||Read, UM(aut); Karamanos, A(aut); Cassidy, A(aut); Joao da Silva, M(aut); Molaodi, OR(aut); Cruickshank, JK(aut); Harding, S(aut).|
||Racism triggers smoking in British ethnic minority adolescents: evidence from the determinants of young adult social wellbeing and health (DASH) longitudinal study|
||In: Caribbean Public Health Agency. Caribbean Public Health Agency: 60th Annual Scientific Meeting. Kingston, The University of the West Indies. Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2015. p.[1-75].
(West Indian Medical Journal Supplement).
||OBJECTIVE: Racism may have a negative impact on the health behaviours in adolescence, however there were few longitudinal studies. We examined the impact of perceived racism on smoking in an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents in the UK, and potential modifying factors. DESIGN AND METHODS: In 2002/03, 6643 11-13 year olds in London, an80% ethnic minorities, participated in the baseline survey. In 2005/06 4,782 were followed-up. In 2012-14 665 took part in a pilot follow-up aged 21-23y, including 42 qualitative interviews. Measures of socio- economic and psychosocial factors and health were collected. RESULTS: Ethnic minority adolescents were more likely to report racism compared with White British, but smoking was generally lower. Reported racism in adolescence was associated with having ever smoked (e.g. males Odds Ratio 2.20, 95% CI 1.59-3.02), and with smoking initiation (males 4.09, 2.45-6.83). Smoking initiation was greatest among Black Caribbeans. Attendance to a place of worship, being a Muslim and a good parent-child relationship were independent protective factors. Qualitative interviews supported evidence for reported racism as well as protective factors including increasing ethnic diversity, a sense of identity and belonging, supportive parenting, high aspirations, and religious faith. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first UK study to show the negative impact of racism on smoking in adolescence, regardless of ethnic origin. Religious involvement and parenting may provide social support and reinforce cultural and religious values which may prevent the uptake of harmful health behaviours such as smoking. This has implications for health promotion among young people of all ethnicities.|
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