Base de dados : MedCarib
Pesquisa : F01.145.805.250.500 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 36 [refinar]
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Fotocópia
Id: 17996
Autor: Pottinger, AM(aut); Carroll, KN(aut); Mason, GE(aut); Parkins, N(aut).
Título: Marijuana use and quality of sperm for fertility competency: a preliminary investigation
Fonte: In: Caribbean Public Health Agency. Caribbean Public Health Agency: 60th Annual Scientific Meeting. Kingston, The University of the West Indies. Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2015. p.[1-75]. (West Indian Medical Journal Supplement).
Idioma: en.
Resumo: OBJECTIVES: The literature was contradictory about the effects of marijuana use on sperm parameters. Laboratory findings, of excellent sperm quality for some Jamaican males who are chronic marijuana users, support these contradictory findings. This paper describes and compares levels of marijuana smoking with sperm quality and pregnancy history among Jamaican men concerned with their fertility potential. DESIGN AND METHODS: Ninety-four male clients referred to a fertility clinic over an 8-month period completed a standard form which included demographics, employment data, general health, lifestyle practices, fatherhood and medical history, and an additional questionnaire which detailed their marijuana use. RESULTS: Significantly more chronic marijuana users had poor sperm quality, particularly preparation sperm count and motility, compared to those who had never smoked marijuana. This effect was found without differentiating current from chronic use. There were no differences in the distribution of marijuana use between men with extremely low or excellent sperm quality. A surprising finding was that males under 30 years old, who were less likely to be chronic users, had similar critically low sperm count as males over 50. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic marijuana use seems to negatively affect sperm quality (especially preparation sperm parameters). However, the effects need to be more thoroughly investigated with the use of a larger sample size, more robust testing using DNA, and by examining socio-cultural practices associated with marijuana smoking.
Responsável: TT2.1 - Library


  2 / 36 MedCarib  
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Id: 17903
Autor: Yearwood, Andrea(aut).
Título: Evidence summary: the therapeutic effectiveness of Cannabis sativa.
Fonte: Port of Spain; Caribbean Public Health Agency; Feb. 2014. 29 p.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: This Evidence Summary is prepared in response to a request from the Assistant Secretary-General, Human and Social Development, CARICOM. Given the debate internationally with respect to Cannabis sativaÆs safety and efficacy, and given that CARPHAÆs role is to provide direction in analyzing, defining and responding to public health priorities, we have interpreted this broad request as requiring our response to the following question: What is the current state of scientific knowledge regarding the effectiveness of marijuana and its chemical constituents in medical treatment in humans? We present a synthesis of research findings, of international relevance, that answers the specified question.
Responsável: TT2.1 - Library


  3 / 36 MedCarib  
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Fotocópia
Id: 17526
Autor: Maharajh, Hari D. (aut).
Título: Cannabis use: context and controversy
Fonte: In: Maharajh, Hari D. ; Merrick, Joav. Social and cultural psychiatry experience from the Caribbean Region. New York, Nova Science Publishers Inc, 2010. p.245-256. (Health and human development).
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Cannabis and its most active ingredient delta-9 tetrahdrocannabinol (THC) are derived from the plants cannabis indica and cannabis sativa which were transported to Trinidad during the indentureship period. Locally referred to as marijuana, ganja, hashish, pot and weed, the substance was originally intended for medicinal purposes but due to its hallucinatory and euphoric effects has found a place in creativity, religion and as a street drug of abuse. The lethality of this drug is increased when the smoke is inhaled directly, facilitating easy entry into the blood stream and quick absorption into the brain. Commercial cannabis is compressed, soaked in embalming oil and spices for removal of the scent in order to facilitate smuggling and these preservatives in themselves may have adverse effects. Despite reports of its use as a drug associated with artistic creativity in the 1970's, cannabis remains today a serious drug of abuse both by adolescents and adults and a major problem in the educational system. This chapter reviews the clinical effects of marijuana use, its relationship with suicide, mood disorders, psychoses and other mental disorders and discusses controversies associated with the decriminalization and de-legalization. Those who support the latter have not looked far enough.
Responsável: TT5 - Médical Sciences Library
TT5; WM 30.6, S6781 2010


