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Pesquisa : Z01.678.100.373.984 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 1208 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28065123
Autor:O'Connor D; Larkin P; Williams AM
Endereço:a Faculty of Education and Social Work , The University of Sydney , Sydney , Australia.
Título:Observations of youth football training: How do coaches structure training sessions for player development?
Fonte:J Sports Sci; 36(1):39-47, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1466-447X
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:We used systematic observation tools to explore the structure (i.e., activity and inactivity) and sequencing (i.e., the types of activities used) of football coaching sessions in Australia following the implementation of a new National Curriculum. Youth soccer coaches (n = 34), coaching within the Skill Acquisition (U11-U13 n = 19) and Game Training (U14-U17 n = 15) phases of the Football Federation Australia National Curriculum participated. Participants were filmed during a regular coaching session, with systematic observation of the session undertaken to provide a detailed analysis of the practice activities and coach behaviours. Findings indicated a session comprised of Playing Form activities (40.9%), Training Form activities (22.3%), inactivity (31%), and transitions between activities (5.8%). Coaches prescribed more Training Form activities (e.g., individual (5.4%) and drills (15.1%)) early in the session and progressed to Playing Form activities (i.e., small-sided games (15.3%) then larger games (24.8%)) later in the session. Most inactivity reflected the players listening to the coach - either in a team huddle (9.9%) or frozen on the spot during an activity (16.5%). In addition, coaches generally spent over 3 min communicating to players prior to explaining and introducing an activity regardless of when in the session the activity was scheduled.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  2 / 1208 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28781025
Autor:Admassie E; Chalmers L; Bereznicki LR
Endereço:Division of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, Australia. Electronic address: Endalkachew.alamneh@utas.edu.au.
Título:Changes in Oral Anticoagulant Prescribing for Stroke Prevention in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.
Fonte:Am J Cardiol; 120(7):1133-1138, 2017 Oct 01.
ISSN:1879-1913
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Suboptimal guideline adherence and underuse of anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have been reported worldwide. This study aimed to compare anticoagulation practice in Australia during the pre- and postdirect oral anticoagulant (DOAC) eras. Between January 2011 and July 2015, patients with nonvalvular AF (NVAF) admitted to the Royal Hobart Hospital, Tasmania, Australia, were retrospectively reviewed. The pre- and post-DOAC era cohorts included admissions from January 2011 to July 2013 and August 2013 to July 2015, respectively. Overall, 2,118 patients met our inclusion criteria. The overall rate of anticoagulation increased from 52.5% in the pre-DOAC era to 60.7% in the post-DOAC era (p <0.001). Moreover, prescribing of OACs among high-risk patients improved significantly (63.1% vs 55.2%, p = 0.001). OAC overprescribing in low-risk patients did not change significantly between the 2 cohorts (35.0% vs 42.9% in the pre- and post-DOAC eras, respectively, p = 0.59). In multivariate analysis, DOAC era (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17 to 1.68 and CHA DS -VASc ≥2 (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.80) were independent predictors of OAC prescribing in both eras and the whole study period. Conversely, aging and previous bleeding were inversely associated with OAC prescribing. In conclusion, there has been a significant increase in OAC prescribing in the post-DOAC era, potentially driven by the widespread availability of DOACs. However, OAC underuse in high-risk patients and overuse in low-risk patients was apparent throughout our study. These findings highlight the need to identify the drivers of anticoagulant underuse and overuse and address them accordingly.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Anticoagulants)


  3 / 1208 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28695294
Autor:Caldwell A; Siddle HV
Endereço:Department of Biological Science, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK.
Título:The role of MHC genes in contagious cancer: the story of Tasmanian devils.
Fonte:Immunogenetics; 69(8-9):537-545, 2017 Aug.
ISSN:1432-1211
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The Tasmanian devil, a marsupial species endemic to the island of Tasmania, harbours two contagious cancers, Devil Facial Tumour 1 (DFT1) and Devil Facial Tumour 2 (DFT2). These cancers pass between individuals in the population via the direct transfer of tumour cells, resulting in the growth of large tumours around the face and neck of affected animals. While these cancers are rare, a contagious cancer also exists in dogs and five contagious cancers circulate in bivalves. The ability of tumour cells to emerge and transmit in mammals is surprising as these cells are an allograft and should be rejected due to incompatibility between Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes. As such, considerable research has focused on understanding how DFT1 cells evade the host immune system with particular reference to MHC molecules. This review evaluates the role that MHC class I expression and genotype plays in allowing DFT1 to circumvent histocompatibility barriers in Tasmanian devils. We also examine recent research that suggests that Tasmanian devils can mount an immune response to DFT1 and may form the basis of a protective vaccine against the tumour.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW


