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  1 / 1204 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29186134
Autor:Krause DJ; Hinke JT; Perryman WL; Goebel ME; LeRoi DJ
Endereço:Antarctic Ecosystem Research Division, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, La Jolla, California, United States of America.
Título:An accurate and adaptable photogrammetric approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds using an unmanned aerial system.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(11):e0187465, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Measurements of body size and mass are fundamental to pinniped population management and research. Manual measurements tend to be accurate but are invasive and logistically challenging to obtain. Ground-based photogrammetric techniques are less invasive, but inherent limitations make them impractical for many field applications. The recent proliferation of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in wildlife monitoring has provided a promising new platform for the photogrammetry of free-ranging pinnipeds. Leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) are an apex predator in coastal Antarctica whose body condition could be a valuable indicator of ecosystem health. We aerially surveyed leopard seals of known body size and mass to test the precision and accuracy of photogrammetry from a small UAS. Flights were conducted in January and February of 2013 and 2014 and 50 photogrammetric samples were obtained from 15 unrestrained seals. UAS-derived measurements of standard length were accurate to within 2.01 ± 1.06%, and paired comparisons with ground measurements were statistically indistinguishable. An allometric linear mixed effects model predicted leopard seal mass within 19.40 kg (4.4% error for a 440 kg seal). Photogrammetric measurements from a single, vertical image obtained using UAS provide a noninvasive approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds that may be widely applicable.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  2 / 1204 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28683932
Autor:Boroda AV
Endereço:A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 17 Palchevsky St., Vladivostok, 690041, Russia. Electronic address: borodandy@gmail.com.
Título:Marine mammal cell cultures: To obtain, to apply, and to preserve.
Fonte:Mar Environ Res; 129:316-328, 2017 Aug.
ISSN:1879-0291
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The world's oceans today have become a place for the disposal of toxic waste, which leads to the degradation of marine mammal habitats and populations. Marine mammal cell cultures have proven to be a multifunctional tool for studying the peculiarities of the cell physiology and biochemistry of these animals as well as the destructive effects of anthropogenic and natural toxicants. This review describes the sources of marine mammal live tissues and the methods required for establishing cell cultures, their use, and long-term storage. Approaches to conserving rare animal species by applying cell biology methodologies are also discussed.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW


  3 / 1204 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28629508
Autor:Gilbert MJ; Miller WG; Leger JS; Chapman MH; Timmerman AJ; Duim B; Foster G; Wagenaar JA
Endereço:1​Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Título:Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.
Fonte:Int J Syst Evol Microbiol; 67(6):1961-1968, 2017 Jun.
ISSN:1466-5034
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (USA) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established taxa of the genus Campylobacter, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of these six isolates. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene and AtpA sequence analysis and by conventional phenotypic testing. The whole-genome sequences were determined for all isolates, and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) was determined. The isolates formed a separate phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other taxa of the genus Campylobacter and most closely related to Campylobactermucosalis. Although all isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, AtpA and ANI analyses indicated divergence between the otariid isolates from California and the phocid isolates from Scotland, which warrants subspecies status for each clade. The two subspecies could also be distinguished phenotypically on the basis of catalase activity. This study shows clearly that the isolates obtained from pinnipeds represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov. is proposed. Within this novel species, the Californian isolates represent a separate subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for both this novel species and subspecies is RM17260T (=LMG 29472T=CCUG 69570T). The Scottish isolates represent another subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is M302/10/6T (=LMG 29473T=CCUG 68650T).
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S)