  4 / 36 MedCarib  
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Fotocópia
Id: 15569
Autor: Dreher, Melanie C.
Título: Working men and ganja: commonalities and variations in rural Jamaican communities.
Idioma: En.
Tese: Apresentada a Columbia University para obtenção do grau de Doctor of Philosopy.
Responsável: JM3.1 - Médical Library
JM23.1; HV5822.M3D78


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Id: 15568
Autor: Dreher, Melanie C.
Título: Working men and ganja: marihuana use in rural Jamaica.
Fonte: Philadelphia; Institute for the Study of Human Issues; 1982. 216 p.
Idioma: En.
Responsável: JM23.1 - Main Library
JM23.1; WIC HV5822.M3D73


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Id: 15565
Autor: Rubin, Vera; Comitas, Lambros.
Título: Ganja in Jamaica.
Fonte: The Hague; Mouton; 1975. 205 p. tab.
Idioma: En.
Responsável: JM23.1 - Main Library
JM23.1; WIC HV5840.J28R8; JM17.1


  7 / 36 MedCarib  
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Id: 15563
Autor: Chevannes, Barry.
Título: Background to drug use in Jamaica.
Fonte: Kingston; University of the West Indies. Institute of Social and Economic Research; 1988. 79 p. ill.
Idioma: En.
Responsável: JM3.1 - Médical Library
JM23.1; HV5840.J28C521 1988


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Id: 15407
Autor: Chevannes, Barry.
Título: Drug use in Jamaica: report prepared for UNESCO.
Fonte: Kingston; s.n; Oct. 1976. 67 p.
Idioma: En.
Responsável: JM3.1 - Médical Library
JM3.1; Reprint Collection


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Fotocópia
Id: 14206
Autor: Dreher, Melanie C.
Título: Maternal-child health and ganja in Jamaica
Fonte: In: McGlynn, Frank. Health care in the Caribbean and Central America. Williamsberg, College of William and Mary. Department of Anthropology, 1984. p.55-67. (Studies in Third World Societies, 30).
Responsável: JM3.1 - Médical Library
JM3.1; RA455.H43 1984