  4 / 1208 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28661504
Autor:Tollefson J
Título:Air guns used in offshore oil exploration can kill tiny marine life.
Fonte:Nature; 546(7660):586-587, 2017 06 22.
ISSN:1476-4687
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: NEWS
Nome de substância:0 (Petroleum)


  5 / 1208 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28641321
Autor:Cooper PD; Smart DR
Endereço:Department of Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, Royal Hobart Hospital, GPO Box 1061L, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia, david.cooper@dhhs.tas.gov.au.
Título:Identifying and acting on potentially inappropriate care? Inadequacy of current hospital coding for this task.
Fonte:Diving Hyperb Med; 47(2):88-96, 2017 Jun.
ISSN:1833-3516
País de publicação:Australia
Idioma:eng
Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Recent Australian attempts to facilitate disinvestment in healthcare, by identifying instances of 'inappropriate' care from large Government datasets, are subject to significant methodological flaws. Amongst other criticisms has been the fact that the Government datasets utilized for this purpose correlate poorly with datasets collected by relevant professional bodies. Government data derive from official hospital coding, collected retrospectively by clerical personnel, whilst professional body data derive from unit-specific databases, collected contemporaneously with care by clinical personnel. AIM: Assessment of accuracy of official hospital coding data for hyperbaric services in a tertiary referral hospital. METHODS: All official hyperbaric-relevant coding data submitted to the relevant Australian Government agencies by the Royal Hobart Hospital, Tasmania, Australia for financial year 2010-2011 were reviewed and compared against actual hyperbaric unit activity as determined by reference to original source documents. RESULTS: Hospital coding data contained one or more errors in diagnoses and/or procedures in 70% of patients treated with hyperbaric oxygen that year. Multiple discrete error types were identified, including (but not limited to): missing patients; missing treatments; 'additional' treatments; 'additional' patients; incorrect procedure codes and incorrect diagnostic codes. Incidental observations of errors in surgical, anaesthetic and intensive care coding within this cohort suggest that the problems are not restricted to the specialty of hyperbaric medicine alone. Publications from other centres indicate that these problems are not unique to this institution or State. CONCLUSIONS: Current Government datasets are irretrievably compromised and not fit for purpose. Attempting to inform the healthcare policy debate by reference to these datasets is inappropriate. Urgent clinical engagement with hospital coding departments is warranted.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  6 / 1208 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28634257
Autor:Tarran M; Wilson PG; Macphail MK; Jordan GJ; Hill RS
Endereço:School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia myall.tarran@adelaide.edu.au.
Título:Two fossil species of (Myrtaceae) from the Oligo-Miocene Golden Fleece locality in Tasmania, Australia.
Fonte:Am J Bot; 104(6):891-904, 2017 Jun.
ISSN:1537-2197
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The capsular-fruited genus (Myrtaceae) is one of the most widely distributed flowering plant genera in the Pacific but is extinct in Australia today. The center of geographic origin for the genus and the reason for and timing of its extinction in Australia remain uncertain. We identify fossil fruits from the newly discovered Golden Fleece fossil flora in the Oligo-Miocene of Tasmania, Australia, shedding further light on these problems. METHODS: Standard paleopalynological techniques were used to date the fossil-bearing sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and an auto-montage camera system were used to take high-resolution images of fossil and extant fruits taken from herbarium specimens. Fossils are identified using a nearest-living-relative approach. KEY RESULTS: The fossil-bearing sediments are palynostratigraphically dated as being Zone Equivalent (ca. 33-16 Ma) in age and provide a confident Oligo-Miocene age for the macrofossils. Two new fossil species of are described and are here named sp. nov. and sp. nov. CONCLUSIONS: These newly described fossil species of provide a second record of the genus in the Cenozoic of Australia, placing them in the late Early Oligocene to late Early Miocene. It is now apparent not only that was present in Australia, where the genus is now extinct, but that at least several species were present during the Cenozoic. These fossils further strengthen the case for an Australian origin of the genus.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 1208 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28610269
Autor:Mironov SV; Ehrnsberger R; Dabert J
Endereço:Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya embankment 1, 199034, Saint Petersburg, Russia.. sergei.mironov@zin.ru.
Título:Feather mites of the genera Dubininia and Cacatualges (Acari: Xolalgidae) associated with parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) of the Old World.
Fonte:Zootaxa; 4272(4):451-490, 2017 May 31.
ISSN:1175-5334
País de publicação:New Zealand
Idioma:eng
Resumo:This paper gives a systematic revision of feather mites of the genera Dubininia Vassilev, 1958 and Cacatualges Dabert, Badek and Skoracki, 2007 (Xolalgidae: Ingrassiinae) associated with parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) of the Old World. Five new species are described: Cacatualges probosciger sp. n. from Probosciger aterrimus (Gmelin) (Cacatuidae) from New Guinea, Dubininia charmosynae sp. n. from Charmosyna pulchella Gray GR (Psittaculidae) from New Guinea, D. micropsittae sp. n. from Micropsitta pusio pusio (Scaltter) (Psittaculidae) from New Guinea, D. nestori sp. n. from Nestor notabilis Gould (Strigopidae) from New Zealand, and D. pezopori sp. n. from Pezoporus wallicus (Kerr) (Psittaculidae) from Tasmania, Australia. Four previously described species of Dubininia are redescribed based on material from type hosts: D. curta (Trouessart, 1885) from Platycercus elegans (Gmelin) (Psittaculidae), D. lorina (Trouessart, 1885) from Lorius domicella (Linnaeus) (Psittaculidae), D. melopsittaci Atyeo and Gaud, 1987 from Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw) (Psittaculidae), and D. psittacina (Trouessart, 1885) from Strigops harboptilus Gray GR (Strigopidae) from New Zealand. A new diagnosis for the genus Dubininia is provided. A key to all presently known Dubininia species is provided for the first time.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 1208 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28442053
Autor:Veal FC; Thompson AJ; Bereznicki LR; Peterson GM
Endereço:Unit for Medication Outcomes Research & Education (UMORE), Pharmacy, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 26, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia.
Título:Persistent pain management in Australian general practice.
Fonte:Aust J Prim Health; 23(2):105-106, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1448-7527
País de publicação:Australia
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: LETTER


