalgae.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(5):e0176952, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Disturbances in ecological systems can cause new resources to become available and can free the resources held by strongly competitive species. In intertidal boulder fields, wave-action causes disturbance by overturning boulders and freeing space for re-colonisation. In this study, mensurative experiments showed that boulder disturbance may also cause new biogenic-habitat resources to become available, if pre-disturbance boulders originally had tubeworm encrustations on their undersides. On the high-shore of a South Australian rocky coast, a small proportion of boulders had extensive encrustations of serpulid and spirorbid worm-tubes on their uppersides, and were likely to have recently been overturned, as spirorbid tubeworms are almost always only underneath boulders while living. Ulva macroalgae was absent from all boulders, except those with worm-tubes, where up to 61% Ulva cover was observed. Many boulders with tubes did not, however, have much algae, and this was likely caused by grazing. While limpets were seldom observed attached to tube encrustations, snails such as Nerita atramentosa and Bembicium nanum were equally abundant on and off tubes. N. atramentosa was likely the main grazer, as its densities were negatively correlated with Ulva cover. The mechanism causing association of Ulva and worm-tubes is unknown, but may be related to retention of moisture or algal spores within the complex topography of the tubes. Alternatively, some tubes may still have been living and providing nutrients for Ulva from excretory products. This study takes the first step towards understanding a very distinct habitat requirement which allows an important alga to persist in the hostile environment of the rocky-intertidal high shore.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 3505 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28463528
Autor:Wundersitz L; Raftery S
Endereço:a Centre for Automotive Safety Research , The University of Adelaide , Adelaide , South Australia , Australia.
Título:Understanding the context of alcohol impaired driving for fatal crash-involved drivers: A descriptive case analysis.
Fonte:Traffic Inj Prev; 18(8):781-787, 2017 11 17.
ISSN:1538-957X
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to understand the social context and circumstances surrounding alcohol-impaired driving prior to fatal crash involvement for drivers with an illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC ≥ 0.05 g/100 ml or 0.00 g/100 ml for restricted license holders). METHODS: Coroners' case reports investigating fatal crashes in South Australia over a 3-year period (2008-2010) were examined. The personal and crash characteristics of drivers with an illegal BAC were compared with those who had a legal BAC. For each driver with an illegal BAC, information was recorded including characteristics of last trip, location and social context of alcohol consumption, quantity and type of alcohol consumed, BAC level, presence of drugs, perceived alcohol intoxication, and alcohol dependence. Official traffic offense records were also obtained. RESULTS: Of the 284 fatal crashes included in the study, 34% (n = 95) involved a driver or rider with an illegal BAC. Prior to the crash, alcohol was most frequently consumed by drivers in rural areas, within private homes, and was part of normal social activities. Drivers recorded a high level of alcohol impairment, with a mean BAC of 0.173 g/100 ml and a level of alcohol dependence that was above the Australian national average (7.4 vs. 3.9%). In addition, 23% of drivers were known to be experiencing psychological stress at the time of the crash. The results also confirm that drink driving recidivism continues to be a significant problem, with 44% of drivers recording at least one prior alcohol driving offense. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol-impaired driving continues to be a leading cause of fatal crashes. The popularity of drinking at home, particularly in rural areas, has implications for police enforcement strategies and suggests that drink driving interventions that focus on community values and looking after friends might be beneficial. Importantly, the study highlights the need for a broader holistic approach to reduce the high levels of alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence underlying drink driving behavior.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Blood Alcohol Content)


  5 / 3505 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28455425
Autor:Baum F; Freeman T; Lawless A; Labonte R; Sanders D
Endereço:Southgate Institute for Health, Society and Equity, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
Título:What is the difference between comprehensive and selective primary health care? Evidence from a five-year longitudinal realist case study in South Australia.
Fonte:BMJ Open; 7(4):e015271, 2017 04 28.
ISSN:2044-6055
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Since the WHO's Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care (PHC) there has been debate about the advisability of adopting comprehensive or selective PHC. Proponents of the latter argue that a more selective approach will enable interim gains while proponents of a comprehensive approach argue that it is needed to address the underlying causes of ill health and improve health outcomes sustainably. METHODS: This research is based on four case studies of government-funded and run PHC services in Adelaide, South Australia. Program logic models were constructed from interviews and workshops. The initial model represented relatively comprehensive service provision in 2010. Subsequent interviews in 2013 permitted the construction of a selective PHC program logic model following a series of restructuring service changes. RESULTS: Comparison of the PHC service program logic models before and after restructuring illustrates the changes to the operating context, underlying mechanisms, service qualities, activities, activity outcomes and anticipated community health outcomes. The PHC services moved from focusing on a range of community, group and individual clinical activities to a focus on the management of people with chronic disease. Under the more comprehensive model, activities were along a continuum of promotive, preventive, rehabilitative and curative. Under the selective model, the focus moved to rehabilitative and curative with very little other activities. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the difference between selective and comprehensive approaches to PHC in a rich country setting and is useful in informing debates on PHC especially in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  6 / 3505 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29251892
Autor:Wiley A; O'Neill S
Título:ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND OTHER DRUGS NURSING WITHIN A CORRECTIONAL SETTING.
Fonte:Aust Nurs Midwifery J; 24(6):39, 2016 12.
ISSN:2202-7114
País de publicação:Australia
Idioma:eng
Resumo:In Australia 67% of prisoners report previous illicit drug use (AIHW, 2015) with 39% reporting high risk of alcohol-related harm. The links between effective ATOD health programs and outcomes are clearly linked to reduced recidivism (Ombudsman report, 2015) and better biopsychosocial determinates. Correctional nurses' work in challenging environments but their adaptability and passion are key to the provision of community equivalent care.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 3505 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29250941
Autor:Thomas L
Título:Editorial.
Fonte:Aust Nurs Midwifery J; 24(5):3, 2016 Nov.
ISSN:2202-7114
País de publicação:Australia
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: EDITORIAL; INTRODUCTORY JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 3505 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29236433
Autor:Bradley SL
Título:TIME TO MAKE YOUR VOICE HEARD IN THE VOLUNTARY EUTHANASIA DEBATE.
Fonte:Aust Nurs Midwifery J; 24(1):27, 2016 07.
ISSN:2202-7114
País de publicação:Australia
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


