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Id: biblio-837040
Autor: Yoshime, Luciana Tedesco.
Título: Identificação e propriedades físico-químicas da clorofilina cúprica de sódio e da clorina cúprica e6 / Identification and physicochemical properties of sodium copper chloruphyllin and copper chlorin e6.
Fonte: São Paulo; s.n; 2013. 144 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Idioma: pt.
Tese: Apresentada a Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas para obtenção do grau de Doutor.
Resumo: A clorofilina cúprica de sódio (CuChl) é um corante semissintético derivado da clorofila. Quimicamente é constituído de diversas clorinas, em especial a clorina cúprica e4 (CuCe4), a clorina cúprica e6 (CuCe6), e possíveis clorinas e porfirinas não cúpricas em proporções variáveis. Além do seu uso como corante alimentar, são atribuídas atividades biológicas à CuChl, tais como, antimutagênica, anticarcinogênica e antioxidante. Em decorrência destes potenciais efeitos benéficos, sua comercialização sob a forma de suplementos é crescente. Todavia, curiosamente, informações sobre a absorção e biodisponibilidade da CuChl são escassas. Além disso, até o momento nenhum estudo avaliou o impacto da composição da CuChl em sua bioatividade e eficácia. Assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar e caracterizar quimicamente duas amostras de CuChl (Sigma® e Chr. Hansen®) e o padrão de CuCe6 (Frontier Scientific®). Para tanto, empregou-se técnicas cromatográficas e espectrofotométricas, determinou-se a lipofilicidade em modelos miméticos de membrana, cinética de degradação e avaliou-se a interação CuCe6/BSA. A análise elementar da CuChl resultou em teores de cobre total inferiores aos recomendados pela United States Pharmacopeia (U.S.P.). Os elementos (CHN) e a razão Cu/N não foram coerentes com os valores teóricos da molécula de CuChl. Apenas uma amostra de CuChl apresentou razão Soret/Q dentro dos valores preconizados pela U.S.P. A titulação base-ácido da CuCe6 revelou dois valores de pkas (10,62 e 6,41) que foram similares para as amostras de CuChl. A determinação de log P da CuCe6 mostrou que a hidrofobicidade é máxima em pH 3 (log P = 1,49±0,09) e sua hidrofilicidade ocorre em pHs > 7. Esse comportamento foi confirmado nos ensaios de incorporação em lipossomas em função do pH. A degradação térmica da CuChl (25 a 95 °C) avaliada por HPLC foi drástica a partir de 75 °C. A energia necessária para que ocorra a degradação da CuChl e CuCe6 é Ea = 16,1 e 9,3kcal/mol, respectivamente. A meia-vida a 35 °C é de 6 horas para a CuChl e 2 horas e meia para a CuCe6. A separação mais eficiente dos componentes da CuChl por HPLC foi conseguida utilizando coluna C30 e a identificação dos principais constituintes CuCe6, CuCe4 e a clorina cúprica p6 (CuCp6), ocorreu por HPLC/MSMS. No estudo da ligação entre CuCe6 e proteína BSA foram obtidos os valores de KD = 0,38 ± 0,07 µM, KA = 3,3 ± 0,28 x 106 M-1 e número de sítios de ligação ~1 (N = 0,75 ± 0,09), indicativo de alta afinidade entre a clorina e a proteína. Assim, o comportamento químico dos principais componentes da CuChl e sua interação com os componentes do soro tornaram inviáveis a identificação e quantificação destas moléculas em ensaios in vivo. Os resultados aqui apresentados servem de subsídio para o desenvolvimento de outras pesquisas que visem o estudo específico da associação e dissociação da CuChl em material biológico

