Base de dados : LILACS
Pesquisa : Interamerican Journal of Psychology (todos os anos) - LILACS
Referências encontradas : 71 [refinar]
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Id: lil-510905 LILACS-Express
Autor: Corral-Verdugo, Víctor; Fraijo-Sing, Blanca; Pinheiro, José Q.
Título: Sustainable behavior and time perspective: present, past, and future orientations and their relationship with water conservation behavior / Conducta sostenible y perspectiva temporal: 0rientaciones al presente, pasado y futuro y su relación con la conducta de ahorro de agua
Fonte: Interam. j. psychol;40(2):139-147, Aug. 2006. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Three hundred individuals at a Mexican city responded to Zimbardo's Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), and self-reported how frequently they engaged in water conservation practices. The ZTPI assesses individual differences in terms of attitudes believed to identify orientations towards a positive or negative past, hedonistic or fatalistic present, and future orientations. Results were processed within two structural equation models, which showed that present orientation negatively affected water conservation. Water conservation did not correlate with past orientation. Yet, that pro-environmental behavior significantly and positively was influenced by Future Orientation. Women reported a higher involvement in water conservation practices, whereas adult individuals (> 18 years old) and those with higher schooling levels presented a higher Future Orientation. Proposals considering these results are discussed aimed at developing sustainable attitudes and behaviors.

Trecentos mexicanos contestaron a los reactivos del Inventario de Perspectiva Temporal de Zimbardo (IPTZ) y auto-reportaron sus conductas de ahorro de agua. El IZPT mide diferencias individuales en t‚rminos de orientaciones hacia un pasado positivo o negativo, un presente fatalista o hedonista y tendencia hacia el futuro. Los resultados se procesaron en dos modelos de ecuaciones estructurales, revelando que la orientaci¢n al presente afecta negativamente al ahorro de agua. Este ahorro no se correlacion¢ con la orientaci¢n al pasado, pero s¡ lo hizo positivamente con la orientaci¢n al futuro. Las mujeres reportaron ahorrar m s agua, mientras que los adultos (> 18 a¤os) y las personas de mayor escolaridad se plantearon con una mayor orientaci¢n hacia el futuro.
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite


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Id: lil-505745
Autor: E. García, José.
Título: Ramón Indalecio Cardozo como pionero de la psicología en el Paraguay / Ramón Indalecio Cardozo as a pioneer of psychology in Paraguay
Fonte: Interam. j. psychol;42(1):171-180, abr. 2008.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: La Escuela Activa representó un amplio movimiento educacional que renovó las bases y los fundamentos de la pedagogía de comienzos del siglo XX. El nuevo enfoque surgió en Suiza y fue un movimiento que tuvo un impacto importante en varios países de América Latina en los que su recepción fue entusiasta y fructífera. Los defensores de la Escuela Activa basaron una parte importante de su accionar pedagógico en los conocimientos aportados por la Psicología, principalmente los estudios sobre la cognición y la personalidad del niño. Por eso muchos de sus exponentes centrales fueron también figuras relevantes en el ámbito de la Psicología. En este artículo se estudia la obra de Ramón Indalecio Cardozo (1876-1943), el más importante de los representantes de la Escuela Activa en el Paraguay, analizando en particular su rol como pionero de la psicología paraguaya. Se discuten sus conexiones con el movimiento de la Escuela Activa y con algunos de sus representantes a nivel internacional, las contribuciones de Cardozo a la Psicología y las áreas principales que abarcó su trabajo dentro de esta. Finalmente se determina la pertinencia de ubicar a Cardozo como uno de los pioneros de la Psicología en el Paraguay.