  10 / 36 MedCarib  
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Fotocópia
Id: 13686
Autor: Kumar, Mohan M.
Título: Effect of cigarette smoking and marihuana on respiratory tract function.
Fonte: Kingston; s.n; 1981. 257 p. ills, maps.
Idioma: En.
Tese: Apresentada a University of the West Indies (Mona) para obtenção do grau de Doctor of Philosophy.
Resumo: Studies were conducted to elucidate the effect of tobacco smoking and marihuana on respiratory functions in both animals and human subjects. The airway resistance (Raw) was measured in apparently healthy Wistar rats using whole body plethysmograph. Histopathological and histochemical observations were also made to ascertain the damage induced by the inhalation of tobacco or marihuana smoke. Various pneometric tests viz. Vital capacity (VC), Functional Residual Capacity (FRC), Residual Volume (RV), Total Lung Capacity (TLC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1.0), Mean Transit Time (MTT), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and Closing Volume (CV) were carried out in chronic tobacco, marihuana smokers and clinically assessed asthmatic patients. The effect of crude aqueous marihuana extract on specific airway resistance (sRaw) as well as on various pneometric parameters were observed both in animals and human subjects respectively. Animal Studies - inhalation of either marihuana or tobacco smoke significantly increased (p<0.01) airway resistance (Raw), functional residual capacity (FRC) and specific airway resistance (sRaw) as compared to the control rats. Apparent increases in the airway resistance were observed after the first week of exposure but significant differences were only noted in rats exposed for a period of 12 weeks or more. The smoking of either marihuana or tobacco increased the sensitivity of airways to acetylcholine from 18 weeks of exposure onwards. Attempts to elucidate the mechanism of action suggested that the increase in airway responsiveness of alpha adrenoceptors and increased vagal activity which may have resulted in the narrowing of the airways. This has been suggested on the basis of the following observations: i) Intraperitoneal administration of adrenaline (400 ug/kg body weight) following propranolol (2 mg/kg body weight) resulted in an increase in sRaw, whereas a decrease was observed following phentolamine (2 mg/kg body weight). ii) Intramuscular administration of atropine (2 mg.kg body weight) decreased sRaw. Bilateral vagotomy of marihuana or tobacco smoke to exposed rats. iii) The administration of subthreshold concentrations of acetycholine (0.25 ug and 0.5 ug Ach) in 36 weeks smoke exposed rats significantly increased sRaw in contrast to control rats. The administration of atropine prior to acetypcholine in subthreshold concentrations prevented such increase in sRaw in smoke exposed rats indicating the involvement of vagus in inducing the hypersensitivity. The possible existence of bronchitis in marihuana and tobacco smoke to rats from 12 weeks onwards has been further supported by histopathological and histochemical changes which include inter alia catarrhal inflammation resulting in ulceration of the bronchial mucosa, squamous cell metaplasia, increased goblet cell, increased sulphation of mucus, focal alveolitis and alveolar collapse. The interperitoneal administration of 1 ml aqueous crude marihuana extract (1.27 gm/100 ml) significantly decreased the value of sRaw in both marihuana and tobacco smoke exposed rats. This is suggestive of its bronchodilatory effect and has been further demonstrated to be acting through beta adrenoceptors. The cessation of smoking for one month resulted in a decreasing trend of sRaw in rats exposed to either marihuana or tobacco smoke for a period of 36 weeks. This suggests that improvement in the lung picture may be achieved if a longer recovery period is allowed. Human Studies - the comparison of lung functions in chronic marihuana smokers and non-smokers indicated narrowing of both central and peripheral airways as demonstrated by slight decreases in FEV1.0 percent and PEFR and increases in RV/TLC percent, CV/VC percent and CC/TLC percent. These lung functions were found to be more affected in chronic smokers. The bronchodilatory effect observed immediately after smoking a single dose of marihuana to the chronic marihuana smokers may be due to the presence of THC. This bronchodilation was followed by bronchoconstriction when observed after 60 minutes of marihuana smoking. The mechanism of initial bronchodilation is at present unclear but may be due to a direct effect of THC on the bronchial smooth muscle. The bronchoconstrictory effect of marihuana or tobacco smoke is probably due to increased vagal activity and increased responsiveness of alpha adrenoceptors as observed in the animal studies. The presence of a low responsive and a high responsive group of subjects in chronic marihuana smokers has been demonstrated. The high responsive group seems to be more susceptible to marihuana smoke as exemplified by greater decrease in FEV1.0 percent and increase in CV/VC percent. These changes further indicate that the impairment occurs predominantly in the larger airways even though there are signs of onset of small airway disease. The decreases in FEV1.0 percent and PEFR in the asthmatic subjects indicated abnormalities in the larger airways. Significant increases in MTT, CV/VC percent and CC/TLC percent is suggestive of obstruction in the peripheral airways. Administration of 30 mls aqueous extract (200 mg/100 mls) of marihuana to asthmatic subjects resulted in the improvement in lung functions after 30 minutes with the maximum improvement being observed at 60 minutes post administration. The bronchodilatory effect of marijuana extract was quite comparable to a known bronchodilator, ventolin (Salbutamol 200 ug), used in this study. However, the effect of ventolin was faster than aqueous marihuana extract. The bronchodilatory effect of aqueous marihuana extract may be due to the presence of some active ingredients other than THC and may be partly due to the increased activity of beta adrenoceptors (AU)
Responsável: JM23.1 - Main Library
JM23.1; U Thesis



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