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PMID:29215527
Autor:Verburg PE; Dekker GA; Venugopal K; Scheil W; Erwich JJHM; Mol BW; Roberts CT
Endereço:Robinson Research Institute, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; and Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Lyell McEwin Hospital, Elizabeth Vale, and the Epidemiology Branch, SA Health, Adelaide, Australia.
Título:Long-term Trends in Singleton Preterm Birth in South Australia From 1986 to 2014.
Fonte:Obstet Gynecol; 131(1):79-89, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1873-233X
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To describe long-term trends in the prevalence of preterm birth and rates of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, small for gestational age (SGA), and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) in South Australia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population study including all singleton live births in the state of South Australia from 1986 to 2014. Long-term trends for preterm birth, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, SGA, preterm PROM as well as stillbirth were assessed using joinpoint regression analyses. Trends in maternal age, body mass index (BMI), ethnic diversity, parity, and smoking over time were also assessed. RESULTS: From 1986 to 2014, with a total of 539,234 singleton births, the overall preterm birth rates increased from 5.1% to 7.1% (P<.001) and for iatrogenic preterm birth increased from 1.6% to 3.2% (P<.001). The incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy decreased from 8.7% to 7.2%. Among pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, the proportion of preterm birth increased (10.4-17.5%, P<.001). The incidence of SGA decreased from 11.1% to 8.0%. Among pregnancies complicated by SGA, the proportion of preterm birth increased (2.9-5.4%, P<.001). The incidence of preterm PROM increased from 1.4% to 2.2%. Among pregnancies complicated by preterm PROM, the proportion of preterm birth remained stable. Preterm stillbirth rates declined (4.23-2.32%, P<.001). Maternal age, BMI, and ethnic diversity have all increased since 1986, whereas maternal smoking has decreased. CONCLUSION: In South Australia, the preterm birth rate among singletons increased from 1986 to 2014 by 40%, with iatrogenic preterm birth being responsible for 80% of this increase. Incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and SGA declined. Among pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and SGA, the proportions of preterm birth increased, indicating earlier interventions in these women. The diagnosis of preterm PROM increased from 1% to 2%, and greater than 80% of preterm PROM was associated with preterm birth after 1990. Increasing iatrogenic delivery may be attributable, in part, to changing maternal phenotype and to altered clinicians' behavior. However, improvements in fetal surveillance, particularly ultrasonography, and advanced neonatal care may underpin perinatal clinical decision-making and the likelihood of iatrogenic birth.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


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PMID:27778456
Autor:Shields M; Sinkar S; Chan W; Crompton J
Endereço:The Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
Título:Parinaud syndrome: a 25-year (1991-2016) review of 40 consecutive adult cases.
Fonte:Acta Ophthalmol; 95(8):e792-e793, 2017 Dec.
ISSN:1755-3768
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:PURPOSE: To characterize the clinical features, aetiology and management of ophthalmic symptoms in adult patients with Parinaud syndrome. METHODS: This is a retrospective, non-comparative observational case series. We reviewed 40 consecutive charts of adult patients with the clinical diagnosis of Parinaud syndrome at the Royal Adelaide Hospital Department of Ophthalmology in Adelaide, South Australia, between 1991 and 2016. Charts were reviewed for the following: (1) demographic information, (2) clinical presentation, (3) neuro-ophthalmology signs, (4) aetiology of Parinaud syndrome, and (5) management. Examination findings were collected at initial evaluation, throughout the course of follow-up, and at last follow-up. RESULTS: All the cases were assessed by one of the authors (JLC). The commonest presenting symptoms were diplopia (67.5%) and blurred vision (25%) followed by visual field defect (12.5%), ataxia (7.5%) and manifest squint (7.5%). The commonest presenting signs were vertical gaze palsy (100%), convergence-retraction nystagmus (87.5%) and light-near dissociation (65.0%). Only 65.0% patients had the classical triad of vertical gaze palsy, convergence-retraction nystagmus and light-near dissociation. Midbrain pathologies including haemorrhage (30.0%), infarction (20.0%) and tumour (15.0%) were the commonest aetiology. Pineal region tumours accounted for 30.0% of presentations. Symptoms were managed conservatively in 45% of cases with temporary occlusion, prisms or refractive correction, and observation in 42.5% of cases. Surgical intervention for refractory diplopia was required in 12.5% of cases, of which 80% reported symptom resolution following surgery. CONCLUSION: Our series highlights the variable clinical presentation of Parinaud syndrome. The classic triad of conjugate upgaze paralysis, convergence-retraction nystagmus and light-near dissociation was only present in 65% of cases. Pineal neoplasms remain an important aetiological consideration; however, primary midbrain pathology including infarction and haemorrhage constituted the majority of our cases and should be considered in all patients. Conservative management approaches for ocular symptoms are sufficient in most cases although surgical treatment of upgaze palsy can be a useful option in refractory cases.
Tipo de publicação: CASE REPORTS; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY



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