The Active School was a broad educational movement that renewed both the basis and the fundamentals of pedagogy at the beginnings of the twenty century. The new approach appeared in Switzerland but also was a movement with a great impact in several countries of Latin America where its reception was both enthusiast and fruitful. The defenders of the Active School based an important part of their pedagogical action on psychological knowledge, specialy research on cognition and children's personality. For this reason many of its main researchers were also important figures in the field of Psychology. In this article we study the works of Ramón Indalecio Cardozo (1876-1943), the most important representative of the Active School in Paraguay and also we make an analysis of his place as a pioneer of paraguayan psychology. Both Cardozo's connection with the movement of the Active School and with some of its international representatives are discussed, as well as the contributions of Cardozo to Psychology and the main areas that covered his work related to that science. The relevance of Cardozo as a pioneer of Psychology in Paraguay is discussed at the end of this article.
Descritores: Psicologia
Psicologia/história
-Paraguai
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite


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Id: lil-505744 LILACS-Express
Autor: Duarte, Eugenio A; Mamani, Amy Weisman de; Rosales, Grace; Kymalainen, Jennifer.
Título: Educational attainment as a predictor of attributions and expressed emotion in a tri-ethnic sample of relatives of patients with schizophrenia / Logro educacional como vaticinador de atribuciones y emoción expresada en una muestra tri-étnica de familiares de pacientes con esquizofrenia
Fonte: Interam. j. psychol;42(1):161-170, abr. 2008. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Strong evidence indicates that, following a relapse, patients with schizophrenia who return home to live with relatives who are rated as critical, hostile, or emotionally over-involved, known as high expressed emotion or high-EE, suffer elevated future relapse rates compared to those whose relatives are rated as low-EE. Evidence further suggests that high-EE relatives tend to make more blaming attributions for the patient's illness than do low-EE relatives. Few studies, however, have examined other important variables that predict family members' EE and attributions. Using a tri-ethnic sample of 57 relatives of patients with schizophrenia, this study finds that greater educational attainment in family members predicts less blameworthy attributions towards patients. Specifically, for Whites and Hispanics, greater educational attainment predicts less blameworthy self-reported causal attributions. For Blacks, education does not relate to attributions. A content analysis of relatives' causal attributions further reveals that, regardless of ethnicity or education, biological factors are most often cited as having caused relatives' schizophrenia. Study implications are discussed.

Investigación robusta indica que, después de una recaída, pacientes con esquizofrenia quienes retornan a hogares con familiares altos en crítica, hostilidad, o relación excesivo-familiares conocidos como altos en emoción expresada o EE-sufren recaídas futuras más frecuentes que aquellos cuyos familiares son bajos en EE. Investigación también sugiere que familiares altos en EE tienden a exhibir atribuciones más culpables hacia el paciente que familiares bajos en EE. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han examinado otros factores importantes que pudieran predecir los niveles de EE y las atribuciones causales de los familiares. Examinando una muestra tri-étnica de 57 familiares de pacientes con esquizofrenia, esta investigación encuentra que más educación formal predice atribuciones menos culpables hacia los pacientes, en particular para latinos y angloamericanos. Entre los afro-americanos, la educación formal no se relaciona con las atribuciones ni los niveles de EE de los familiares. Un análisis de contenido de las atribuciones causales de los familiares indica que, no obstante la etnicidad ni la educación, biología es la supuesta causa de la esquizofrenia de sus familiares citada con más frecuencia. Las implicaciones de este estudio se discuten.
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite


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Id: lil-505743
Autor: Urzúa Morales, Alfonso; Jarne Esparcia, Adolfo.
Título: Calidad de vida y estilos de afrontamiento en personas con patologías crónicas / Quality of life and coping styles among chronic patients
Fonte: Interam. j. psychol;42(1):151-160, abr. 2008. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Utilizando la Escala WHOQoL-Bref de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y la Escala de Estilos de Afrontamiento de Páez et al., se evalúa la relación existente entre el estilo de afrontamiento y la calidad de vida en una muestra de 440 participantes, 220 de las cuales viven con una patología física crónica y son usuarios de Servicios de Atención Primaria en Salud en España y Chile. Se observan diferencias tanto a nivel de calidad de vida como en estilos de afrontamiento, siendo el nivel de la primera superior en España que en Chile y mayor en no crónicos que crónicos, predominando estilos de tipo activo en España y estilos de tipo evitativos en Chile. Existen diferencias culturales en la relación entre Calidad de Vida y afrontamiento, vinculándose los estilos conductuales en Chile a la Calidad de Vida, mientras que en los participantes españoles se relaciona con estilos de tipo cognitivo.

