Base de dados : LILACS
Pesquisa : Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica - LILACS
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Id: biblio-976642 LILACS-Express
Autor: Pössel, Patrick; Smith, Eric; Alexander, Olivia.
Título: LARS&LISA: a universal school-based cognitive-behavioral program to prevent adolescent depression
Fonte: Psicol. reflex. crit;31:23, 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Adolescent depression is a prevailing international mental health concern as up to 27% of adolescents experience either subsyndromal depression or a major depressive episode by the age of 18. Depression in adolescence has been found to negatively impact current and future academic achievement, functioning, mental health, and quality of life. Accordingly, the authors emphasize the importance of proactively preventing depression (and its negative outcomes) instead of waiting and having to "fix" the problems after they have already developed. The current article begins with a discussion of the various types of prevention, including their respective advantages and disadvantages. Further and more importantly, the article's primary focus is to provide a summary of the theoretical basis, development of, empirical support for, and content of a universal school-based cognitive-behavioral program to prevent adolescent depression entitled LARS&LISA (Lust An Realistischer Sicht & Leichtigkeit Im Sozialen Alltag). As the program exists within the overlapping realms of universal prevention, school-based programs, and cognitive-behavioral interventions, the content of this article is relevant to all three areas and offers insight into the development of depression prevention in general. Finally, empirical support for the positive effects of the program is presented and some ideas for further research are discussed.
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Id: biblio-976641 LILACS-Express
Autor: Soares, Adriana Benevides; Mourão, Luciana; Maia, Fátima Almeida; Medeiros, Humberto Claudio Passeri; Monteiro, Marcia Cristina; Barros, Roberta de Souza Nogueira; Rodrigues, Pedro Vítor Souza.
Título: Construction and validity evidence of a scale for coping with difficult social academic interpersonal situations
Fonte: Psicol. reflex. crit;31:24, 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a scale to investigate the ways of coping with interpersonal situations considered difficult in the Brazilian university context. The items were based on the results of a study previously obtained in a focus group with university students. The first steps of the study were the analysis of judges and the investigation of the semantic validity. After these steps, a total of 1366 (female = 74.9%) students from public and private institutions participated in the study. The study followed the steps design of the items, development of the first version of the instrument, and initial tests of validity (content validity and internal consistency). The results of the exploratory factor analysis indicated the maintenance of 26 items, distributed in four factors: focus on emotion (α = 0.73), focus on social support (α = 0.81), focus on religious coping (α = 0.83), and focus on the problem (α = 0.70). The final scale solution was considered satisfactory for the proposed instrument, with consistency for the application in other studies and investigations that evaluate the coping strategies of students in situations considered difficult in the university.
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Id: biblio-976640 LILACS-Express
Autor: Ji, Shanling; Wang, Huiping.
Título: A study of the relationship between adverse childhood experiences, life events, and executive function among college students in China
Fonte: Psicol. reflex. crit;31:28, 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adverse childhood experiences and life events on the inhibitory control ability, cognitive flexibility, and working memory of college students. Methods: The study involved testing the participants using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Questionnaire, the Adolescent Life Events Scale (Adolescent Self-rating Life Events Checklist, ASLEC), and the program of executive functions designed by E-prime software. Results: The incidence rate of ACEs was 44.8%. ACEs, life events, and inhibition ability were found to have a significant correlation (r1 = 0.50, r1 = 0.47, p < 0.01). In the switching task, the reaction time of the ACEs group was longer than the reaction time of the non-ACEs group (t = - 2.55, p < 0.05). Low scorers in the ASLEC exhibited lesser reaction times than their high-scoring counterparts in the tasks related to inhibition, switching, and working memory experiments. The regression analysis results showed that ACEs and life events had a possibility rate of 56% in predicting inhibition ability. Conclusions: The incidence of ACEs was found to be high, and cognitive flexibility is significantly influenced by ACEs. Life events have a significant impact on inhibition ability, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. ACEs and life events were found to be reliable predictors of inhibition ability.