  4 / 1204 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28477851
Autor:Sedlak MD; Benskin JP; Wong A; Grace R; Greig DJ
Endereço:San Francisco Estuary Institute, 4911 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804, USA. Electronic address: meg@sfei.org.
Título:Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in San Francisco Bay wildlife: Temporal trends, exposure pathways, and notable presence of precursor compounds.
Fonte:Chemosphere; 185:1217-1226, 2017 Oct.
ISSN:1879-1298
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in San Francisco Bay (SF Bay) wildlife have historically been among the highest reported globally. To track continuing exposures to PFASs and assess the impact of the 2002 phase-out of production of PFOS and related chemicals in the US, nine perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C4-C12), three perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA, a PFOS precursor) were measured in SF Bay cormorant eggs in 2012 and harbor seal serum sampled between 2009 and 2014. PFOS remained the dominant perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) in both cormorant eggs (36.1-466 ng/g) and seals (12.6-796 ng/g) from 2012 and 2014, respectively. Concentrations in seal and bird eggs from the South Bay have declined approximately 70% in both matrices. To elucidate potential pathways of exposure, prey fish, sediments and wastewater effluent were analyzed for PFASs, and in the case of sediment and effluent, a suite of PFAA precursors. PFOS was the dominant PFAA in prey fish and sediment. In effluent, different mixtures of PFAAs were measured, with PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA detected in the highest concentrations. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (PFCA-precursors) were observed at concentrations over an order of magnitude higher than PFCAs in sediment, highlighting their importance as a potential, on-going source of PFCAs to SF Bay wildlife. These findings suggest that the PFOS phase-out has resulted in reduced burdens to wildlife in SF Bay, but that exposure to diverse and incompletely characterized PFASs continues.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Alkanesulfonic Acids); 0 (Carboxylic Acids); 0 (Fluorocarbons); 0 (Sulfonic Acids); 0 (Waste Water); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 6P60ZBK0QL (perfluorooctane); 9H2MAI21CL (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid)


  5 / 1204 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28288690
Autor:Alho AM; Marcelino I; Colella V; Flanagan C; Silva N; Correia JJ; Latrofa MS; Otranto D; Madeira de Carvalho L
Endereço:CIISA, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa (ULisboa), Lisboa, Portugal.
Título:Dirofilaria immitis in pinnipeds and a new host record.
Fonte:Parasit Vectors; 10(1):142, 2017 Mar 13.
ISSN:1756-3305
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne pathogen that is spreading worldwide, and the associated infection (i.e. dirofilariosis) is becoming a threat to animals and humans living in endemic areas. Little is known about the occurrence and risk of infection of D. immitis in pinnipeds. Here we report dirofilariosis by D. immitis in several pinniped species kept in captivity in Portugal. METHODS: Animals were housed in an oceanographic park located in Algarve, southern Portugal, a geographical area endemic for canine dirofilariosis. To assess the occurrence of D. immitis, blood was collected from the park's resident pinniped population, which consisted of 16 animals (5 common seals Phoca vitulina, 2 grey seals Halichoerus grypus, 3 California sea lions Zalophus californianus and 6 South African fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus). Dirofilaria immitis nematodes were detected by real-time PCR and by the presence of circulating antigens. In addition, modified Knott's technique was performed to detect circulating microfilariae. Necropsies and histopathological examination of two animals which died during the study were also conducted. RESULTS: Out of the 16 pinnipeds housed at the park, seven (43.8%) were positive for D. immitis by real-time PCR (3 P. vitulina, 2 Z. californianus and 2 A. p. pusillus), two of which (P. vitulina) were also positive for the nematode's antigen. Additionally, D. immitis microfilariae were detected in one A. p. pusillus. Furthermore, several D. immitis specimens were retrieved from the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries at the necropsy of one P. vitulina and one A. p. pusillus. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new epidemiological data on D. immitis infection in pinnipeds diagnosed through clinical, molecular and pathological findings. Additionally, the South African fur seal is herein reported as a new host for this zoonotic filarioid. The situation herein described could also occur in other parks located in areas where canine dirofilariosis is endemic. Active surveillance and preventive measures of dirofilariosis in pinnipeds on a local and global scale are therefore vital to improve the early diagnosis and control of dirofilariosis.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antigens, Helminth)