The purpose of this study was report the linked between the quality of life and coping styles in people living with non transmissible chronic diseases. The Spanish version of WHOQoL - Bref and The Coping Styles Questionnaire was applied to 220 participants with chronic diseases and 220 non chronic, patients for primary care on health in Spain and Chile. The results show differences in levels of quality of life being higher in the Spanish and non chronic participants. About the coping styles, in the Chilean sample it prevails the avoidance styles whereas in the Spanish sample the active styles. There is cultural differences in both variables: linked the behavioural coping style to quality of life in the Chilean sample and the avoidance coping styles in the Spanish sample.
Descritores: Adaptação Psicológica
Doença Crônica
Atenção Primária à Saúde
Qualidade de Vida
-Chile
Espanha
Limites: Seres Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Meia-Idade
Tipo de Publ: Estudo Comparativo
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite


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Id: lil-505742 LILACS-Express
Autor: Stella, Florindo; Rossi, Célia Regina; Govone, José Sílvio.
Título: Drug dependence, mental impairment and education / Dependencia de droga, debilitación mental y educación
Fonte: Interam. j. psychol;42(1):143-150, abr. 2008. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: This study aimed to evaluate the mental conditions of cocaine-dependent individuals and school commitment/attachment. We evaluated 50 patients referred to the psychiatry emergency room due to mental disorders from chemical dependence. After clinical diagnosis, clinical interview, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Hamilton Scale for Depression and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were applied. The Spearman and Mann-Whitney nonparametric tests, as well as the t-Student test were utilized for statistical analysis.. The accepted significance value was 0.05. All subjects had used cocaine or crack and other substances. Only 13 (26 percent) did not drop out of school (group 1). Regarding the other 37 (74 percent), irregular class attendance , successive failures and definitive school drop out rates (group 2) were verified. These subjects presented an early substance use when compared with those which did not drop out of school (p=0.0001). Patients with an early substance use presented higher school dropout rates than those with a later initiation to substance use. Psychopathological phenomena were frequent in both groups.

El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la relación entre las condiciones mentales de dependientes de sustancias psicoativas y el vínculo escolar. Fueron evaluados 50 participantes atendidos en emergencias psiquiátricas por trastornos mentales asociados a la dependencia química. Luego del diagnóstico clínico, fueron realizadas las siguientes estrategias metodológicas: Entrevista Clínica, Escala Hospitalaria de Ansiedad y Depresión, Escala de Depresión de Hamilton y Escala Psiquiátrica Breve. La análisis estadístico se expresó mediante testes no-paramétricos como correlación de Spearman, Mann-Whitney, y t-Student test, con nivel de significación de 0,05. Todos los participantes hacían uso de cocaína o crack con otras sustancias. Apenas 13 (26 por ciento) no interrumpen el vínculo escolar (grupo 1). Los demás, 37 participantes (74 por ciento), verificaron frecuencia irregular en aula, sucesivas reprobaciones y interrupción definitiva del vínculo escolar (grupo 2). Estos últimos participantes (con interrupción del vínculo escolar) habían iniciado el uso de sustancias psicoativas más precozmente cuando los comparamos con los primeros (sin interrupción del vínculo escolar) con diferencia significativa entre ambos (p=0,0001). En conclusión, los participantes que iniciaron tempranamente el uso de sustancias psicoativas presentaban tasas mayores de interrupción del vínculo escolar quando comparados con aquejes con inicio más tardío. Los fenómenos psicopatológicos eran frecuentes y graves en ambos grupos.
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite


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Id: lil-505741
Autor: Morales Córdova, Hugo.
Título: Factores asociados y trayectorias del desarrollo del comportamiento antisocial durante la adolescencia: implicancias para la prevención de la violencia juvenil en américa latina / Associate factors and development trajectories of the antisocial behavior during the adolescence: prevention of the juvenile violence in latin america
Fonte: Interam. j. psychol;42(1):129-142, abr. 2008. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: La multicausalidad del comportamiento antisocial durante la adolescencia parece no sólo obedecer a la combinación de múltiples factores de riesgo ubicados en diferentes niveles del desarrollo humano, sino también a procesos históricos, sociales y culturales que afectan de manera diferenciada a varias generaciones de jóvenes desde su temprana infancia. Este artículo revisa las principales teorías explicativas del comportamiento antisocial durante la adolescencia, enfatizando en la teoría neuropsicológica de la Taxonomía del desarrollo de la conducta antisocial propuesta por Terrie E. Moffitt. Asimismo, se mencionan algunos estudios realizados que confirman la validez transcultural del modelo teórico de Moffitt y sus contribuciones para el diseño de programas de prevención del comportamiento antisocial entre población adolescente y juvenil en América Latina.

Several causes of the antisocial behavior during the adolescence seems to respond not only to the combination of many risk located along the different levels of human development, but also to cultural and historical, social processes affecting, in many ways, to specific generations during their early childhood. This paper revises the main explicative theories about antisocial behavior during the adolescence and tries to reflect them, emphasizing on the theory of the Neuropsychological Taxonomy of the antisocial behavior proposed by Terrie E. Moffitt. Moreover, some studies are mentioned due to the fact that they confirm the cross-cultural validity of Moffitt's theoretical model and its contributions to the design of prevention programs against antisocial behavior for youngsters and adolescents in Latin America.
Descritores: Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial
Precaução
Fatores de Risco
-América Latina
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite


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Id: lil-505740
Autor: Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Rohenkohl, Gustavo; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky.
Título: O efeito da pressão do tempo na tomada de decisão do consumidor / Time pressure on consumer decision making
Fonte: Interam. j. psychol;42(1):119-128, abr. 2008. tab.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: O presente artigo expõe os resultados de um experimento que objetivou mensurar os efeitos da pressão do tempo na decisão do consumidor. Visou, ainda, apresentar o desenvolvimento de um instrumento informatizado, em língua portuguesa, para a avaliação do efeito de configuração na tomada de decisão do consumidor. O experimento teve a participação de 96 estudantes universitários, designados a três grupos constituídos em função da variável pressão do tempo, representados pelo grupo controle, sem tempo delimitado para o julgamento e tomada de decisão, e pelos grupos experimentais, com tempo reduzido em 25 por cento e 50 por cento em relação à média de tempo despendido para a tomada de decisão do grupo controle. Os resultados mostraram os padrões esperados de aversão ao risco, documentados originalmente em pesquisa básica por Kahneman e Tversky (1979), Tversky e Fox (1995) e Tversky e Kahneman (1981) e corroboraram os resultados de Svenson e Benson (1993), já que o aumento da pressão do tempo parece diminuir o efeito de configuração.

This article presents an experiment that aimed to measure the effect of time pressure on consumers' decision making. In addition, the development of a software for the evaluation of framing effects on consumers' decision making is also presented. Undergraduates (N=96) were assigned to three groups according each level of the independent variable time pressure. The control group had no time constraints for each task of judgment and decision making. The two experimental groups had time constraints for performing the same tasks as the control group, namely, time decreased in 25 percent and 50 percent in relation to the average time spent by the control group to make their decisions. The results showed the expected pattern of risk aversion, originally documented by Kahneman & Tversky (1979), Tversky & Fox (1995) and Tversky e Kahneman (1981). The data was also in accordance with the results of Svenson and Benson (1993) since framing effects on decision making tended to disappear with the increase in time pressure.
Descritores: Ciência Cognitiva
Tomada de Decisões
Gerenciamento do Tempo/psicologia
Risco
Limites: Seres Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite


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Id: lil-505739
Autor: Gil-Monte, Pedro R; García-Juesas, Juan Antonio; Hernández, Marcos Caro.
Título: Influencia de la sobrecarga laboral y la autoeficacia sobre el síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (burnout) en profesionales de enfermería: a study in nursing professionals / The influence of overload and self-efficacy on burnout: a study in nursing professionals
Fonte: Interam. j. psychol;42(1):113-118, abr. 2008. tab.
Idioma: es.
Projeto: Escuela Valenciana de Estudios para la Salud (EVES). Conselleria de Sanitat (Generalitat Valenciana).
Resumo: El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la influencia de la sobrecarga laboral y la autoeficacia sobre el síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (SQT). La muestra se formó por 714 profesionales de enfermería que trabajan en diferentes hospitales. El SQT se estimó mediante el cuestionario MBI-HSS, la sobrecarga laboral se midió mediante una escala de 7 ítems de Karasek y la autoeficacia mediante la escala de Baessler y Schwarzer. Los resultados mostraron que la sobrecarga laboral y la autoeficacia fueron predictores significativos de las dimensiones agotamiento emocional, realización personal en el trabajo y despersonalización. En la comprobación de los efectos moduladores de la autoeficacia en la relación entre sobrecarga laboral sobre las tres dimensiones del MBI sólo resultó significativo el efecto modulador de la autoeficacia en la relación entre sobrecarga laboral y agotamiento emocional. Estos resultados permiten afirmar que es necesario evitar la sobrecarga laboral para prevenir la aparición del SQT, y que la autoeficacia percibida de los profesionales va a prevenir la aparición del SQT y disminuirá la incidencia de la sobrecarga laboral sobre esta patología.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of overload and self-efficacy on the burnout. The sample was composed by 714 nursing professionals that were working in different hospitals. The burnout was estimated by the MBI-HSS questionnaire, overload was estimated by a scale of 7 items of Karasek and self-efficacy by a scale of 9 items of Baessler and Schwarser. The results of the study indicate that overload and self-efficacy were significant predictors of emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment and depersonalization. In the confirmation of the self-efficacy buffering effects in the relationship between overload and the three dimensions of the MBI only was significant the buffering effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between overload and emotional exhaustion. The conclusions are that is necessary to prevent the overload to prevent the appearance of the burnout, and that the self-efficacy perceived of subjects will prevent the appearance of the burnout and it will reduce the overload incidence on this pathology.
Descritores: Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros
Enfermeiros
Autoeficácia
Estresse Fisiológico
Limites: Seres Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adulto
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite


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Id: lil-505738
Autor: Barlach, Lisete; Limongi-França, Ana Cristina; Malvezzi, Sigmar.
Título: O conceito de resiliência aplicado ao trabalho nas organizações / The concept of resilience applied to work in organizations
Fonte: Interam. j. psychol;42(1):101-112, abr. 2008. ilus.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: Resiliência é um conceito que tem sido utilizado para explicar fenômenos psicossociais referidos a indivíduos, grupos ou organizações que superam ou transcendem situações adversas. Neste artigo, é discutido o conceito de resiliência como referencial teórico para pesquisas no campo da Psicologia do Trabalho, sendo apresentados: a) análise de conteúdo de dois filmes recentes - Frida e A Vida é Bela - ilustrativa do conceito de resiliência psicológica; b) análise qualitativa de relatos verbais de executivos(as), alunos (as) de cursos de educação continuada, submetidos(as) a situações de tensão vividas na interface entre trabalho, vida pessoal e dedicação ao estudo. Os achados do estudo indicam que, no contexto do trabalho humano nas organizações, a resiliência pode explicar a mobilização de recursos psicossociais para o enfrentamento das rupturas e situações de tensão características da modernidade. Conclui-se que neste ambiente, de transformação de crises em oportunidades, o desenvolvimento da resiliência pode ser o elemento diferencial entre o enfrentamento da situação que leva ao crescimento psicológico ou a sensação de vitimização, em situações similares de pressão organizacional. A resiliência parece estar associada ao auto-conhecimento, religiosidade e arte. Portanto, a compreensão da relação pessoa-.pressão-subjetividade-trabalho e o conceito de resiliência são fundamentais para o entendimento do enfrentamento das adversidades humanas nas organizações.