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Id: biblio-976639 LILACS-Express
Autor: Féres-Carneiro, Terezinha; Gomes, William B.; Hutz, Claudio S.; Remor, Eduardo.
Título: Editorial to 30th anniversary: historical links between the Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica and the postgraduate psychology program at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)
Fonte: Psicol. reflex. crit;31:18, 2018.
Idioma: en.
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Id: biblio-976638 LILACS-Express
Autor: Limberger, Jéssica; Andretta, Ilana.
Título: Social skills training for drug users under treatment: a pilot study with follow-up
Fonte: Psicol. reflex. crit;31:29, 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Drug abuse is associated with loss of social skills by drug users. The literature review revealed a strong need for social skills training as a strategy to assist in psychosocial rehabilitation. However, few studies to date have evaluated the results of social skills training in therapeutic communities (type of treatment often used for drug users). Therefore, the aim of the present study is to describe the results of a pilot study regarding the social skills training of drug users under treatment. This is a quasi-experimental pilot study, with pre- and post-tests and followup. The following assessment instruments were used for data collection: Questionnaire on Sociodemographic Data and Drug Abuse; Multidimensional Scale of Social Expression; Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment. The social skills training led to a significant increase in the skills of making refusals and expressing negative affect, quality of life (psychological domain), and a significant decrease in depressive symptoms and quality of life (environment domain). The high rate of intervention adherence (81.25%; n = 13) is indicative of the benefits from therapeutic community treatment and justifies the need for further empirical research, especially in terms of protocol development.
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Id: biblio-976637 LILACS-Express
Autor: Laros, Jacob Arie; Peres, Alexandre José de Souza; Andrade, Josemberg Moura de; Passos, Maria Fabiana Damásio.
Título: Validity evidence of two short scales measuring the Big Five personality factors
Fonte: Psicol. reflex. crit;31:32, 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract The objective of this study was to obtain evidence of the convergent and factor validity of the Reduced Scale of Big Five Personality Factors (ER5FP), with 20 items, and of the Reduced Inventory of Big Five Personality Factors (IGFP-5R), with 32 items. The two Brazilian scales were administered to 554 participants aged 16-69 years (M = 30.6, SD = 8.6). The measurement model of each instrument was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Both scales showed an adequate adjustment of the measurement model to the data (root mean square error of approximation < .06; standardized root mean square residual < .06) after excluding a number of items. Correlations between the factors of both instruments were estimated. Moderate evidence of convergent validity was found for Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience (raw correlations ranging from .44 and .57, and disattenuated correlations from .60 to .80). For Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, weaker evidence was found (raw correlations of .33 and .29, and disattenuated correlations of .48 and .43, respectively).
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Id: biblio-976636 LILACS-Express
Autor: Fonseca, Bianca Reis; Cavalcante, Lília Iêda Chaves; Kärtner, Joscha; Koster, Moritz.
Título: Maternal socialization goals and the spontaneous prosocial behavior of children in rural contexts
Fonte: Psicol. reflex. crit;31:27, 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: CNPq.
Resumo: Abstract The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to investigate possible associations between maternal socialization goals and prosocial behavior (spontaneous helping) among children living in a rural context. This study involved 39 dyads of mothers, aged 17 to 48 years (M = 24.28 years, SD = 5.97), and their children, with a mean age of 24 months. The data collection included a Sociocultural Sociodemographic Characterization Questionnaire (SSCQ), a Socialization Goals Questionnaire (SGQ), and a Spontaneous Prosocial Behavior Task (SPBT). Most importantly, we found that the maternal socialization goal to "Learning to support others" exhibited a significant correlation (r= 0.40, p < 0.05) with the helping task performed by the children. This finding sustains the hypothesis that maternal goals, which emphasize the importance of their children in learning to help others, are correlated with an increased frequency of prosocial behavior in young children, around their second birthday.