  6 / 1204 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28262966
Autor:Abe E; Ohishi K; Ishinazaka T; Fujii K; Maruyama T
Endereço:Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-0061.
Título:Serologic evidence of Brucella infection in pinnipeds along the coast of Hokkaido, the northernmost main island of Japan.
Fonte:Microbiol Immunol; 61(3-4):114-122, 2017 Apr.
ISSN:1348-0421
País de publicação:Australia
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Brucella infection in Hokkaido was serologically surveyed in four species of pinnipeds inhabiting Cape Erimo during 2008-2013 and the Shiretoko Peninsula in 1999 by ELISA using Brucella abortus and B. canis as antigens. Anti-Brucella positive sera showed higher absorbance to B. abortus than B. canis in almost all samples. Anti-B. abortus antibodies were detected in serum samples from 24% (n = 55) of Western Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina stejnegeri) in Cape Erimo and from 66% (n = 41) of spotted seals (P. largha), 15% (n = 20) of ribbon seals (Histriophoca fasciata) and 18% (n = 17) of Western Steller's sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus jubatus) in the Shiretoko Peninsula. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected at higher absorbance in 1- to 4-year-old harbor seals than in the pups and mature animals, suggesting either that Brucella infection mainly occurs after weaning or that it is maternally transmitted to pups with premature or suppressed immunity. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected in both immature and mature spotted seals and ribbon seals, with higher absorbance in the former. The antibodies were detected only in mature Western Steller's sea lions. Western blot analysis of the serum samples showed some differences in band appearances, namely discrete versus smeary, and in the number of bands, indicating that multiple different Brucella may be prevalent in pinnipeds in Hokkaido. Alternatively, the Brucella of pinnipeds may have some intra-species diversity.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antibodies, Bacterial)


  7 / 1204 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27993597
Autor:Fago A; Parraga DG; Petersen EE; Kristensen N; Giouri L; Jensen FB
Endereço:Zoophysiology, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Electronic address: angela.fago@bios.au.dk.
Título:A comparison of blood nitric oxide metabolites and hemoglobin functional properties among diving mammals.
Fonte:Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol; 205:35-40, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1531-4332
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The ability of marine mammals to hunt prey at depth is known to rely on enhanced oxygen stores and on selective distribution of blood flow, but the molecular mechanisms regulating blood flow and oxygen transport remain unresolved. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that may be important in regulating blood flow, we measured concentration of nitrite and S-nitrosothiols (SNO), two metabolites of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), in the blood of 5 species of marine mammals differing in their dive duration: bottlenose dolphin, South American sea lion, harbor seal, walrus and beluga whale. We also examined oxygen affinity, sensitivity to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and nitrite reductase activity of the hemoglobin (Hb) to search for possible adaptive variations in these functional properties. We found levels of plasma and red blood cells nitrite similar to those reported for terrestrial mammals, but unusually high concentrations of red blood cell SNO in bottlenose dolphin, walrus and beluga whale, suggesting enhanced SNO-dependent signaling in these species. Purified Hbs showed similar functional properties in terms of oxygen affinity and sensitivity to DPG, indicating that reported large variations in blood oxygen affinity among diving mammals likely derive from phenotypic variations in red blood cell DPG levels. The nitrite reductase activities of the Hbs were overall slightly higher than that of human Hb, with the Hb of beluga whale, capable of longest dives, having the highest activity. Taken together, these results underscore adaptive variations in circulatory NO metabolism in diving mammals but not in the oxygenation properties of the Hb.
Tipo de publicação: COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Hemoglobins); 31C4KY9ESH (Nitric Oxide)