Sodium copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) is a semisynthetic derivative of chlorophyll dye. It is composed chemically by several chlorins, especially copper chlorin e4 (CuCe4), copper chlorin e6 (CuCe6), and possible others no copper porphyrins and chlorins in different proportions. In addition to its use as a food coloring, CuChl may have interesting biological effects as antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant. Because of these potential benefits, its use as a dietary supplement is increasing. However, information on the absorption and bioavailability of CuChl is scarce. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the impact of CuChl composition in its bioactivity and efficacy. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and chemically characterize two samples of CuChl (Sigma® and Hansen®) and the standard of CuCe6 (Frontier Scientific®). Chromatographic and spectrometric techniques as well as mimetics models membrane were used. The CuCe6/BSA interaction was also evaluated. The elemental analysis of CuChl showed that the total copper content of it was smaller that the one recommended by United States Pharmacopeia (USP). The elements (CHN) and the ratio Cu / N were not consistent with the theoretical values of the molecule CuChl. Only one CuChl sample showed Soret / Q ratio within the range recommended by USP. The acid-base titration of CuCe6 revealed two pKas values (10.62 and 6.41), which were similar for CuChl samples. The log P determination of CuCe6 showed that its hydrophobicity is maximal at pH 3 (log P = 1.49 ± 0.09) and its hydrophilicity occurs at pH> 7. These results were confirmed using the incorporation into liposomes assay in function of pH. Using HPLC, it was observed that thermal degradation of CuChl (25 to 95 °C) hardly occurred from 75 °C. The energy necessary for CuChl and CuCe6 degradation is Ea = 16.1 and 9.3 kcal/mol, respectively. The half-life at 35°C for CuChl and CuCe6 is 6 hours and 2 ½ hours, respectively. A more efficient separation of the CuChl components by HPLC was achieved using a C30 column while its major constituents CuCe6, CuCe4 and copper chlorin p6 (CuCp6) were identified by HPLC / MS-MS. In binding analysis of CuCe6 and BSA, it was observed KD = 0.38 ± 0.07 mM, KA = 3.3 ± 0.28 x 106 M-1, and number of binding sites ~ 1 (N = 0.75 ± .09), indicating high affinity between BSA and chlorine. Thus, due to the chemical characteristics of the main components of CuChl and their interaction with serum components the identification and quantification of these molecules in vivo is unviable. Future studies should investigate the association and dissociation of CuChl in biological samples
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Id: biblio-836844
Autor: Soares, Fabiana Andréia Schäfer De Martini.
Título: Interesterificação química e enzimática de misturas de estearina de palma, óleo de coco e óleo de canola para formulação de margarinas com baixa concentração de isômeros trans / Chemical and enzymatic interesterification of palm stearin mixtures of coconut oil and canola oil margarine formulation with a low concentration of trans isomers.
Fonte: São Paulo; s.n; jul. 2014. 298 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Idioma: pt.
Tese: Apresentada a Universidade de São Paulo para obtenção do grau de Doutor.
Resumo: O consumidor está cada vez mais consciente da relação entre dieta e doença, que tem impulsionado as pesquisas sobre alimentos funcionais e seus efeitos sobre o corpo. O papel dos óleos e gorduras na nutrição humana tem sido intensamente estudado e discutido por décadas. Tem sido enfatizada a importância da ingestão de ômega-3, ômega-6 e ômega-9 ácidos graxos redução de ácidos graxos saturados e, mais recentemente, controle da ingestão de ácidos graxos trans. Através da mistura e interesterificação química e enzimática de óleos e gorduras, gorduras trans-livre pode ser produzido. Mistura de gordura, foram formuladas por misturas ternárias de estearina de palma, uma gordura láurica (óleo de coco ou óleo de palmiste) e um óleo poliinsaturado (óleo de canola ou azeite de oliva) em diferentes proporções que foram interesterificadas. Neste trabalho, foram produzidos lipídios estruturados por interesterificação química e enzimática. A interesterificação química foi realizada nas seguintes condições: a 88 °C, 60 minutos de reação, 0,4% de catalisador metóxido de sódio, sob agitação e vácuo. A interesterificação enzimática, sendo realizada com duas lipases comerciais Thermomyces lanuginosa e Rhizomucor miehei, com seletividade sn-1,3. A interesterificação enzimática por batelada foi realizado seguindo um planejamento matriz central compósito rotativo em função da temperatura e da composição do meio, estearina de palma, óleo de palmiste e azeite de oliva e catalisado pelas lipases comerciais. O decréscimo do conteúdo de gordura sólida foi observado a 10 e 35 °C após a interesterificação. O biorreator contínuo foi operado nas seguintes condições: mistura de estearina de palma, óleo de palmiste, azeite de oliva (45:30:25), 10 gr de biocatalisador, 65 °C, com tempo de residência de 7 min e por 226 h para Thermomyces lanuginosa e 188 h para Rhizomucor miehei. A atividade do biocatalisador foi avaliada em termos da diminuição do conteúdo de gordura sólida a 35 °C, o qual é um parâmetro chave na produção de margarinas. O perfil de inativação do biocatalisador pode ser bem descrita pelo modelo de desativação de primeira ordem: meia-vida de 88 e 60 h foram estimados quando Thermomyces lanuginosa e Rhizomucor miehei, respectivamente, foram utilizados. Os óleos puros, as misturas originais e interesterificadas foram avaliados quanto à composição de ácidos graxos e triacilgliceróis, distribuição regioespecífica dos ácidos graxos nos triacilgliceróis, ponto de fusão e amolecimento, consistência, conteúdo de gordura sólida, comportamento de fusão e cristalização, estabilidade oxidativa, estrutura cristalina e polimorfismo. A interesterificação química e enzimática promoveram diminuição de triacilgliceróis trissaturados e triinsaturados e aumento dos monossaturados-diinsaturados e dissaturados-monoinsaturados, o que resultou no respectivo decréscimo dos pontos de fusão e amolecimento, consistência e conteúdo de gordura sólida, aumentando a plasticidade das gorduras. As curvas de fusão e cristalização das misturas foram modificadas pela alteração da composição dos triacilgliceróis pela interesterificação química e enzimática. Estabilidade térmica e a temperatura de oxidação da estearina de palma, óleo de coco e óleo de canola e suas misturas foram dependente da composição de ácidos graxos e independente da interesterificação química. Os resultados mostram que a interesterificação química e enzimática oferecem uma ferramenta útil para a concepção de gorduras com sintonizáveis propriedades físico-químicas, melhorando em relação a esse das gorduras de partida