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Id: biblio-976635 LILACS-Express
Autor: Murta, Sheila Giardini; Nobre-Sandoval, Larissa de Almeida; Pedralho, Marina de Souza; Tavares, Thauana Nayara Gomes; Ramos, Carlos Eduardo Paes Landim; Allen, Deborah; Coombes, Lindsey.
Título: Needs assessment for cultural adaptation of Strengthening Families Program (SFP 10-14-UK) in Brazil
Fonte: Psicol. reflex. crit;31:25, 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract This study sought to evaluate the cultural adequacy of materials and procedures of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP 10-14-UK) and to identify requirements for its cultural adaptation to Brazilian families. The descriptive study had 33 informants, including external observers, managers, multipliers, facilitators, adolescents, and parents. The data were collected at a pilot application in the Federal District. Direct observation was applied to four intervention groups, with seven meetings of 150 min for families, parents/guardians and adolescents, and mixed nominal groups at the end of the interventions. The results, analyzed through content analysis and descriptive statistics, provided evidence that SFP was perceived as sufficiently appealing, culturally relevant, and partially clear. Recommendations for cultural adaptation of linguistic aspects of the materials and procedures were made, considering the cultural and educational differences of the participant families. Focus on implementation quality, including infrastructure, families' mobilization and continuous planning, was recommended. Replication studies in other Brazilian regions and analyses of contextual and political dimensions are suggested.
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Id: biblio-976634 LILACS-Express
Autor: Stoltz, Tania.
Título: Consciousness in Piaget: possibilities of understanding
Fonte: Psicol. reflex. crit;31:30, 2018. graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: CNPq.
Resumo: Abstract The objective of this article is to analyze the understanding of the concept of consciousness in Piaget. The theme of consciousness is a key concept in Piaget's theory and he is one of the few psychologists to offer a theoretical structure for the understanding of this theme. Notwithstanding, his proposal for understanding consciousness has been little approached or discussed. Grasp of consciousness, for Piaget, can be understood as the cognitive process of assimilating one's own functioning or that of the other when interacting with physical objects, people, and oneself. The process of constructing grasp of consciousness is explained by meaningful implication, reflecting abstraction, and equilibration. The dialectics between body and mind and between causality and implication pervade the discussions on consciousness in Piaget's work. Consensus is not found in the literature with regard to Piaget's conception of consciousness in virtue of this theme being dealt with at different times in his works with slightly distinct approaches. His works following the 1960s offer new possibilities of understanding the concept of consciousness. Although Piaget moved on in his formulations about consciousness, the essence of his ideas can already be found in his early works.
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Wagner, Adriana
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Id: biblio-976633 LILACS-Express
Autor: Neumann, Angélica Paula; Wagner, Adriana; Remor, Eduardo.
Título: Couple relationship education program "Living as Partners": evaluation of effects on marital quality and conflict
Fonte: Psicol. reflex. crit;31:26, 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: MCTI/CNPq N24/2015; . National Council for Scientific and Technological Development of Brazil (CNPq).
Resumo: Abstract Relationship education programs are strategies that can favor better marital quality and conflict management between spouses. The relationship education program "Living as Partners: Turning Challenges into Opportunities" seeks to promote the couples' learning of conflict resolution strategies and better quality levels in the relationship. This study evaluates the capacity of this program to produce results regarding marital quality and three dimensions of the couple's conflict: frequency, intensity, and resolution strategies. Data from 41 couples were analyzed before and after the program, and a follow-up after 5 months (n = 33 couples) were conducted as well (single group, pre-test, post-test, and follow-up quasi-experimental design). Results show that the program produced immediate effects in all the outcome variables, which remained significant after 5 months, except for marital quality and for the strategy of compliance. These outcomes showed effect sizes ranging from low to high levels. The study presents evidence about the ability of the "Living as Partners" program to produce improvements in couple's conflict indicators, addressing an unexplored field of research and intervention focused on Brazilian cultural specificities.
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