  8 / 1204 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27717573
Autor:Cipro CV; Montone RC; Bustamante P
Endereço:Laboratório de Química Orgânica Marinha, Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-120 São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01, France. Electronic address: caiovzc@usp.br.
Título:Mercury in the ecosystem of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica: Occurrence and trophic distribution.
Fonte:Mar Pollut Bull; 114(1):564-570, 2017 Jan 15.
ISSN:1879-3363
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Mercury (Hg) can reach the environment through natural and human-related sources, threatening ecosystems all over the planet due to its well known deleterious effects. Therefore, Antarctic trophic webs, despite being relatively isolated, are not exempt of its influence. To evaluate Hg concentrations in an Antarctic ecosystem, different tissues from 2 species of invertebrates, 2 of fish, 8 of birds, 4 of pinnipeds and at least 5 of vegetation were investigated (n=176). For animals, values ranged from 0.018 to 48.7µgg dw (whole Antarctic krill and Antarctic Fur Seal liver). They were generally correlated to trophic position (assessed by δ N and δ C) but also to cephalopods and myctophids consumption. For vegetation, values ranged from 0.014 to 0.227µgg dw (Colobanthus quitensis and an unidentified lichen), with lichens presenting significantly higher values than mosses, likely due to year-round exposure and absorption of animal derived organic matter, as hypothesized by literature.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); FXS1BY2PGL (Mercury)


  9 / 1204 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27884438
Autor:van de Velde N; Devleesschauwer B; Leopold M; Begeman L; IJsseldijk L; Hiemstra S; IJzer J; Brownlow A; Davison N; Haelters J; Jauniaux T; Siebert U; Dorny P; De Craeye S
Endereço:Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.
Título:Toxoplasma gondii in stranded marine mammals from the North Sea and Eastern Atlantic Ocean: Findings and diagnostic difficulties.
Fonte:Vet Parasitol; 230:25-32, 2016 Oct 30.
ISSN:1873-2550
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The occurrence of the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals remains a poorly understood phenomenon. In this study, samples from 589 marine mammal species and 34 European otters (Lutra lutra), stranded on the coasts of Scotland, Belgium, France, The Netherlands and Germany, were tested for the presence of T. gondii. Brain samples were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of parasite DNA. Blood and muscle fluid samples were tested for specific antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT), a commercial multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Out of 193 animals tested by PCR, only two harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) cerebrum samples, obtained from animals stranded on the Dutch coast, tested positive. The serological results showed a wide variation depending on the test used. Using a cut-off value of 1/40 dilution in MAT, 141 out of 292 animals (41%) were positive. Using IFA, 30 out of 244 tested samples (12%) were positive at a 1/50 dilution. The commercial ELISA yielded 7% positives with a cut-off of the sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio≥50; and 12% when the cut-off was set at S/P ratio≥20. The high number of positives in MAT may be an overestimation due to the high degree of haemolysis of the samples and/or the presence of lipids. The ELISA results could be an underestimation due to the use of a multispecies conjugate. Our results confirm the presence of T. gondii in marine mammals in The Netherlands and show exposure to the parasite in both the North Sea and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. We also highlight the limitations of the tests used to diagnose T. gondii in stranded marine mammals.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antibodies, Protozoan); 0 (DNA, Protozoan)


  10 / 1204 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27529170
Autor:Mass AM; Supin AY
Endereço:Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
Título:Retinal Ganglion Cell Topography and Retinal Resolution in the Baikal Seal (Pusa sibirica).
Fonte:Brain Behav Evol; 88(1):59-67, 2016.
ISSN:1421-9743
País de publicação:Switzerland
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The total number, size, topographic distribution, and cell density of ganglion cells were studied in retinal wholemounts of Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica). The ganglion cell size varied from 10 to 38 µm. A distinct cell group consisted of large ganglion cells of more than 30 µm in diameter. The topographic distribution of ganglion cells showed a definite area of high cell density similar to the area centralis of terrestrial carnivores. This area was located approximately 6-7 mm dorsotemporally of the geometric center of the wholemount. In this area, the peak cell densities in two wholemounts were 3,800 and 3,400 cells/mm2 (mean 3,600 cells/mm2). With a posterior nodal distance of 24 mm (underwater), this density corresponds to 631 cells/square degree. These values predict a retinal resolution of 2.4' in water and 3.0' in air. The topographic distribution of large cells featured the highest density in the same location as the total ganglion cell population.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE



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