The consumer is becoming more aware of the relationship between diet and disease, which has driven the research on functional foods and their effects on the body. The role of fats and oils in human nutrition has been intensively studied and discussed for decades. It has been emphasized the importance of intake of omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids, reduction of saturated fatty acids and, more recently, control of intake of trans fatty acids. Through the blend and interesterification of oils and fats, trans-free fats can be produced. Fat blends, formulated by ternary blends of palm stearin, lauric fat (coconut oil and palm kernel oil) and polyunsaturated oils (canola oil and olive oil) were done in different ratios. In this work, were produced by chemical and enzymatic interesterification. Chemical interesterification was performed under the following conditions: at 88°C, 60 minutes reaction times, 0.4% sodium methoxide, under agitation and vacuum. For enzymatic interesterification being carried out with two commercial lipases Thermomyces lanuginosa e Rhizomucor miehei, with selectivity sn-1,3. Batch enzymatic interesterification were performed, following central composite rotatable designs (CCRDs) as a function temperature and media of palm stearin, palm kernel oil and olive oil formulation and catalyzed by a commercial immobilized lipase. A decrease in all SFC values of the blends at 10 °C and 35°C was observed upon interesterification. The bioreactor operated continuously: mixture of palm stearin, palm kernel oil and olive oil (45:30:25, wt %), at 65 °C, at a residence time of 7 min and for 226 h to Thermomyces lanuginosa and 188 h to Rhizomucor miehei.. Biocatalyst activity was evaluated in terms of the decrease of the solid fat content at 35 °C of the blends, which is a key parameter in margarine manufacture. The inactivation profile of the biocatalyst could be well described by the first-order deactivation model: Half-lives of 88 and 60 h were estimated when Thermomyces lanuginose and Rhizomucor miehei, respectively, were used. Pure oil, the original and interesterified blends were examined for fatty acids and triacylglycerols composition, regiospecific distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerols, melting and softening points, consistency, solid fat content, thermal behavior, oxidation stability, crystalline microstructure and polymorphism. Chemical and enzymatic interesterification caused reduction of trisaturated and triunsaturated and increase in monosaturated-diunsaturated and disaturated-monounsaturated, lowering the initial melting and softening points, consistency and solid fat content, increasing plasticity of fats. Melting and crystallization curves were significantly modified by changing the composition of triacylglycerols by chemical and enzymatic interesterification. The thermal stability and oxidation temperature of palm stearin, coconut oil and canola oil and their blends were dependent on fatty acid composition and independent on chemical interesterification. The results show that the chemical and enzymatic interesterification provides a useful tool to design fats with tunable physicochemical properties, improved compared to that of the starting fats
Responsável: BR40.1 - DBD - Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentacão do Conjunto de Químicas
BR40.1. 30100021802-F, S676i; T 664L