Resilience is a concept that has been used to explain psychosocial phenomena referred to individuals, groups or organizations that surpass or transcend adverse situations. In this study, the use of the concept of resilience as a theoretical referential in the field of Psychology of Work is discussed through: a) content analysis of two recent films - Frida and Life is Beautiful - as illustrations of the concept of psychological resilience and b) qualitative analysis of verbal narratives of executives who face tense situations at the interfaces of their jobs, personal lives and the demands of further education. The results of this study point out that, within the context of human labor in organizations, the resilience concept offers consistent explanation of the mobilization of psychosocial resources as means for the coping with radical ruptures and steady tensions - typical contingencies of the modern world. The analyses allowed the conclusion that the transformation of crises into opportunities is a must in adverse environments, and that the development of resilience can be the differential element between facing the situation (leading to psychological growth), and feeling like victim of it, in similar situations of organizational pressure. Resilience seems to be associated to self knowledge, religiosity and art. Thus, the comprehension of the interface person-pressure-subjectivity-work and the concept of resilience are essential to understanding the surpassing of human adversities within organizations.
Descritores: Organizações
Trabalho
-Psicologia Social
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite


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Id: lil-505737
Autor: Cintrón Bou, Francheska N; Walters-Pacheco, Kattia Z; Serrano-García, Irma.
Título: Cambios: ¿cómo influyen en los y las adolescentes de familias reconstituidas? / Changes: how do they influence on adolescents in reconstituted family?
Fonte: Interam. j. psychol;42(1):91-100, abr. 2008. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: En Puerto Rico, al igual que en países de América Latina, el Caribe y Estados Unidos, existe una alta tasa de divorcios. Muchas personas divorciadas vuelven a casarse, estableciendo una familia reconstituida. En esta nueva relación, la madre o el padre biológico comparte con su pareja (madrastra o padrastro) e hijo/s e hija/s de la relación anterior. Nuestro objetivo fue estudiar cómo se ajustan los hijos e hijas adolescentes de padre y madre divorciados, que ahora integran una familia reconstituida, a los cambios que surgen como resultado de pertenecer a la misma. Seleccionamos personas adolescentes ya que ésta es una etapa de transición importante en su desarrollo. Además, en estudios previos se señala que el divorcio afecta a los y las adolescentes más que a otros miembros del núcleo familiar. Realizamos entrevistas semi-estructuradas con integrantes adultos/as y adolescentes de ocho familias reconstituidas. Los y las adolescentes informaron que al formar parte de la familia reconstituida se enfrentaron a cambios negativos y positivos, entre ellos: cambio de escuela, alejamiento de familiares, compartir con familiares de la nueva pareja de su madre o padre, mejoría en los procesos de comunicación y en el estatus económico. Recomendamos investigaciones e intervenciones futuras dirigidas a esta población.

A high rate of divorce exists in Puerto Rico, however, many divorced people decide to remarry, establishing a reconstituted family. In this new relation the biological mother or father shares with their new relationship (mother and father in law) and also with their children of their first relation. They can come into this relationship with their children or they can have children of their own. Our objective was to study how adolescent children of mothers and fathers who are divorced adjust to a newly reconstituted family and the changes that come as a result of being a part of this family. We selected adolescents because this is an important stage in a child's development. Furthermore, in previous studies authors report that divorce affects adolescents more than other members of the family. We carried out semi-structured interviews with adults and adolescents of eight reconstituted families. The adolescents informed us of how negative and positive changes had affected them when the reconstituted family was formed. The adolescents reported that when forming part of a reconstituted family, they faced both negative and positive changes, such as change of school, distancing from relatives, spending time with relatives of their father or mother's new spouse, improvement in the communication processes and the economical status. We recommend research and future interventions directed at this population.
Descritores: Adolescente
Divórcio
Família
Relações Familiares
Limites: Seres Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adolescente
Adulto
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite



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