  9 / 1208 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28423030
Autor:Wait LF; Fox S; Peck S; Power ML
Endereço:Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia.
Título:Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(4):e0174994, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. Tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in Tasmania. To prevent extinction of Tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the Save the Tasmanian Devil Program. This study aimed to assess if conservation management was altering the interactions between Tasmanian devils and their parasites. Molecular tools were used to investigate the prevalence and diversity of two protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in Tasmanian devils. A comparison of parasite prevalence between wild and captive Tasmanian devils showed that both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were significantly more prevalent in wild devils (p < 0.05); Cryptosporidium was identified in 37.9% of wild devils but only 10.7% of captive devils, while Giardia was identified in 24.1% of wild devils but only 0.82% of captive devils. Molecular analysis identified the presence of novel genotypes of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The novel Cryptosporidium genotype was 98.1% similar at the 18S rDNA to Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum) with additional samples identified as C. fayeri, C. muris, and C. galli. Two novel Giardia genotypes, TD genotype 1 and TD genotype 2, were similar to G. duodenalis from dogs (94.4%) and a Giardia assemblage A isolate from humans (86.9%). Giardia duodenalis BIV, a zoonotic genotype of Giardia, was also identified in a single captive Tasmanian devil. These findings suggest that conservation management may be altering host-parasite interactions in the Tasmanian devil, and the presence of G. duodenalis BIV in a captive devil points to possible human-devil parasite transmission.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 1208 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28403207
Autor:Campbell ML; Bryant DE; Hewitt CL
Endereço:University of Tasmania, National Centre for Marine Conservation and Resource Sustainability, Locked Bag 1370, Newnham, Tasmania, Australia.
Título:Biosecurity messages are lost in translation to citizens: Implications for devolving management to citizens.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(4):e0175439, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The increasing focus of marine biosecurity agencies on transferring management responsibilities to citizens and industry begs the question whether devolved responsibility is a viable option for creating biosecurity outcomes. We examined recreational marine users' self-declared awareness of non-indigenous marine species (NIMS) at six locations in Tasmania, Australia and evaluated the accuracy of their awareness through recognition of four well-known NIMS with active awareness campaigns. We also investigated whether the activities of recreational marine users influence the accuracy of their NIMS recognition skills. We generally found that respondents declare NIMS awareness (70.45%), yet we found their recognition accuracy was variable ranging from low to fair (<10% to 54.95%) and recreational activity did not influence accuracy. Based on our results, we conclude that marine users' awareness does not predict accuracy and therefore devolved management of biosecurity without additional resources may pose a risky biosecurity management strategy.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE



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