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Id: 780304
Autor: Arbildo-Vega, Heber; Chumpitaz-Durand, Rubén; Vidal-Mosquera, Alex.
Título: Osteonecrosis de los maxilares relacionado con el tratamiento con bifosfonatos. Una revisión / Osteonecrosis of the jaws associated with bisphosphonate therapy. A review
Fonte: Kiru;11(1):90-100, ene.-jun.2014. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: El objetivo de este artículo es realizar una revisión de literatura actualizada sobre la osteonecrosis de los maxilares, relacionado con el tratamiento con bifosfonatos. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en PubMed, Medline y Scielo y se escogió artículos (reportes de caso, ensayos clínicos, revisiones de literatura y consensos) que van desde el año 2003 hasta abril de 2014. Los términos utilizados en la búsqueda fueron: bifosfonatos, osteonecrosis y osteonecrosis de los maxilares asociada a bifosfonatos. Sobre la base de la literatura disponible el uso de bifosfonatos ha demostrado su eficacia para el tratamiento de diversas afecciones. Con relación al manejo odontológico en estos pacientes se clasifica de acuerdo a la duración y la vía de administración de los bifosfonatos...

The objective of this article is to make a review of current literature on osteonecrosis of the jaws associated with bisphosphonate therapy. A literature search in PubMed, Medline and Scielo was made and articles (case reports, clinical trials, literature reviews and consensus) were chosen ranging from 2003 to April 2014. The terms used in the search were bisphosphonates, osteonecrosis and osteonecrosis of the jaw associated with bisphosphonates. Based on the available literature the use of bisphosphonates has proven effective for the treatment of various diseases. Regarding the odontologic treatment of these patients is classified according to the duration and route of administration of bisphosphonates...
Responsável: PE264.1 - Biblioteca


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Id: 755070
Autor: Fiorante, Pedro de Freitas; Fiorante, Pedro de Freitas; Palma, Mauri Sergio Alves.
Título: Development and validation of analytical methodology with focus on the qualification of powder mixers / Misturadores de pós/validação analítica; Espectrofotometria; Óxido férrico/quantificação; Lactose monoidratada/análise quantitativa
Fonte: Braz. j. pharm. sci;51(2):284-284, Apr.-June 2015. tab, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo:

This study aims at developing an analytical procedure capable of quantifying the ferric oxide present in the mixture of ferric oxide/lactose monohydrate (0.4% w/w). The analytical procedure was checked for specificity, linearity, precision (system repeatability, procedure repeatability and intermediate precision), accuracy, stability of solutions and robustness of the procedure. The concentration of Fe (III) was determined by spectrophotometry at 480 nm based on calibration curves. The specificity was verified. The linearity was obtained in the range of 11.2 to 16.8 µg of ferric oxide/mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the system repeatability, procedure repeatability and intermediate precision, were not more than 2%. The RSD of the accuracy values were less than 0.75%. The stability of the samples was checked over a 24 hours assay. In the robustness evaluation, the wavelength and the concentration of hydrochloric acid varied. The maximum absorbance deviation due to wavelength variation was 0.14 percent, and the maximum deviation due to the hydrochloric acid concentration variation was 2.4%, indicating that the concentration of hydrochloric acid is critical to the analysis of ferric oxide. The procedure developed was validated and is suitable to the performance qualification of powder mixers..

O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um método analítico capaz de quantificar o óxido férrico presente na mistura óxido férrico/lactose monoidratada (0,4% w/w). Verificou-se a especificidade, linearidade, precisão (repetibilidade do sistema, repetibilidade do método e precisão intermediária), exatidão, estabilidade das soluções e robustez. A concentração de Fe(III) foi determinada por espectrofotometria em 480 nm com base em curvas de calibração. Verificou-se a especificidade verificada. A linearidade foi obtida na faixa de 11,2 a 16,8 µg de óxido férrico/mL. O desvio padrão relativo (DPR) da repetibilidade do sistema, método e precisão intermediária foram inferiores a 2%. Os valores de DPR da exatidão foram inferiores a 0,75%. A estabilidade das amostras foi verificada ao longo de 24 horas de ensaio. Na avaliação da robustez variou-se o comprimento de onda e a concentração de ácido clorídrico. O desvio máximo de absorbância ao se variar o comprimento de onda foi de 0,14%, enquanto que para a concentração de ácido clorídrico o desvio foi de 2,4% para a concentração de 0,8 M. Assim, a concentração de ácido clorídrico é crítica para a análise de óxido férrico. O método desenvolvido foi validado e é adequado à qualificação do desempenho de misturadores de pós e granulados...

Responsável: BR40.1 - DBD - Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentacão do Conjunto de Químicas


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Id: 748261
Autor: Lkhagvajav, N.; Çelik, E.; Yasa, I.; Koizhaiganova, M.; Sari, Ö..
Título: Characterization and antimicrobial performance of nano silver coatings on leather materials
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;46(1):48-48, 05/2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: In this study, the characterization and the antimicrobial properties of nano silver (nAg) coating on leather were investigated. For this purpose, turbidity, viscosity and pH of nAg solutions prepared by the sol-gel method were measured. The formation of films from these solutions was characterized according to temperature by Differential Thermal Analysis-Thermogravimetry (DTA-TG) equipment. The surface morphology of treated leathers was observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The antimicrobial performance of nAg coatings on leather materials to the test microorganisms as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillius niger was evaluated by the application of qualitative (Agar overlay method) and quantitative (percentage of microbial reduction) tests. According to qualitative test results it was found that 20 μg/cm2 and higher concentrations of nAg on the leather samples were effective against all microorganisms tested. Moreover, quantitative test results showed that leather samples treated with 20 μg/cm2 of nAg demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli with 99.25% bacterium removal, whereas a 10 μg/cm2 concentration of nAg on leather was enough to exhibit the excellent percentage reduction against S. aureus of 99.91%. The results are promising for the use of colloidal nano silver solution on lining leather as antimicrobial coating.
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Borges, Maria de Fátima
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Id: 748255
Autor: Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich dos; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Oliveira, Jacqueline da Silva; Rocha, Cíntia Renata Costa; Bruno, Laura Maria; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Borges, Maria de Fátima.
Título: Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;46(1):249-249, 05/2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: CNPq; . FAPESP. 310203/2010-4; 2012/11571-6.
Resumo: This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results.
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Id: 748230
Autor: Martins, José M.; Furtado, Mauro M.; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J.; Ribeiro Jr, José I.; Ferreira, Célia L.L.F..
Título: Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;46(1):230-230, 05/2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April–September) and rainy season (October–March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g−1), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g−1) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese.
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Id: 741625
Autor: Moratelli, Ricardo; Calisher, Charles H.
Título: Bats and zoonotic viruses: can we confidently link bats with emerging deadly viruses?
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;110(1):22-22, 02/2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: PAPES, FIOCRUZ, CNPq; . CNPq/CsF; . FAPERJ. 407623/2012-4; 202612/2012; E-26/111.288/2014.
Resumo: An increasingly asked question is 'can we confidently link bats with emerging viruses?'. No, or not yet, is the qualified answer based on the evidence available. Although more than 200 viruses - some of them deadly zoonotic viruses - have been isolated from or otherwise detected in bats, the supposed connections between bats, bat viruses and human diseases have been raised more on speculation than on evidence supporting their direct or indirect roles in the epidemiology of diseases (except for rabies). However, we are convinced that the evidence points in that direction and that at some point it will be proved that bats are competent hosts for at least a few zoonotic viruses. In this review, we cover aspects of bat biology, ecology and evolution that might be relevant in medical investigations and we provide a historical synthesis of some disease outbreaks causally linked to bats. We provide evolutionary-based hypotheses to tentatively explain the viral transmission route through mammalian intermediate hosts and to explain the geographic concentration of most outbreaks, but both are no more than speculations that still require formal assessment.
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Id: 741615
Autor: Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Melo, João Cardoso de; Oliveira, Fábio Conceição de; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; Souza, Wanderley de; Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto.
Título: Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;110(1):100-100, 03/02/2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.
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Id: 734587
Autor: Pucciarelli, Amada B; Schapovaloff, María E; Dallagnol, Andrea M; Brumovsky, Luis A; Señuk, Isabel A; Kummritz, Silvana.
Título: Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of yateí (Tetragonisca angustula) honey for assessing quality standards and commercialization / Análisis microbiológico y fisicoquímico de la miel de yateí (Tetragonisca angustula) para la evaluación de estándares de calidad y comercialización
Fonte: Rev. argent. microbiol;46(4):325-332, Dec. 2014. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Due to the interest in the production and trading of yateí (Tetragonisca angustula) honey in the province of Misiones, Argentina, in this work we assessed microbiological and physicochemical parameters in order to contribute to the elaboration of standards for quality control and promote commercialization. Results showed that yateí honey samples had significantly different microbiological and physicochemical characteristics in comparison to established quality standards for Apis mellifera honey. Thus, we observed that values for pH (3.72), glucose (19.01 g/100 g) and fructose (23.74 g/100 g) were lower than A. mellifera quality standards, while acidity (79.42 meq/kg), moisture (24%), and mould and yeast count (MY) (3.02 log CFU/g) were higher. The acid content was correlated with glucose (R²=0.75) and fructose (R²=0.68) content, and also with mould and yeast counts (R²=0.45) to a lesser extent. The incidence of microorganisms in yateí honey samples reached 42.85% and 39% for Clostridium sulfite-reducers and Bacillus spp., respectively. No C. botulinum or B. cereus cells were detected. Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. incidence was similar (ca. 7.14%), whereas Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were not detected. We conclude that the microbiological and physicochemical properties of yateí honey are different from those of A. mellifera honey; hence, different quality standards could be implemented to promote its commercialization.

Debido al interés en la producción y comercialización de la miel de yateí (Tetragonisca angustula) en la provincia de Misiones, Argentina, en este trabajo se evaluaron parámetros microbiológicos y fisicoquímicos con el fin de contribuir con la elaboración de normas para el control de calidad y promover su comercialización. Los resultados demostraron que los parámetros analizados en esta miel (n = 28) diferían significativamente de los valores aceptables establecidos para la miel de Apis mellífera. En comparación, se observó que los valores de pH (3,72) y de concentración de glucosa (19,01 g/100 g) y fructosa (23,74 g/100 g) eran más bajos, mientras que los valores de acidez (79,42 meq/kg) y humedad (24 %), al igual que el recuento de hongos y levaduras (HyL) (3,02 log UFC/g), eran más altos. La acidez mostró una correlación inversamente proporcional con el contenido de glucosa (R² = 0,75) y fructosa (R² = 0,68), y directamente proporcional con el recuento de HyL, aunque en este caso la correlación fue menor (R² = 0,45). En lo que respecta a los parámetros microbiológicos, se observó 42,85 % de Clostridium sulfito-reductores y 39 % de Bacillus spp., y no se detectó presencia de C. botulinum ni de B. cereus. Enterococcus spp. y Staphylococcus spp. se encontraron en una proporción similar (ca. 7,14 %), mientras que Escherichia coli y Salmonella spp. no fueron detectados. Concluimos que las propiedades microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas de la miel de yateí difieren de las de la miel de A. mellifera, por lo cual sería oportuno establecer normas de calidad diferentes para facilitar su comercialización.
Responsável: AR1.2 - Instituto de Investigaciónes Epidemiológicas



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